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World War II Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, criticized for controlling the gov’t, and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, criticized for controlling the gov’t, and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have."— Presentation transcript:

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2 World War II

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4 Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, criticized for controlling the gov’t, and unfortunately suffer from ailing health. Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a rebellious mouth or attitude Contestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy

5 Contestant #3 Hitler Contestant #2 Churchill Contestant #1 Roosevelt

6 A dictator has absolute rule of a nation. Dictators with evil plans took charge of some countries in Europe. Dictators often used harsh treatment for those who disagreed or were considered undesirable.

7 Mussolini In Italy, the dictator who rose to power was

8 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Fearing a Communist Revolution in Italy… The King of Italy believed Mussolini and his “Far Right” was the best hope for his own troubled dynasty to survive. King Victor Emmanuel III puts Mussolini in charge of the government Mussolini abolished democracy; outlawed all political parties but his own Fascist party-based on loyalty to the state and obedience to the leader. imposed Censorship; had opponents jailed; outlawed strikes; made allies with the rich industrialists. In 1922, about 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome demanding Mussolini be put in charge of the government After Mussolini took power, a foreign diplomat returned to England and remarked, “He’s an actor, a dangerous rascal, and possibly slightly off his head.” King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy Il Duce “the leader”

9 Hitler In Germany, the dictator who rose to power was

10 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome, Hitler & the Nazis decide to overthrow the government & seize power in Munich Germany Hitler is tried for treason and sentenced to prison. In jail, Hitler writes “Mein Kampf” (which means My Struggle) This book became the plan of action for the Nazis. The Munich Beer Hall Putsch November 9, 1923 Hitler, at 34, entered a Munich beer-hall calling for a revolution against the Weimar Republic by his Nazi followers. When faced with the opposing Army, Hitler and the Nazis made a quick retreat, in which 16 Nazi’s died. For this attempted overthrow of the government, Hitler received a 5 year prison sentence in a tightly controlled minimum-security prison; after 9 months, he was set free on good behavior. Hitler put his jail time to good use, finally sharing his ideas with the world by writing Mein Kampf.

11 When the Great Depression hit, the German economy collapsed and people began to look to Hitler for security and leadership 1932 German leaders think they can use Hitler for their goals. They name him Chancellor, or president, giving him legal power in Germany Hitler calls for new elections and turns Germany into totalitarian state. He arrests anyone who opposes him and develops the SS (Schutzstaffel – protection squad.) 1936 Hitler put millions to work and decreased the unemployment rate from 6million to 1.5million

12 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Hitler wanted to control every aspect of German life and shape public opinion through propaganda. Boys were forced to join Hitler Youth. Girls were forced to join the League of German Girls. Hitler has books burned in huge bonfires. Hitler gained totalitarian control – he silenced his opposition & forced people to accept only Nazi beliefs. Books were burned, Churches could not say anything negative about the Nazi Party, anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews) increased. Under the order of Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's Minister of Propaganda, Nazi gangs (“Brown Shirts”) entered all libraries and gathered books that didn’t support the “family values” of the Fatherland, including books by Thomas Mann, Jack London, H. G. Wells, Charles Dickens, Emile Zola and those of Jewish writers. Hitler Youth march through Nuremberg, Germany past Nazi officials.

13 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Nazis used the Jews as the reason for Germany’s troubles. Anti-Semitism was an important part of Nazi ideology. In 1933, the Nazi-controlled German government passes the “Nuremburg Laws” - laws depriving Jews of their rights. Violence against Jews increased. Kristallnacht signaled the real start of the process of eliminating Jews from German life. A synagogue is set fire the night of Kristallnacht. Above: Jewish citizens being “relocated” to the ghetto. Right: Germans pass by damaged Jewish shops the morning after Kristallnacht – Night of the Broken Glass, Nov. 9, Nazi groups attacked Jews in their homes and their businesses.

