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Truffles in Context: A Mycological Overview By Matt Trappe, Oct. 2006.

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1 Truffles in Context: A Mycological Overview By Matt Trappe, Oct. 2006

2 Truffles are here!! Truffles in Context: A Mycological Overview By Matt Trappe, Oct. 2006

3 or, “Where on Earth do Truffles fit in?”

4

5 Taxonomy: Slicing the Pie… Many ways to divide and organize people - Diet - Morphology (height, weight) - Family group, ethnicity

6 Taxonomy: Slicing the Pie… Many ways to divide and organize people - Diet - Morphology (height, weight) - Family group, ethnicity Many ways to divide and organize fungi - Diet (trophic status) - Morphology (shape, growth habit) - Family group, genetic taxonomy

7 Taxonomy: Slicing the Pie… Many ways to divide and organize people - Diet - Morphology (height, weight) - Family group, ethnicity Many ways to divide and organize fungi - Diet (trophic status) - Morphology (shape, growth habit) - Family group, genetic taxonomy

8 Taxonomy: Slicing the Pie… Many ways to divide and organize people - Diet - Morphology (height, weight) - Family group, ethnicity Many ways to divide and organize fungi - Diet (trophic status) - Morphology (shape, growth habit) - Family group, genetic taxonomy

9 Organizing Fungi by their Diet (trophic status) Mycorrhizal Fungi - Form mutually beneficial associations with plants - “Myco” = Fungus, “Rhiza” = Root Saprobic Fungi - Digest dead material; wood and litter decomposers Pathogenic Fungi - Attack plants (& animals!) to feed off them

10 Mycorrhizal Fungi Form mutually beneficial associations with plants - Ectomycorrhizae - Endomycorrhizae

11 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi “Ecto” = outside Ectomycorrhizal fungi wrap outside of root with a “mantle” from which foraging hyphae emanate.

12 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi This is a long-term structure, growing at the tips of the roots and extending with them through the soil.

13 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi The fungi also grow between the root cells but do not penetrate them. This is called a “Hartig Net” and is where nutrient exchange occurs. M.Brundrett photo Mantle Hartig net Root tip cross section

14 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Summary Almost all truffles are the fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Many mushrooms (half? less in tropics!) are the fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Ectomycorrhiza is formed by members of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Zygomycetes (we’ll get to them later) There are about 12,000 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi that associate with about 2000 species of host plants.

15 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Hosts Some major plants that are hosts to ectomycorrhizal fungi in the Pacific Northwest: Douglas-fir Pines Firs Oaks Alders Birches Poplars Hazel Eucalyptus Beech Spruce

16 Endomycorrhizal Fungi, a.k.a. “VAM Fungi” “Endo” = inside Endomycorrhizal fungi do not form a mantle, but rather penetrate root cells and form temporary structures inside the root cells called “vesicles” and “arbuscules”. Thus, the term “VAM” is an abbreviation for “Vesicular- Arbuscular Mycorrhizae”

17 Endomycorrhizal Fungi, a.k.a. “VAM Fungi” Vesicles are balloon-like structures thought to be for energy storage. Arbuscules are tree-shaped (“arbor”) structures where nutrient exchange occurs. Vesicles Arbuscule

18 Endomycorrhizal Fungi, a.k.a. “VAM Fungi” Foraging hyphae extend through the host root cell wall into the soil. Vesicles and arbuscules have a relatively short life; individual structures can form and senesce within days.

19 Endomycorrhizal Fungi, a.k.a. “VAM Fungi” All endomycorrhizal fungi seem to form arbuscules but not all of them form vesicles, so many folks are now calling the group “AM Fungi”. Endomycorrhiza = VAM fungi = AM fungi

20 Endomycorrhizal Fungi Summary No endomycorrhizal fungi form mushrooms. Only one genus of endomycorrhizal fungi forms truffles: Glomus. Most endomycorrhizal fungi form individual spores in the soil that are microscopic. Endomycorrhiza is formed by members of both Ascomycetes and Glomeromycetes (we’ll get to them later) There are only about 150 species of endomycorrhizal fungi that associate with about 300,000 species of host plants!

21 Endomycorrhizal Fungi Hosts Some major plants that are hosts to endomycorrhizal fungi in the Pacific Northwest: Maples Cedars Redwoods Sequoias Poison oak Most grasses Most herbs Most garden plants Most fruit trees Most annuals …and most tropical plants

22 Saprobic Fungi “Sapro” = rotten There are very few animals that can digest wood (termites, earthworms, centipedes?). Fungi do the “heavy lifting”, accounting for over 90% of wood decomposition. Without fungi, fallen trees would stack up without ever rotting. what a mess…

23 Saprobic Fungi Also called Saprophytic or Saprotrophic. Some specialize in digesting cellulose (brown “cube” rot). Some specialize in digesting lignin (white rot). CelluloseLignin

24 White RotBrown Rot Saprobic Fungi Also called Saprophytic or Saprotrophic. Some specialize in digesting cellulose (brown “cube” rot). Some specialize in digesting lignin (white rot).

