Go to Tom Volk’s website for pictures of: Ganoderma (shelf fungus) Fomes fomentarius (carried by the ice man) Cladonia cristatella (lichen forming fungus) Tuber gibbosum (important mycorrhizal fungus) http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/
Douglas fir and White pine seedlings with & without mycorrhizae
TypeMorphologyFungusPlantsMajor Benefits Endo-Vesicles- Arbuscles In cell walls Zygos80% of allInorganic P Ecto-Btw cells. Mantle/sheath Basidios Ascos High-lat woodies Organic N, P H 2 O EricoidProliferate inside of cell walls; membrane envelopes hyphae. AscosSome Ericaceae Organic N, P Review of Mycorrhizal Types
A stained arbuscule of Glomus mosseae in a leek root cell (a superb photomicrograph by Mark Brundrett - see Fig 17 in Brundrett et al. 1984 Can. J. Bot. 62: 2128) Endomycorrhizae-- ancient, widespread, and non-specific http://www.mycolog.com/chapter17.htm These structures in the "roots:" of early land plants fossilized in the Rhynie Chert (350 MYBP) are regarded as vesicles of an early endomycorrhizal fungus. Colonization of a root by an endomycorrhizal fungus. Note hyphae, arbuscules and vesicles. (see Fig 21 in Brundrett et al. 1985 Can. J. Bot 63: 184) A leek root packed with vesicles of its endomycorrhizal fungal partner.
Ectomycorrhizae Ectomycorrhizas of Laccaria bicolor with Populus tremuloides. Transverse section of an ectomycorrhiza of Pseudotsuga menziesii with Rhizopogon colossus showing the fungal mantle (brown in this example). Section of outer layers of an ectomycorrhizal root of Pinus strobus, showing some of the mantle and the Hartig net - the latter formed by hyphae of the mycobiont, Pisolithus tinctorius, penetrating between the cortical cells of the root. http://www.mycolog.com/chapter17.htm
Ericoid mycorrhizae help ericaceous plants survive on sites with slow decomposition (bogs, arctic, sand, etc.) Ericoid mycorrhiza of salal, Gaultheria shallon. Dark blobs are masses of fungal hyphae in cortical cells of root. Hyphae up to 80% of mass of root, but do not penetrate cell membrane.