14 Militarists In Japan the group who rose to power were the

15 20 th c. begins with Militarists Taking over Japan This Military-Industrial establishment pursues Imperialism in Asia – Japan becomes democratic 1929 – The Great Depression leads Japanese to blame the government for their economic troubles and begin to support the military leaders. They want to solve their country’s problems by expanding and taking control of China – Japanese military fully invades Manchuria despite objections from Japan’s own Parliament. Why did the Japanese invade Manchuria? 1.To solve its economic problems (need for oil) 2. The army sets up a “puppet” govt. and begins to provide military protection to Japanese business interests who arrive to build mines / factories. This was the first direct challenge to the League of Nations Japan ignores the protests of the League of Nations & withdraws from the League 1937 Japan invades and conquers large parts of China. The Militarists keep 24 year old Emperor Hirohito, as head of state but he is a puppet of the military.

16 1937 – Japan invades China What were the immediate results of this invasion? The Chinese retreated and set up a new capital in the south; Chinese guerilla fighters continued to fight in the northern occupied area. Japanese military killed tens of thousands of captured soldiers and civilians in Nanjing. The gruesome rapes and killings of thousands in the city of Nanjing by the invading Japanese military were well-documented by invited photographers.

17 Chinese civilians at Nanking are buried alive by Japanese troops. Japanese invaders Buried alive more than 1,000 elderly women and children in a huge pit. All their hands were tied behind their backs. Japanese commanders used killing competitions as a way to boost morale. They organized visiting and news reporters to appraise the "winner". One killing competition was reported by newspapers all over the world. Heads of female victims in Nanking.

18 Europe Attacks Because the League of Nations did not stop the Japanese, other leaders began to plan attacks of their own.

19 1935 – Mussolini invades Ethiopia…Why? - PROFIT: Mussolini wants to develop an Italian Empire in Africa - REVENGE: Bitter memories of Ethiopians defeating the Italian army in the Battle of Adowa in WHY NOT? League of Nations had done nothing to stop Japan Why did Britain and France take no action against Italy? Both hoped to “keep the peace” in Europe – dreading another War. Ethiopian Emperor Hallie Selassie asked the League of Nations: "What answer shall I take back to my people?" He said, "It is us today, it will be you tomorrow." He ended by telling them, "God and History shall remember your judgment." It was a historic speech applauded around the world. The League of Nations wanted to keep the peace in Europe so they did nothing and allowed Mussolini to take control in Africa. Ethiopian ruler Halllie Selassie inspects his men.

20 1936 – German troops move into the Rhineland (land on either side of the Rhine River between Germany and France.) What were some of the effects of appeasing Hitler after his invasion of the Rhineland? Hitler is cheered after telling the Nazi-controlled Parliament that Germany would no longer follow the Treaty of Versailles’ restrictions. He had already begun rebuilding Germany’s military. The League of Nations issued only a mild warning. Banners throughout Germany read, “Today Germany! Tomorrow the World!” - Strengthened his power among the Germans; - Tilted the balance of power in Europe in Germany’s favor; - Encouraged Hitler to speed up his military and territorial expansion.

21 Spain had been a monarchy until 1931, when it then became a republic. Like all European nations, Spain’s economy suffered during the Depression. In 1936, army leaders supported a Fascist-styled leader in Spain named Francisco Franco. Civil War started. The liberal Republican government received little help from western democratic nations. In fact, only the Soviet Union sent equipment and advisers to try to negotiate the conflict in Spain – Franco becomes Spanish dictator – Hitler & Mussolini lend troops, tanks, planes to help Spain’s Fascist leader Francisco Franco and his Nationalists in Spain’s Civil War.

22 1935 – U.S. Congress passes first of Why did isolationists want these laws? three Neutrality Acts. They hoped to keep the U.S. out of another European War. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. “Let it be resolved that upon the outbreak or during the progress of war between, or among, two or more foreign states, the President shall proclaim such fact, and it shall thereafter be unlawful to export arms, ammunition, or implements of war to any port of such beligerent states… nor shall these United States feel compelled to intercede in such international tensions as they unaffect us.” - U.S. Neutrality Act, 1935

