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What is the biggest organism ever? Apatosaurus? Coast redwood? Blue whale?

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Presentation on theme: "What is the biggest organism ever? Apatosaurus? Coast redwood? Blue whale?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is the biggest organism ever? Apatosaurus? Coast redwood? Blue whale?

2 None of the above – it’s a fungus A single clone of the “honey mushroom” Armillaria can cover more than 2,200 acres (1,600 football fields)

3 Chapter 31 Fungi

4 Fungal Origins Chlorophyta Plantae Ancestral eukaryote Rhodophyta Fungi Diplomonadida Parabasala Euglenozoa AlveolataStramenopila Cercozoa Radiolaria Amoebozoa Animalia Choanoflagellates Figure 28.4

5 Fungal Form and Function Anatomy Hyphae and mycelium Mycelium – interwoven mass of hyphae Hyphae - thread-like filaments, one cell thick Reproductive structure or fruiting body See Fig. 31.2

6 Fungal Form and Function Anatomy Hyphae and mycelium Hyphae Mycelium

7 Fungal Form and Function Anatomy Septate hypha Aseptate hypha, a.k.a. coenocytic See Fig. 31.3

8 Fungal Form and Function Anatomy Cell walls contain chitin

9 Fungal Form and Function Immobile adults

10 Fungal Form and Function Unlike plants and animals, no distinct embryo is formed during early development

11 Fungal Form and Function Nutrition Chemoheterotrophic Fungi exude exoenzymes that break down organic molecules that the fungi can absorb and use as a supply of both energy and carbon

12 Fungal Form and Function Nutrition Chemoheterotrophic Saprobic – if they digest dead organisms and waste products Parasitic – if they digest live organisms Mutualistically symbiotic – form associations with other organisms for mutual benefit

13 Fungal Life Cycles Three ploidy types Haploid – most fungal hyphae and all spores have haploid nuclei Diploid – diploid nuclei are found transiently during the sexual phase (if present) Heterokaryon – unfused nuclei from different parents occupying the same unit of hypha

14 Fungal Life Cycles Reproduction Asexual – default mode under stable conditions; spores are produced

15 Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores Haploid (1n) spores are produced by mitosis Spores are genetically identical to original mycelium Spores disperse and germinate to produce new myceliun See Fig. 31.5

16 Fungal Form and Function Reproduction Asexual – default mode under stable conditions; spores are produced Sexual – usually only under stressful conditions; spores are produced; many mating types possible (essentially like having many different sexes or genders)

17 Sexual reproduction in fungi zygotes (2n) fusion of compatible hyphae (plasmogamy) + – hyphae (n) fused hyphae (n + n) fusion of nuclei (karyogamy) meiosis of “zygote-like” structures dispersal of spores zygote (2n) sexual spores (n) + – + –

18 Sexual reproduction in fungi Haploid spores may disperse long distances away from the fruiting body

19 Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores See Fig. 31.5 Fusion of compatible hyphae (plasmogamy)

20 Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores See Fig. 31.5 Fusion of compatible hyphae (plasmogamy) …initiates a heterokaryotic phase

21 Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores See Fig. 31.5 Fusion of nuclei (karyogamy)

22 Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores See Fig. 31.5 Fusion of nuclei (karyogamy) …initiates a zygotic phase

23 Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores See Fig. 31.5 Fusion of nuclei (karyogamy) …initiates a zygotic phase …which is perhaps best described as “zygote like”

24 Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores See Fig. 31.5 Meiosis in “zygote-like” cells produces spores or cells that will produce spores

25 Fungal Life Cycles Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Zygote Mycelium GERMINATION MEIOSIS Spore-producing structures Spores Both asexual & sexual reproduction produce haploid spores See Fig. 31.5

26 Over 1000 additional species described each year 5 phyla Fugal Diversity Over 100,000 species described Chytrids Zygote fungi Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Sac fungi Club fungi Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Loss of flagella* *Flagella may have been lost multiple times in the fist two lineages See Fig. 31.9

27 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Chytrids Ancient group – diverged earliest from the other fungi

28 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Chytrids Ancient group – diverged earliest from the other fungi Aquatic – the only fungi with flagellated spores (zoospores)

29 Sexual reproduction in a chytrid: flagellated spores spores

30 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Chytrids Ancient group – diverged earliest from the other fungi Aquatic – the only fungi with flagellated spores (zoospores) Saprobic – majority Parasitic – some

31 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores

32 See Fig. 31.12 Key Plasmogamy Karyogamy Meiosis Black Bread Mold Sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction Mating type (+) Mating type (-) Zygosporangium Haploid (1n) Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n) Diploid (2n)

33 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores Asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores

34 See Fig. 31.12 Key Plasmogamy Karyogamy Meiosis Black Bread Mold Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Mating type (+) Mating type (-) Zygosporangium Haploid (1n) Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n) Diploid (2n)

35 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores Asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores Mostly saprobic decayers of organic matter, e.g., soft fruit rot fungi and black bread mold

