Presentation on theme: "Fungal Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosis and Management Tristan T. Berry, M4 Medical College of Virginia."— Presentation transcript:
Fungal Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosis and Management Tristan T. Berry, M4 Medical College of Virginia
Objectives History Definition of the fungal UTI. Epidemiology Predisposing conditions Presenting symptoms Common organisms and important rare organisms Diagnosis imaging,cytology/culture (blood and urine) Treatment Resistance to antifungals
History 1890 Schmorl reports renal involvement in patient with disseminated candidiasis Rafin recognizes candidal cystitis 1931 Lundquist reports primary renal mycosis 1948 Moulder reports cystoscopic findings of candidiasis in the urinary bladder 1963Twelve cases of candidal infection of the kidney reported 1980Increased reporting of fungal infection of urinary tract. Likely multifactorial.
Epidemiology and Predisposing Factors Fungal pathogens are the cause of increasing nosocomial infections in hospital communities.
Epidemiology and Predisposing Factors From the nosocomial fungal infection rate for urinary tract infections had risen from 9.0 to 20.5 per 10,000 hospitalized patients.
Epidemiology and Predisposing Factors 1) Opportunistic organisms 2) Environmental 3) Rare and unusual Three distinct groups of pathogens are noted for causing fungal UTIs:
Opportunistic Organisms normally inhabit human flora or environment. proliferate when there is a defect in an individual's immune system. Thus causing disease. Candida species - saprophytes of the skin, oropharyx,gasrointestinal tract and genital regions.
Environmental include Blastomyces, Histoplasmosis, Coccidoides. found primarily in soil,environment and guano. inhabit human flora or environment. Rare and unusual Mucormycosis and others
C. Albicans oval yeast with a single bud. in tissues it may appear as pseudohyphae or yeasts. since Candida is part of normal human flora it is not transmitted.
Pathogenesis Most common opportunistic fungi. Causes thrush, vaginitis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis When local or systemic host defenses are impaired, disease may result.
Pathogenesis may disseminate to multiple organs esp. in IVDA and right sided endocarditis. kidney is the most commonly involved organ with systemic fungal infection. >85% Accounts for 6.9% of nosocomial infections
Pathogenesis Candida Spp are the most common organisms causing fungal UTI. Candida albicans accounts for 74% Glabrata 8% Parapsolosis7% Tropicalis 3%
Predisposing Conditions 1)Diabetes (impaired phagocytic and fungacidal function of neutrophils) 2)Protracted course of antibiotics
Predisposing Conditions 4) Neoplasm 5) Oral contraceptives 6) Elderly Population 7)Infants- due to immature T-Cell defense 8) Chronic indwelling catheter
Symptoms Frequency, dysuria and stranguria Pyuria, hematuria or pneumaturia classic findings of pyelonephritis, fever, flank pain and CVAT high index of suspicion b/c fungal UTI may present like bacterial UTI.
Diagnostic Features microscopic urine studies urine culture can be helpful for species identification and sensitivities Urine colony counts (significant if >10 5 without indwelling urinary catheter)
Simple vs. Complex UTI
Simple UTI Confined to urinary bladder and urethra. Pt may present with cystitis.(2% of UTIs) Cystoscopy may present with white patches on bladder wall. Bladder wall edema and erythema may be present. Bladder infections can lead to rupture. (rare) Microscopic: Inflammatory cells, yeast forms and pseudohyphae may be present
Treatment Bladder irrigation with Amphotericin B 50mg/1L water x10-14 d Effective in 80-92% of patients Nystatin and Miconazole useful. -poor colloid dispersion in Nystatin-limits use Surgical intervention may be required in the form of mucosal debridement Removal of large fungal bezoars if present.
Complex UTI Complex infections affect the kidneys and ureters Result of either hematogenous spread or ascending from lower tract infections Associated with fungal accretions that may lead to obstructive uropathy.
Complex UTI May lead to persistent candiduria. High potential for disseminated infection Approximately 88% present with fever and flank pain 88% associated with hydronephrosis 81% associated with fungemia
Imaging U/S, Excretory urography, Retro pyelogram CT Renal Scintigraphy Imaging studies typically exhibit filling defects of the urinary system
Treatment Localized Amphotericin B irrigation for infection of the collecting system.. Systemic or multifocal infection IV Ampho B 6mg/kg (Gold Standard), Fluconazole 100mg BID x 10 days 5-FC- 150mg/kg- high resistance
CASE HPI:56 year old male with 4 day history of fever, N/V and diffuse abdominal pain. Anuria 24 hrs prior to admission to the hospital. PMH- Diabetes type II diagnosed 5 years prior, controlled with insulin. UTI 6 months prior tx’d with abx.
CASE Exam- pt. was febrile & appeared acutely ill. Dry mucous membranes Diffusely tender abdomen Bilateral CVAT LABS: Leu =25x10^9 with 82% pmns BUN 82, Creat 7.9 Glu 280
CASE U/A: Numerous leukocytes per hpf Many yeast forms. Pt was initially treated with Ampicillin and Ciprofloxacin. IVF and IV insulin. Symptoms persisted.
CASE U/S- bil. hydonephrosis Cystoscopy with RPG was unsuccessful due to bilateral ureteral obstruction. Bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy tubes were placed (turbid yellow/white urine was recovered. Antegrade pyelogram- dilation of renal pelvises and ureters. Multiple filling defects.