23 Britain and France chose Appeasement – choosing to “give in to an aggressor in order to keep the peace” 1935 – U.S. Congress passes first of Why did isolationists want these laws? three Neutrality Acts They hoped to keep the U.S. out of another European War. Americans in the United States preferred Isolationism – choosing to “stay out of the tensions between other countries” Hitler’s growing military strength convinced Mussolini to seek an alliance with Germany 1936 – The two dictators sign the Rome-Berlin Axis agreement. A month later Germany reaches an agreement with Japan. Axis Powers – Germany, Japan, Italy RESULT: Strengthened by their alliance, further aggression was sure to happen. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. RESULT: This official policy prevented the U.S. from taking an immediate stand against the Aggressors which might have prevented war. RESULT: This policy only encouraged Japan, Italy, and Germany to keep taking more…“give ‘em an inch; they take a mile”

24 1937 – Hitler plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich – or, the new Germany Empire. “The Treaty of Versailles prohibited Anschluss (union of Austria and Germany). However, many German-speaking Austrians supported the idea. In March, 1938 Hitler sent his army into Austria and annexed it. France and Belgium ignored a former pledge to protect Austrian independence. Pic below: Hitler's car passes through a triumphant crowd assembled in Vienna to celebrate the Anschluss, March lebensraum (living space) for the German people

25 Immediately after the Anschluss, Nazis began a brutal crackdown on Austrian Jews, arresting them and publicly humiliating them. At right -- Austrian Nazis and local residents watch as Jews are forced to get on their hands and knees and scrub the pavement. Followers of former Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg wait to be transported to a German concentration camp during the mass round-up that followed the Anschluss of March They were never seen again. Schuschnigg and his followers had tried to prevent the annexation.

26 1937 – Hitler plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich. Since WWI, Czechoslovakia had developed into a prosperous democracy with a strong army and a defense treaty with France. But 3 million German-speaking people lived in the Sudetenland - a western border region of Czechoslovakia. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

27 1937 – Hitler plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich. “Since WWI, Czechoslovakia had developed into a prosperous democracy with a strong army and a defense treaty with France. But 3 million German-speaking people lived in the Sudetenland - a western border region of Czechoslovakia. This heavily fortified area also formed the Czech’s main defense against Germany. Anschluss had only increased pro-Nazi feelings among the Sudeten Germans. In September, 1938 Hitler demanded the Sudetenland be given to him. The Czechs refused and asked France for help. France and Britain were preparing for war when Mussolini decided to play negotiator and proposed a meeting….in Munich Germany. Why was the Munich Conference unsuccessful? The Czechs were not even invited; Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain >> thought he could appease Hitler and keep the peace; After Hitler was given Czechoslovakia he began demanding Poland. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

28 An historic example of the failings of appeasement is that of the British prime minister Neville Chamberlain, shown here upon his return from Munich with the scrap of paper that was to ensure "peace in our time!” One member of British Parliament was furious at what had happened to the Czechs at the Munich Conference: “You had a choice between war and dishonor and you chose dishonor. You shall have war." That Parliament member was Winston Churchill who will become Britain’s next Prime Minister and carry the country through WWII.

29 When the German tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia… the Czech majority mourned as it was forced to offer up the Nazi salute, “Heil Hitler!” …while the Sudeten Germans cheered Ecstatic Sudeten girls in traditional local costumes join in welcoming the German soldiers. At the end of WWII, no Jewish life in Bohemia and Moravia was left. Out of the 90,000 Czech Jews more than 72,000 were deported to Auschwitz immediately. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

30 The Secret Protocol was the agreement between the Nazis and Soviets about what would take place the moment Hitler invaded Poland. For the Soviets, for agreeing to not join the possible future war, Germany was giving the Soviets the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). Poland was also to be divided between the two. The new territories gave the Soviet Union the buffer (in land) that it wanted to feel safe from an invasion from the West. For the Nazis, when attacking Poland on September 1, 1939, the Soviets promised not to interfere. This was the first time the Nazi’s had used blitzkrieg “lightning war”. It used fast moving planes and tanks, huge amounts of soldiers, and surprise attacks to overwhelm the enemy. Why did Stalin sign an agreement with Fascist Germany, once a bitter enemy? Stalin felt Russia’s former allies – Britain, France, U.S. – had snubbed him again and he resented having been left out of the Munich Conference; He also wanted to avoid another war in Germany since the Soviet Union was in no way prepared for one. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S – Germany and Russia sign a Nonaggression Pact.