36 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores Asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores Mostly saprobic decayers of organic matter, e.g., soft fruit rot fungi and black bread mold Some parasites, e.g., single-celled microsporidia

37 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Glomeromycetes = Arbuscular mycorrhizae Associated with ~90% of plant species

38 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi Sexual reproduction via spores produced in asci (sac-like cases)

39 See Fig. 31.17 Key Plasmogamy Karyogamy Meiosis Neurospora Haploid (1n) Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n) Diploid (2n) Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Hyphae of mating type (+) Conidia of mating type (-) Ascocarp, ascus, and ascospores

40 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi Sexual reproduction via spores produced in asci (sac-like cases) Asexual reproduction via naked spores (conidia)

41 See Fig. 31.17 Key Plasmogamy Karyogamy Meiosis Neurospora: an ascomycete Haploid (1n) Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n) Diploid (2n) Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Hyphae of mating type (+) Conidia of mating type (-) Ascocarp, ascus, and ascospores

42 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi Many saprobic species, e.g., Scarlet cups

43 Many parasites, especially of plants, but also of animals, e.g., Candida yeasts Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

44 Many symbionts with plants, e.g., truffles Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

45 Morels – Delicacy or deadly Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

46 Sources of many interesting chemicals E.g., Penicillium – the source of penicillin Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

47 Sources of many interesting chemicals E.g., the source of LSD Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

48 The yeasts used to brew beer… Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

49 …and bake breads and pizza crusts… Classification of Fungi Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

50 …but the mushrooms that top your pizza come from a different phylum… Classification of Fungi

51 Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi Include: common mushroom, puffballs, stink horns, shelf fungi, plant-parasitic smuts & rusts

52

53 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi Include: common mushroom, puffballs, stink horns, shelf fungi, plant-parasitic smuts & rusts Sexual reproduction via club-shaped reproductive structures, basidia, containing basidiospores

54 See Fig. 31.20 Key Plasmogamy Karyogamy Meiosis A mushroom-forming basidiomycete Haploid (1n) Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n) Diploid (2n) Sexual Reproduction Mating type (+) Mating type (-) Basidia with basidiospores Basidiocarp

55 Classification of Fungi Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi Include: common mushroom, puffballs, stink horns, shelf fungi, plant-parasitic smuts & rusts Sexual reproduction via club-shaped reproductive structures, basidia, containing basidiospores Asexual reproduction is uncommon

56 Fruiting bodies of the “inky cap” mushroom Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

57 basidiospores Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi Basidia are generally found on the surface of gills gills

58 Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi Basidia are generally found on the surface of gills gills basidiospores

59 Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi Basidia are generally found on the surface of gills Amanita spore pattern

60 Giant puffball Shelf fungi Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

61 Parasitic corn smut

62 Classification of Fungi Deuteromycetes - Imperfect Fungi Eclectic group of unclassified species

63 Classification of Fungi Deuteromycetes - Imperfect Fungi Eclectic group of unclassified species Sexual structures unknown (i.e., no flagellated spores, zygosporangia, asci, or basidia), so these haven’t been classified

64 Classification of Fungi Deuteromycetes - Imperfect Fungi Eclectic group of currently unclassified species Sexual structures unknown (i.e., no flagellated spores, zygosporangia, asci, or basidia), so these haven’t been classified Includes many molds and mildews (which demonstrates that certain commonly recognized “groups” are not good phylogenetic groups)

65 Functional Biology of Fungi Molds Many rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungi (mostly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes) Ecosystems on Earth would collapse without the molds and mildews (plus many bacteria) that break down organic matter into inorganic nutrients

66 Yeasts Many unicellular fungi that inhabit liquid or moist surfaces and reproduce asexually Functional Biology of Fungi Occur in the Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes & Zygomycetes Free-living, parasitic, and mutualistic symbiotic forms exist

67 Functional Biology of Fungi Mycorrhizae Symbiotic associations with plants (representatives known from all fungal phyla, not just Glomeromycetes)

68 Functional Biology of Fungi Lichens Obligate symbiotic associations with algae or cyanobacteria

69 Functional Biology of Fungi Parasites Ringworm Chestnut blight

70 Functional Biology of Fungi Toxin producers Aflatoxin

71 Functional Biology of Fungi Biotic control agents The first antibiotic used by humans Staphylococcus Penicillium Zone of inhibited growth

72 Functional Biology of Fungi Biotic control agents Used against termites, rice weevils, etc.

73 Functional Biology of Fungi Interesting example… of agriculture in insects Leaf-cutter ants cut and carry leaf fragments to their nests where the fragments are used to farm fungi

74 Functional Biology of Fungi Interesting example… of fungal cowboys Some soil fungi snare nematode worms in hyphal nooses and then digest them unlucky nematode fungal hypha

75 Functional Biology of Fungi Interesting example… of fungi & conservation The golden toad became extinct within the past 20 years, owing to anthropogenic environmental deterioration, which also facilitated pathogenic chytrid fungi


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