25 Saprobic Fungi Only one genus of saprobic fungi is known to form truffles in North America: Trappea. It is related to stinkhorns. Trappea darkeri

26 Saprobic Fungi Some saprobic fungi form sequestrate (but not hypogeous) fruiting bodies, such as Nivatogastreum. It is related to the mushroom genus Pholiota. Nivatogastreum nubigenum

27 Saprobic Fungi Summary Many mushrooms (half?) and all conks are formed by saprobic fungi. There are probably thousands of species of saprobic fungi, many (most?) are microscopic. Pluerotus ostreatusGanoderma tsugae

28 How can I tell a saprobic mushroom from a mycorrhizal one?

29 You can’t.

30 How can I tell a saprobic mushroom from a mycorrhizal one? You can’t. Many saprobic fungi grow on the forest floor. Stropharia riparia

31 How can I tell a saprobic mushroom from a mycorrhizal one? You can’t. Many saprobic fungi grow on the forest floor. Many mycorrhizal fungi grow on decaying wood. Boletus mirabilis Stropharia riparia

32 Usually, all species within a genus are either mycorrhizal or saprobic. If you learn the genera, you can infer whether your specimen is mycorrhizal or saprobic. Amanita muscaria? Lepiota clypeolaria? Morchella sp?

33 Saprobic GeneraMycorrhizal Genera AgaricusAmanita AgrocybeBoletus ClavariaCantharellus ClitocybeCortinarius CollybiaGomphus CoprinusHebeloma GalerinaHydnum HypholomaHygrophorus LentinusInocybe MycenaLaccaria PholiotaLactarius PleurotusRamaria PolyporesRussula PsilocybeSuillus StrophariaTricholoma VolvariellaAlmost all Truffles… * We still don’t know the trophic status of many genera! – Field surveying

34 Saprobic GeneraMycorrhizal Genera AgaricusAmanita AgrocybeBoletus ClavariaCantharellus ClitocybeCortinarius CollybiaGomphus CoprinusHebeloma GalerinaHydnum HypholomaHygrophorus LentinusInocybe MycenaLaccaria PholiotaLactarius PleurotusRamaria PolyporesRussula PsilocybeSuillus StrophariaTricholoma VolvariellaAlmost all Truffles… * We still don’t know the trophic status of many genera! – Field surveying

35 Saprobic GeneraMycorrhizal Genera AgaricusAmanita AgrocybeBoletus ClavariaCantharellus ClitocybeCortinarius CollybiaGomphus CoprinusHebeloma GalerinaHydnum HypholomaHygrophorus LentinusInocybe MycenaLaccaria PholiotaLactarius PleurotusRamaria PolyporesRussula PsilocybeSuillus StrophariaTricholoma VolvariellaAlmost all Truffles… * We still don’t know the trophic status of many genera!

36 Pathogenic Fungi “Pathos” = disease Unlike saprobic fungi, pathogenic fungi just can’t wait until something dies on its own. They attack living organisms, sometimes killing the host and sometimes just causing sickness. Sudden Oak Death SOD bark lesion

37 Pathogenic Fungi Fungal Plant Pathogens Armillaria mellea Phaeolus schweinitzii Phellinus weirii White Pine Blister Rust Swiss Needle Cast Chestnut Blight Dutch Elm Disease Sudden Oak Death* Potato Blight* Various Rusts and Smuts (more than 6000 species!) Armillaria mellea Phaeolus schweinitzii

38 Pathogenic Fungi Fungal Human Pathogens (a digression…) Tinea (athlete’s foot, toenail fungus) Candidia (yeasts) Aspergillus (molds) Coccidioides (valley fever) Pneumocystis (pneumonia) Schizophyllum commune See for gruesome pictures!www.doctorfungus.com

39 Pathogenic Fungi Fungal Human Pathogens (a digression…) Tinea (athlete’s foot, toenail fungus) Candidia (yeasts) Aspergillus (molds) Coccidioides (valley fever) Pneumocystis (pneumonia) Schizophyllum commune See for gruesome pictures!www.doctorfungus.com Luckily we have Penicillium!

40 Fungal Plant Pathogens Summary No pathogenic fungi form truffles. Armillaria spp. form mushrooms. Some (Phellinus, Phaeolus) form conks. Most are in habitats other than forests. Most are inconspicuous. They are ubiquitous. Maple leaf spot Rhytisma punctatum Rose blight Phragmidium sp.