31 On September 3, 1939, France and Great Britain declared war on Germany and World War II had begun. On September 17, the Soviets rolled into eastern Poland to occupy the land given to them in the secret protocol with Germany.

32 The Fall of France On June 22, France signed a treaty with Germany, agreeing to German occupation of northern France and the coast. – The French military was demobilized, and the French government, now located at Vichy, in the south (and headed by Marshall Henri Philippe Pétain), would collaborate with the German authorities in occupied France. Refusing to recognize defeat, General Charles de Gaulle escaped to London and organized the Free French forces. Britain now stood alone against Germany.

33 The Battle of Britain Hitler expected Great Britain to make peace, however, led by a new Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, they refused to surrender. Hitler proceeded with invasion plans. The Luftwaffe (Germany’s air force) began bombing Great Britain to destroy its air defenses. Britain stayed strong despite horrible destruction to English cities. – The British resistance convinced Hitler to postpone the invasion but he continued the bombing attacks.

34 Erwin Rommel: “Desert Fox” German General who led the Axis attack on North Africa. Bernard Montgomery – British commander who launched Battle of El-Alamein, in which Rommel’s army was defeated. Battle of El Alamein – Forced Rommel’s forces to retreat westward from Egypt. Allies safeguard the Suez Canal.

35 Invasion of the Soviet Union It was then that Hitler made his big mistake. He invaded the Soviet Union. – The end of Bolshevism was a key part of Hitler’s ideology; but, it was a gigantic military mistake. On June 22, 1941, Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, which included an army of 4 million men spread out along a 2,000-mile front in three huge groups. The German army quickly advanced, but at a terrifying cost. Over the next 3 years 500,000 German soldiers would die here.

36 JAPAN SEEKS A PACIFIC EMPIRE 1920s : A country overcrowded and short of resources Military Leaders begin to seek an Empire 1931 : Japan takes over Manchuria 1937 : Japan invades China – Chinese resistance causes prolonged war; Plan to pursue resources in European colonies of Southeast Asia 1940 : U.S. cracks Japanese secret code and discovers plan to attack Southeast Asia; fears loss of U.S.-controlled Philippines & Guam T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S :January - U.S. begins to aid Chinese June – Japan moves into French Indochina July – U.S. President Roosevelt cuts off oil shipments to Japan

37 Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Japan’s great naval strategist, argued that the U.S. fleet in Hawaii was “a dagger pointed at our throat,” and must be destroyed. Although Yamamoto argued for the attack on Pearl Harbor, he held no illusions about the war’s final outcome. He admitted to an aide, “In the first six to twelve months of a war with the United States and Britain, I will run wild and win victory after victory. After that, I have no expectation of success.” Video clip, America in the 20th Century: World War II: The Road to War / Japanese Attack Pearl HarborAmerica in the 20th Century: World War II: The Road to War / Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. CH 32: Section 2 – “The Surprise Attack on Pearl Harbor” Text p. 827; Packet p. 4

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41 Japanese Approach to Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941 The Imperial Japanese Navy fleet attacking Pearl Harbor launched a total of 423 aircraft in two waves against American military targets on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

42 Attack on Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941 Commander Fuchida led the first wave of torpedo bombers against the US Pacific Fleet ships at anchor in Pearl Harbor. Their first objective was to strike at the battleships. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

43 Bombing of Pearl Harbor U.S. Casualties: 2,400 killed 1,100 wounded a. Japanese launched a surprise attack, sinking or damaging almost the entire U. S. Pacific fleet. b. U.S. declares war on Japan. CONNECTING PAST & PRESENT Following the Terrorist Attack of September 11, 2001, many in the United States found obvious comparisons with the attack on Pearl Harbor sixty years earlier. In both instances, the United States admitted knowing from coded messages that such an attack might come But they did not know when or where it would occur. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. “The Surprise Attack on Pearl Harbor”

44 “December 7, 1941… T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. A Day That Will Live in Infamy.” ~ President Franklin D. Roosevelt declaring War on Japan before the U.S. Congress December 8, 1941.