CASE Urine culture- C.Tropicalis 10^4 - 10^5 Blood cultures on admission were negative for fungi or bacteria. Treatment: IV Amphotericin B, direct Ampho B through nephrostomies. Fragmentation of fungal balls by guide wire manipulation.
CASE Therapy cont.for 3 weeks until U/C were negative. Dc’d with Creatinine of 2.1mg/dL. No evidence of hydronephrosis at 6 month follow up.
Cryptococosis Organism: Cryptococcus neoformans Properties: oval, budding yeast Epidemiology: Occurs widely in nature, found in pigeon droppings Transmission: Inhalation of organism Clinical manifestations: Pulmonary infection to virulent pneumonia & meningitis.
Cryptococosis Tx: Adrenal-Amphotericin B Renal- IV Amphotericin B Prostate-Fluconazole mg/d x 4 wks Penis- Resection followed by systemic Ampho B
Apergillosis Organism: A. fumigatus and A.Flavus Properties: Only mold form (V shaped branches) Epidemiology: Widely distributed in nature. Grow on decaying vegetables. Linked to hospital construction and central air conditioning. Transmission: Airborne conidia.
Apergillosis Predisposition: abraded skin, wounds, cornea, ext. ear and sinuses, immunocompromised GU involvement: Renal- DM, malignancy or AIDS (Fever, CVAT, obstructive uropathy) Prostate and Genital-DM, Met colon ca, steroid use & AIDS DX:Isolation from urine,semen or tissue.
Apergillosis-Treatment Systemic Amphotericin B for 3 months Kidney-Percutaneous aspiration, nephrostomy & J- stents Very little data to support use of itraconazole
Coccidioidomycosis Organism: Coccidioides immitus Properties:dimorphic exists as mold in soil and spherule in tissue Location: Western U.S and Mexico. Thrives in arid desert regions. Transmission: Airborne infection of the pulmonary system
Coccidioidomycosis Clinical manifestations: mild influenza or flu like illness Valley fever. Predisposition: Age >65 and HIV+ Disseminated infection: less than 1% of pulmonary infection become disseminated Men, pregnant women, immunocompromised and non white persons more likely to have disseminated infection
Coccidioidomycosis GU involvement: : kidney disease in 36-46% of persons with disseminated disease-microbscess & granulomas prostate in 3-6% GU manifestations: Voiding dysfunction Scrotal swelling Hematuria Pneumaturia
Histoplasmosis Organism: H. Encapsulatum Properties: dimorphic- mold in soil; yeast in tissues Epidemiology: endemic in central and eastern states, esp Mississippi and Ohio grows in soil contaminated with bird droppings and guano. Transmission and pathogenesis: Inhaled spores are engulfed by macrophages and develop into yeast forms.
Histoplasmosis Majority of involvement is spleen and liver. Pulmonary involvement results in cavitary lesions. Clinical manifestations: pneumonia Predisposition: HIV+, transplant pts & children.
Histoplasmosis Dx- Identification of organism in urine,semen or tissue. Culture or skin test. Tx- IV Amphotericin B(>2g) total dose followed by long term Itraconazole 200mg/d x12 wks Surgical management- Surgical excision or drainage of prostate abscess.
Blastomyces Organism: Blastomyces dermatitidis Properties: Dimorphic, mold in soil, yeast in tissue Broad-based budding Epidemiology: North and Central America, also Africa. Grows in moist soil.
Blastomyces Transmission: Inhalation of mold form. Primarily affects lungs, skin, bone and CNS Manifestations: flu-like illness, high fever, respiratory illness that mimics TB or Cancer Often subclinical infection. GU- prostate, epididymis, tubo-ovarian abscess
Blastomyces Dx: Fungus in urine, semen or Detection of blastomyces A antigen by immunodiffusion. Tx: Ketoconazole 400mg/d x 12mos for prostate and epididymis involvement. Amphotericin B for disseminated infxn and immunocompromised
Mucormycosis Organism- Mucor Properties-mold Epidemiology-widely in nature Transmission- Inhalation of airborne spores Predisposition- DKA,AIDS, liver abnormalities
Mucormycosis Manifestations- primarily rhino cerebral, sinusitis and brain hemorrhage GU- Primarily fever and flank pain Dx- biopsy showing mold with nonseptate hyphae Tx-IV amphotericin B >1gram for 1 month
Summary: – The number of urinary tract infections caused by fungi is increasing. Although the majority of fungal UTIs are caused by Candida species, physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion in order to identify the rare and environmental fungi that cause disease.
Summary: Many factors such as overuse of antibiotics, immunosuppression, antifungal resistance and disseminated fungal infections predispose individuals to developing fungal UTI. The astute physician must identify predisposing medical conditions and anatomical defects; then treat them accordingly.
Summary: Before beginning antifungal therapy first obtain a U/A (rule out contamination). Urine and blood cultures should be obtained in order to identify the organism and sensitivities.( This helps to prevent overuse of abx and avoids contrubuting to the increasing amount of resistance antifungal agents.)
Summary: If obstruction or structural abnormalities are suspected then imaging of the urinary system is warranted. If defects are visualized, only then should surgical management be employed.