Presentation on theme: "Phylum Zygomycetes Example is bread mold. Only 665 species Zygomycetes are partners in most ancient type of mycorrhizae."— Presentation transcript:
Phylum Zygomycetes Example is bread mold. Only 665 species Zygomycetes are partners in most ancient type of mycorrhizae.
Phylum Ascomycetes, spores in sacs, 30,000 species. Nectria perithecia A species in this genus causes Beech Bark Disease
Black knot of cherry is caused by an Ascomycete fungus.
Morels are ascomycete fungi
Basidiomycetes carry spores on clubs; 16,000 species Agaricus sylvicola
Go to Tom Volk’s website for pictures of: Ganoderma (shelf fungus) Fomes fomentarius (carried by the ice man) Cladonia cristatella (lichen forming fungus) Tuber gibbosum (important mycorrhizal fungus)
Douglas fir and White pine seedlings with & without mycorrhizae
TypeMorphologyFungusPlantsMajor Benefits Endo-Vesicles- Arbuscles In cell walls Zygos80% of allInorganic P Ecto-Btw cells. Mantle/sheath Basidios Ascos High-lat woodies Organic N, P H 2 O EricoidProliferate inside of cell walls; membrane envelopes hyphae. AscosSome Ericaceae Organic N, P Review of Mycorrhizal Types
A stained arbuscule of Glomus mosseae in a leek root cell (a superb photomicrograph by Mark Brundrett - see Fig 17 in Brundrett et al Can. J. Bot. 62: 2128) Endomycorrhizae-- ancient, widespread, and non-specific These structures in the "roots:" of early land plants fossilized in the Rhynie Chert (350 MYBP) are regarded as vesicles of an early endomycorrhizal fungus. Colonization of a root by an endomycorrhizal fungus. Note hyphae, arbuscules and vesicles. (see Fig 21 in Brundrett et al Can. J. Bot 63: 184) A leek root packed with vesicles of its endomycorrhizal fungal partner.
Ectomycorrhizae Ectomycorrhizas of Laccaria bicolor with Populus tremuloides. Transverse section of an ectomycorrhiza of Pseudotsuga menziesii with Rhizopogon colossus showing the fungal mantle (brown in this example). Section of outer layers of an ectomycorrhizal root of Pinus strobus, showing some of the mantle and the Hartig net - the latter formed by hyphae of the mycobiont, Pisolithus tinctorius, penetrating between the cortical cells of the root.
Ericoid mycorrhizae help ericaceous plants survive on sites with slow decomposition (bogs, arctic, sand, etc.) Ericoid mycorrhiza of salal, Gaultheria shallon. Dark blobs are masses of fungal hyphae in cortical cells of root. Hyphae up to 80% of mass of root, but do not penetrate cell membrane.