45 Fall of Southeast Asian colonies. Hong Kong, Malaya, Dutch Indonesia, Singapore, Burma a. Through a planned series of attacks in the Pacific, Japan seized control of rich European colonies. b. Helped Japan replenish depleted resources and cut China off from its supply route through Burma. Before they moved in and conquered, the Japanese dropped leaflets proclaiming their anti-colonialist message, “Asia for Asians.” After victory, however, the Japanese quickly made it clear that they had come as conquerors…in fact, native Asian people often received the same treatment as western POWs…such as those taken on the Bataan Death March. Textbook, p. 828 T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. “The Tide of Japanese Victories”

46 Bataan Death March Known as “The Rock,” the island fortress of Corregidor in Manila Bay was the last U.S. position in the Philippines to surrender to the Japanese. For a month after the fall of Bataan, 13,000 American and Filipino troops held out in a concrete cave called Malinta Tunnel. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. Video clip, teacher’s personal library, “The Bataan Death March” CH 32: Section 2 – “The Tide of Japanese Victories” Text p. 828; Packet p. 4

47 ... Bataan Death March At dawn April 9, 1942, Major General Edward P. King, Jr., surrendered more than 75,000 starving and disease- ridden American soldiers, sailors, and Marines and their Filipino allies, to overwhelming Japanese forces. He asked the Japanese colonel to whom he surrendered his pistol whether the Americans and Filipinos would be well treated. The Japanese colonel replied: “We are not barbarians.” The next 14 days would prove otherwise.

48 August, 1942 The men were marched 65 miles into Japanese Prisoner-of-War camps. The 75,000 prisoners of war were bound, beaten, or killed by their Japanese captors. Some were stabbed when they fell from exhaustion. Some were forced to dig their own graves and were buried alive. Only 56,000 prisoners reached camp alive. Thousands of them later died from malnutrition and disease. In August, 1945, the Russian Army liberated the prison camp.... Bataan Death March T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

49 Doolittle’s raid on Japan. April, 1942 a. As revenge for Pearl Harbor, U.S. sent sixteen B-25 bombers to bomb Japanese cities. b. Showed that Japan could be attacked and raised American morale. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. James H. Doolittle 1896–1993, American aviator, from Alameda, Calif. Doolittle commanded the first bombers that raided Tokyo and other Japanese cities (Apr. 18, 1942) from the aircraft carrier Hornet. He later headed the North African Strategic Air Forces and led the 8th Air Force in its massive attacks on Germany. “The Allies Strike Back”

50 CORAL SEA May, 1942 An American fleet with Australian support intercepts a Japanese strike force on its way to Port Moresby in the Coral Sea… …the United States had installed a critical Allied air base here… should the Japanese take it, they could easily take Australia. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. “The Allies Turn the Tide of War”

51 Battle of the Coral Sea. May, 1942 a. Following an interception of Japanese attack on Port Moresby, Japanese and American naval fleets fought to a tie. b. US introduced a new kind of naval warfare, using only airplanes taking off from huge ships. The Americans lost more ships than the Japanese, but successfully stopped Japanese expansion southward. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. “The Allies Turn the Tide of War”

52 June, 1942 Another Japanese code was broken and their next target was realized – the key American airfield on Midway island. U.S. Pacific Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz knew the largest naval force ever assembled, 150 Japanese ships, were heading for Midway to finish off the U.S. crippled fleet – and on the lead Japanese flagship was Admiral Yamamoto himself. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

53 U.S. Pacific Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz was outnumbered four to one in ships and planes. Even so, he set his ambush for the Japanese. On June 4, with American forces hiding beyond the horizon, Nimitz allowed the enemy to launch the first strike. Once the Japanese planes had lifted off to strike the island, Nimitz ordered American planes to swoop in and attack the Japanese fleet. American pilots destroyed 332 Japanese planes, all four aircraft carriers, and one support ship. Yamamoto and his flagship withdrew. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. June, 1942