41 Summary: Fungal Trophism and Morphology Truffles Mushrooms Conks Mycorrhizae Ecto- ManyManyNone Endo- FewNoneNone Saprobes OneManyMany Pathogens NoneFewFew

42

43 The Big Picture - Kingdoms

44

45 Bacteria – single cell without nucleus - external nutrient absorption Fungi – multiple cells with multiple nuclei - external nutrient absorption Animals – multiple cells with nuclei - internal nutrient digestion Plants - multiple cells with nuclei - photosynthesis Protozoans - single cell with nucleus - photosynthesis (algaes) The Big Picture - Kingdoms

46 Gain of nucleus & chlorophyll Gain of multicellular organization Loss of chlorophyll Gain of enzymes Loss of external enzymes Gain of internal digestion (and a few other things) Primordial Bacteria Bacteria – single cell without nucleus - external nutrient absorption Fungi – multiple cells with multiple nuclei - external nutrient absorption Animals – multiple cells with nuclei - internal nutrient digestion Plants - multiple cells with nuclei - photosynthesis Protozoans - single cell with nucleus - photosynthesis (algaes)

47 The Big Picture - Kingdoms Bacteria – single cell without nucleus - external nutrient absorption Fungi – multiple cells with multiple nuclei - external nutrient absorption Animals – multiple cells with nuclei - internal nutrient digestion Plants - multiple cells with nuclei - photosynthesis Protozoans - single cell with nucleus - photosynthesis (algaes)

48 The Big Picture - Kingdoms Bacteria – single cell without nucleus - external nutrient absorption - no truffles Fungi – multiple cells with multiple nuclei - external nutrient absorption - truffles! Animals – multiple cells with nuclei - internal nutrient digestion - no truffles Plants - multiple cells with nuclei - photosynthesis - no truffles Protozoans - single cell with nucleus - photosynthesis (algaes) - no truffles

49 The Big Picture - Kingdoms Fungi – multiple cells with multiple nuclei - external nutrient absorption - truffles!

50 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

51 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

52 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

53 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

54 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

55 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

56 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

57 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

58 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

59 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

60 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae

61 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Chytrids – microscopic soil, puddle, & gut fungi - spores have flagella - no truffles Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors - a few truffles Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia - “false” truffles Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci - “true” truffles Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae - a few truffles

62 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Fungi Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors - a few truffles Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia - “false” truffles Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci - “true” truffles Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae - a few truffles

63 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors - a few truffles Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia - “false” truffles Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci - “true” truffles FungiGlomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae - a few truffles

64 ecto- Alpova Arcangeliella Cystangium Fevansia Gastroboletus Gautieria Gymnomyces Hymenogaster Hysterangium Leucogaster Leucophleps Macowanites Melanogaster Pyrenogaster Rhizopogon Thaxterogaster Trappea Truncocolumella Basidiospores Sterigmata Basidium Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Basidiomycete Truffles Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia - “false” truffles “Basidio” = pedestal Usually squishy, spongy, or rubbery

65 Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia - “false” truffles “Basidio” = pedestal Usually squishy, spongy, or rubbery ecto- Alpova Arcangeliella Cystangium Fevansia Gastroboletus Gautieria Gymnomyces Hymenogaster Hysterangium Leucogaster Leucophleps Macowanites Melanogaster Pyrenogaster Rhizopogon Thaxterogaster Trappea Truncocolumella Basidiospores Sterigmata Basidium Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Basidiomycete Truffles

66 Gautieria monticola Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Basidiomycete Truffles

67 Macowanites luteolus Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Basidiomycete Truffles

68 Truncocolumella citrina Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Basidiomycete Truffles

69 Rhizopogon vinicolor (remember this one!) Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Basidiomycete Truffles

70 Cantharellus formosus Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Basidiomycete Truffles?

71 Tricholoma magnivelare Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Basidiomycete Truffles?

72 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors - a few truffles Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia - “false” truffles Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci - “true” truffles FungiGlomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae - a few truffles

73 Balsamia Barssia Cazia Choiromyces Elaphomyces Genabea Genea Geopora Hydnoplicata Hydnotrya Hydnotryopsis Leucangium Sarcosphaera Terfezia Tuber “Asco” = bag Usually brittle, often hollow Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Ascomycete Truffles Ascospores Ascus ecto- & endo- Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci - “true” truffles

74 Balsamia Barssia Cazia Choiromyces Elaphomyces Genabea Genea Geopora Hydnoplicata Hydnotrya Hydnotryopsis Leucangium Sarcosphaera Terfezia Tuber Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Ascomycete Truffles Ascospores Ascus ecto- & endo- Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci - “true” truffles “Asco” = bag Usually brittle, often hollow

