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University of Notre Dame Border Patrol: Access Denied! Robert Riley, Dan Rousseve, Bob Winding University of Notre Dame Copyright 2007. This work is the.

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Presentation on theme: "University of Notre Dame Border Patrol: Access Denied! Robert Riley, Dan Rousseve, Bob Winding University of Notre Dame Copyright 2007. This work is the."— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Notre Dame Border Patrol: Access Denied! Robert Riley, Dan Rousseve, Bob Winding University of Notre Dame Copyright This work is the intellectual property of the authors. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the authors. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the authors.

2 University of Notre Dame Background University networks are open to facilitate teaching and research Most Universities have large public IP blocks and lots of bandwidth This has left the door open to malicious activity The changing security landscape requires re- thinking the definition of open network

3 University of Notre Dame The Problem Constant probes from Internet looking for trouble – Syslog data shows an average of 10K unique ports used for inbound connection attempts Probe traffic creates too much noise. IDS was receiving 150K+ detects a day at the border Need to reduce malicious traffic without impacting the mission of the University Laws and regulations have consequences for compromises

4 University of Notre Dame Some Questions Does the whole University participate in network based research? Who really needs “full” network access? Can researchers benefit from protection? – What if my research became public prematurely? – Do these controls impact academic freedom? Should administrator workstations be accessible to students? To the world?

5 University of Notre Dame Thoughts Your unrestricted access to the Internet is different than the Internet’s unrestricted access to you What’s really needed to support the functions of the University, e.g. academic and administration? Who should be able to host public services? Most people assume their systems are secure

6 University of Notre Dame The Project Analyze traffic and commonly used services and determine allowed inbound traffic. Everything allowed out, and of course the responses are allowed back (stateful connections) Educating users is critical. – People fear the worst – Transparency is key to success

7 University of Notre Dame Plan A Use firewall logs to determine what was being used – Implement ACLs to permit everything in use (status quo) Log analysis too complex, we needed to determine a policy independent of the current usage 300 inbound ports being used in just one building Plan is transparent/analytical (too bad it didn’t work)

8 University of Notre Dame Plan B Determine list of inbound ports that represent traffic for well known services that are in wide use (subjective policy) Vet the list to numerous campus constituencies for consensus Provide a mechanism to exempt machines – No one-off rules, keep the border simple Educate users on alternative methods of access (e.g. VPN) Pilot, then rollout slowly, adjust as we go

9 University of Notre Dame Why Bother Reduce the exposure of majority of campus systems to unwanted Internet traffic Quiet the network and increase the value of IDS Reduce the vector by which hackers may seek to compromise systems Educate users regarding issues of being exposed to the Internet Provide basic protection layer at the border, not the only layer

10 University of Notre Dame Perception vs. Reality “The researcher/user becomes a minority voice in how they can use their own system!” “We need to balance our security concerns against our teaching and research mission. I personally think that research/teaching aspects deserve more importance.” “collaborative research with other universities will be severely impacted by this......” “I personally feel that many of the security policies/procedures being considered and/or implemented at Notre Dame are overbearing and will probably cause as many or more problems than they solve.”

11 University of Notre Dame Perception vs. Reality “It seems that as long as we are act in a responsible manner with those sorts of assets we should be allowed to make well informed mistakes and deal with the consequences.” “I question will the system continue to be usable when it's behind the firewall?” “In the best case, it doesn't seem to add any security value. In the worst case, it can give me a false sense of security and make me complacent. In all the cases, it is annoying :-(“

12 University of Notre Dame Barriers to implementation Academic freedom Detriment to research and experimentation – What do you mean I can’t run a web server on port – Faculty may be researching Internet attacks Cultural shift – The Windows firewall is good enough – If I’m going to run a public service maybe it should be on a institutionally managed server

13 University of Notre Dame How it works Cisco Firewall Services Module at border – List of 14 ports allowed in to all addresses – All outbound connections allowed, implicitly allow return traffic Datacenter still sees all traffic, but has it’s own protection layers Unprotected network for exempted systems Resnet will be addressed in zoned network project

14 University of Notre Dame 14 Desired FunctionRequired SpecsFWSM Specs Multi OSI Layer Protection Layers 2 – 7 Protection Throughput1Gbps5Gbps Simultaneous Connections 300,000 Connections1,000,000 Connections Connections per Second50,000 Connections/sec100,000 Connections/sec High AvailabilityActive/StandbyActive/Standby or Active/Active Virtualization2 or more Virtual Firewalls Up to 250 Virtual Firewalls Multicast Support  Technical Requirements

15 University of Notre Dame How it works Final consensus denies all but 14 ports (representing 7 services) – Mail (encrypted user , smtp) – Web (https/http) – LDAPS – FTP – SSH – VPN – This is how you get to everything else – Video Conferencing (H.323)

16 University of Notre Dame 16

17 University of Notre Dame Pilot OIT “eats its own cooking” – Building subnets placed behind border. Port use goes from 300 inbound used to 5 (of 14 permitted) – One subway service is discovered, otherwise the silence is deafening Next, we solicited participants for an expanded pilot, e.g. Alumni, Law, Performing Arts, Main Building, College of Business, etc. Handful of issues discovered in pilot

18 University of Notre Dame Pilot Issues Remote Vendor support access Legacy Applications Lexis/Nexis printing remotely to ND printers Remote T1 networks

19 University of Notre Dame Outcomes Academic Freedom unaffected No impact to University business functions Implementation transparent to vast majority of users 35% of inbound traffic is blocked Less noise on network for IDS – IDS alerts went from 150K/day to 90K/day

20 University of Notre Dame Future Filter datacenter traffic Provide increased protection or eliminate exempted systems Research net (now exempted systems) with secure access to institutional data Zoned network Resnet – What’s reasonable – Diode protection: Opt in/out – Register public services

21 University of Notre Dame Questions?


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