54 Battle of Midway. “The Americans had avenged Pearl Harbor,” commented a Japanese official. a. An American carrier with planes defeated a Japanese fleet ready to attack Midway Island, a key American airfield. b. This battle reversed the war in the Pacific against the Japanese. American pilots view of the Japanese air raid on Midway Island beginning June 4, “The Battle of Midway”

55 T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. Crew of U.S. Army Air Force First Lieutenant James Muri's B-26, who made a torpedo attack on a Japanese aircraft carrier during the early morning battle. The plane had more than 500 bullet holes when it landed at Midway following this action. “The Battle of Midway”

56 General Douglas MacArthur was commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Believing that trying to storm each island in the Pacific would be a long, costly effort… He proposed an “island-hopping” strategy - he would bypass the Japanese, seize the islands LEAST heavily defended but closest to Japan, establish bases there, then use air power to cut Japanese supply lines. Read History Makers, p. 934

57 The U.S. learns the Japanese are building a huge naval base on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. They had to strike fast before it was completed. August 7, ,000 Marines with Australian support surprise the Japanese who radioed to Tokyo, “Enemy forces overwhelming! We will defend our posts to the death!”

58 The battle for the island turned into a savage struggle. February, 1943 After 6 months of fighting on land and at sea, the Battle of Guadalcanal ended. After losing 23,000 men out of 36,000, the Japanese abandoned the island they called “the island of Death.”

59 Marines survey bodies of Japanese soldiers covering the battleground of Edson's Ridge. “The Allies Go on the Offensive”

60 A Guadalcanal native pays tribute to American war dead on the island. - August, “The Allies Go on the Offensive”

61 Turning Points of the War Operation Torch Battle of Stalingrad Invasion of Italy D-Day Battle of the Bulge

62 Erwin Rommel: “Desert Fox” German General who led the North African campaign. Bernard Montgomery – British commander who launched Battle of El-Alamein, in which Rommel’s army was defeated. 1. Battle of El Alamein – Forced Rommel’s forces to retreat westward from Egypt. Allies safeguard the Suez Canal. 2. Operation Torch – Landing of American troops in North Africa; finally ending Rommel’s N.Africa campaign.

63 Battle of Stalingrad – Put German forces on the defensive with the Soviets, pushing them westward. T. Loessin; Akins High School

64 Invasion of Italy – Roosevelt and Churchill decide to attack Italy. They captured Sicily and Mussolini fell from power. szeged.hu/bibl/mil/ww2/map/olasz_anim.ht ml T. Loessin; Akins High School Il Duce “the leader” … …his own Italian people now hang him.

65 Mobilization In the U.S. The war effort required all of America’s huge productive capacity and full employment of the workforce. – Government expenditures soared. U.S. budget increases – 1940 $9 million – 1944 $100 million – Expenditures in WWII greater than all previous government budgets combined (150 years)

66 Propaganda on the home fronts – Rallied people on the Homefront to do their part to support the war effort. What was Operation Cornflake? These stamps were key part of a high level plan to undermine the morale of the average German citizen. The Allies felt that if many German people started receiving Anti-Nazi propaganda in their morning mail delivered punctually at breakfast time by the mailman, they would feel that their "German Empire" was falling apart from within. Women in the factories “Rosie the Riveter” Victory Gardens Rationing Hollywood “Buy Bonds” drive / pro- war films / Stars go overseas for troops / Civil Defense precautions Censorship / Mail read at Japanese Internment camps

67 D-Day Invasion – “Operation Overlord” June 6, 1944 The Allies invaded the beaches of Normandy, France in the largest land and sea attack in history Opened up the planned second front in Europe … (something Stalin had been asking Churchill & Roosevelt to do since 1941) … and freed France, Belgium, and much of the Netherlands from the Nazis. General Eisenhower rallies paratroopers prior to the Normandy invasion. Dwight D. Eisenhower – American general who led the D-Day invasion.