75 Elaphomyces muricatus Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Ascomycete Truffles

76 Gilkeya compacta Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Ascomycete Truffles

77 Hydnotrya variiformis Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Ascomycete Truffles

78 Tuber gibbosum Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Ascomycete Truffles

79 Tuber oregonense Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Ascomycete Truffles

80 Leucangium carthusianum Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Ascomycete Truffles

81 Morchella deliciosa Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Ascomycete Truffles?

82 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors - a few truffles Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia - “false” truffles Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci - “true” truffles FungiGlomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae - a few truffles

83 endo- Acaulospora Entrophospora Gigaspora Glomus Scutellospora Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom - Glomeromycetes Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae - a few truffles “Glomus” = ball (of yarn) Most genera form individual spores in the soil Truffles usually small, irregularly shaped Spores very large (to 200 µm)

84 endo- Acaulospora Entrophospora Gigaspora Glomus Scutellospora Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom - Glomeromycetes Glomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae - a few truffles “Glomus” = ball (of yarn) Most genera form individual spores in the soil Truffles usually small, irregularly shaped Spores very large (to 200 µm)

85 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Glomeromycete Truffles Glomus microcarpus

86 Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors - a few truffles Basidiomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from basidia - “false” truffles Ascomycetes – mycorrhizae, saprobes - spores from asci - “true” truffles FungiGlomeromycetes – mycorrhizae - spores formed from hyphae - a few truffles

87 ecto- Endogone Modicella? Suspensor Cells Zygospore Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom - Zygomycetes Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors - a few truffles Truffles usually small, irregularly shaped Spores very large (to 200 µm) Group includes Rhizopus (tempeh) “Zygo” = yoke

88 ecto- Endogone Modicella? Suspensor Cells Zygospore Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom - Zygomycetes Zygomycetes – mycorrhizae, molds - spores formed on suspensors - a few truffles Truffles usually small, irregularly shaped Spores very large (to 200 µm) Group includes Rhizopus (tempeh) “Zygo” = yoke

89 Endogone flammicorona Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Zygomycete Truffles

90 Endogone lactiflua Phyla in the Fungal Kingdom – Zygomycete Truffles

91 Summary: Fungal Family Groups (taxonomy) Truffles Mushrooms Conks Basidiomycetes ManyManyMany Ascomycetes ManyManyOne Glomeromycetes OneNoneNone Zygomycetes OneNoneNone Daldinia occidentale

92 “Mycophagy”

93 Relatedness Truffle Truffler Kingdom:Mycota Animalia Phylum: Ascomycota Vertebrata Class: Discomycetes Mammalia Order: Pezizales Primates Family: Tuberaceae Hominidae Genus:Tuber Homo Species: gibbosum sapiens In English:Oregon White Human Truffle

94 Relatedness Truffle Truffler Kingdom:Mycota Animalia Phylum: Ascomycota Vertebrata Class: Discomycetes Mammalia Order: Pezizales Primates Family: Tuberaceae Hominidae Genus:Tuber Homo Species: melanosporum sapiens In English:French Perigord Human Truffle

95 Relatedness Truffle Truffler Kingdom:Mycota Animalia Phylum: Ascomycota Vertebrata Class: Discomycetes Mammalia Order: Pezizales Primates Family: Tuberaceae Hominidae Genus:Choiromyces Homo Species: alveolatus sapiens In English:Sorry! Human

96 Relatedness Truffle Truffler? Kingdom:Mycota Animalia Phylum: Ascomycota Vertebrata Class: Discomycetes Mammalia Order: Pezizales Primates Family: Helvellaceae Pongidae Genus:Barssia Pongo Species: oregonense pygmaeus In English:Sorry! Orangutang

97 Relatedness Truffle Truffler! Kingdom:Mycota Animalia Phylum: Ascomycota Vertebrata Class: Discomycetes Mammalia Order: Elaphomycetales Marsupialia Family: Elaphomycetaceae Potoroidae Genus:Elaphomyces Bettongia Species: granulatus tropica In English:Deer Truffle Northern Bettong

98 Relatedness Truffle Truffler? Kingdom:Mycota Animalia Phylum: Ascomycota Vertebrata Class:Saccharomycetales Aves Order:Saccharomycetidae Passeriformes Family:Saccharomyceticeae Corvidae Genus:Saccharomyces Aphelocoma Species: cerevisiae californica In English:Brewers Yeast Western Scrub Jay

99 Relatedness Truffle Truffler! Kingdom:Mycota Animalia Phylum: Basidiomycota Arthropoda Class: Agaricomycetidae Insecta Order: Boletales Diptera Family: Rhizopogonaceae Mycetophilidae Genus:Rhizopogon Mycetophila Species: vinicolor fungorum In English:That same durn Mushroom gnat ‘pogey again!

100 So…

101 Edward Drinker Cope is related to a mushroom gnat. Mycetophila ( ) fungorum Tuber gibbosum is as closely related to Rhizopogon vinicolor as

102 What do you think of that, Ed?

103 Huh?? What do you think of that, Ed?


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