68 Battle of the Bulge – Allies moved toward Germany from the east and the west. Hitler attacked the American and British armies hoping to divide them. At first this German offensive forced Allies to retreat; but soon they stopped the Germans. This resulted in heavy losses for Hitler. The Germans retreat. Germans run out of gas and come to the end of the road! T. Loessin; Akins High School

69 On April 25, 1945 the Soviets surrounded Germany’s capital. On April 29, 1945 Adolph Hitler married his long-time girlfriend Eva Braun. On April 30, 1945 Hitler and Braun commit suicide. Their bodies are carried outside and burned On May 9, 1945 Germany surrenders unconditionally known as V-E Day

70 V – E day = May 9, 1945 “Victory in Europe” While Londoners wave Union Jacks, "out of work" American bombers return to their English base on May 8, T. Loessin; Akins High School

71 V – E day = May 9, 1945 “Victory in Europe” Celebrations in New York’s Times Square T. Loessin; Akins High School

72 Franklin D. Roosevelt Dies April 12, 1945 He was 63. President Roosevelt did not live to see this victory. He passed away suddenly on April 12, He will best be remembered for his development of the New Deal program for helping America out of the great depression for his determination to help Allied nations defeat Hitler in WWII and his ideas that inspired the foundation of the United Nations Organization. T. Loessin; Akins High School F.D.R. at 60.

73 War in the Pacific Continues MacArthur keeps his promise and returns to the Philippines T. Loessin; Akins High School

74 Battle of Leyte Gulf – October 23-27, 1944 MacArthur and the Allies wiped out the Japanese navy. This beautiful monument is dedicated to the memory of Vice Admiral Clifton A. F. Sprague and the 13 ships and 7,300 men of Task Unit , also known as Taffy 3, which were under his command during the furious and heroic naval action fought off the island of Samar on October 25, 1944, during the Battle for Leyte Gulf.

75 War in the Pacific Continues

76 Battle of Okinawa – Japanese used kamikaze pilots (suicide pilots) to sink ships. In March 1945, after a month of fighting American Marines took control of Iwo Jima. On April 1 they entered Okinawa. On June 21, the battle ended. The Japanese had lost 100,000 troops, the US 12,000. The famous Iwo Jima moment… U.S. marines planting the flag on the beach… the actual photo below, the memorial in Arlington Cemetery, Washington D.C. at right.

77 Atom Diplomacy FDR had funded the top-secret Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb Dr. Robert Oppenheimer successfully tested in the summer of FDR had died on April 12, 1945, and the decision was left to Harry Truman.

78 Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer headed the new U.S. laboratory built to design an atomic bomb. Oppenheimer recommended a remote site in New Mexico for the new facility, where project scientists, many of them world-famous, could work together in complete secrecy. The Los Alamos Laboratory was opened in April Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki –July 16, 1945 first A-bomb exploded in New Mexico desert. President Truman warns the Japanese to surrender or expect attack. Japan does not answer, so On Aug. 6 the US plane Enola Gay drops A-bomb on Hiroshima killing 70-80,000 people. On Aug. 9 the US bombs Nagasaki killing 70,000 more people. August 6, 1945 August 9, 1945 _______ ______

79 “I could see below the mushroom cloud…the thing reminded me more of a boiling pot of tar than any other description I can give. It was black and boiling underneath with a steam haze on top of it…We had seen the city when we flew in, and there was nothing to see when we came back. It was covered by this boiling, black- looking mass.” ~ Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. (pilot, Enola Gay) 8:15 a.m. Hiroshima, Japan August 6, 1945 Within a few seconds the thousands of people in the streets and the gardens in the center of the town were scorched by a wave of searing heat. Many were killed instantly, others lay writhing on the ground, screaming in agony from the intolerable pain of their burns. Everything standing upright in the way of the blast, walls, houses, factories, and other buildings, was annihilated. ~ Japanese journalist, August 6, 1945.

80 Atomic bomb survivor This patient's skin is burned in a pattern corresponding to the dark portions of a kimono worn at the time of the explosion. U.S. National Archives & Records Administration, Washington D.C. Years after WWII, President Harry S. Truman was asked if he had difficulty making the decision to use this new weapon. He responded without hesitation, “Hell no. I made it just like that.” And he snapped his fingers. T. Loessin; Akins High School

81 V-J Day: September 2, 1945 (Victory over Japan) The Japanese Emperor Hirohito surrendered to General Douglas MacArthur aboard the U.S.S. Missouri battleship docked in Tokyo Bay… …oddly, on the same day WWII had officially begun in Europe 6 years earlier when Hitler invaded Poland. T. Loessin; Akins High School

82 V – J day = Sept. 2, 1945 “Victory in Japan” Celebrations in New York’s Times Square T. Loessin; Akins High School

83 Cost of War Germany- 3 million combat deaths (3/4ths on the eastern front) Japan – over 1.5 million combat deaths; 900,000 civilians dead Soviet Union - 13 million combat deaths U.S. – 300,000 combat deaths, over 100,000 other deaths When you include all combat and civilian deaths, World War II becomes the most destructive war in history with estimates as high as 60 million, including 25 million Russians.

84 Note three ways WWII affected the land and people of Europe. Destroyed hundreds of major cities, factories, farmland, and utilities resulting in a ruined economy, shortages, hunger, disease, unemployment, and destroyed lives.

85 Note three political problems postwar governments now faced. Displaced persons, discredited governments, lack of political leadership, threat of Communist (USSR) takeovers. T. Loessin; Akins High School

86 Wall line between West- and East-Berlin Post – WWII A Germany divided.

87 Note one way the Allies dealt with the Holocaust. Put the Nazis on trial for “crimes against humanity” – the first ever War Crimes Tribunal was held in Nuremberg, Germany… …ironically, the place where Hitler first put his anti-Semitic Nuremberg laws into action back in The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials : 23 Allied nations brought 22 Nazi officials to court in Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives

88 Note two effects of Allied bombing raids on Japan. Destroyed numerous cities, shattered the economy, caused deaths of 2 million people. In the background are the remains of a Roman Catholic cathedral on a hill in Nagasaki, Japan following the atomic blast of Aug. 9, 1945.

89 MacArthur arranged for this one photo to be taken, sending the Japanese people a clear message that their Emperor was, in fact, a small man, and leaving no doubt about who was in charge. Hirohito was not executed for his war crimes, because the Allies felt that as a symbolic Emperor, he could be useful to them in carrying out their plans for post- war Japan. U.S. Occupation of Japan: A few days after the surrender of Japan to the Allies, a dignified but defeated Hirohito paid a visit to General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces. T. Loessin; Akins High School Under MacArthur's advice, Hirohito announced that he was not a god, but merely a normal man. MacArthur and the Americans prepared a new Constitution for Japan which is still in use today.

90 Note three ways U.S. occupation changed Japan. Democratization – a government elected by the people was created; [The former Empire was now a parliamentary democracy much like Britain.] Huge land estate owners were forced to sell lands to former tenant farmers Demilitarization - standing army was disbanded, preventing Japan from ever again making war. 25 Surviving War Crimes defendants brought to trial. Premier Tojo and six others sentenced to hanging. Independent labor unions were formed. [Contrary to common misconception, the United States (still bitter about Pearl Harbor) offered very little money to help rebuild Japan. Only 2 billion dollars directed toward emergency relief in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.] T. Loessin; Akins High School

91 Note three provisions in Japan’s new constitution. A two-house Parliament (the Diet) elected by the people; Elections held for all persons over 20, including women. A Prime Minister elected by majority in the Diet; A Bill of Rights protecting basic freedoms; Article 9 – stipulates that Japan can never again make war; only defend itself if attacked. In September 1951 the US and 47 other nations signed a formal peace treaty with Japan to officially end the war. 6 months later US occupation of Japan was over. The US and Japan were now allies. T. Loessin; Akins High School

92 Postwar Reality Consequences of World War II – Soviet Union and U.S. become the world’s 2 major powers. – Unlike the isolation after WWI, the U.S. was involved in world affairs – The triumph of Communists in China


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