3Who Would You Vote For?Contestant #1 I am a womanizer, criticizedfor controlling the gov’t, and unfortunately suffer from ailing health.Contestant #2 I have a drinking habit and a rebellious mouthor attitudeContestant #3 I am a decorated war hero, do not drink and want to create a stable economy
4Who Did You Vote For? Roosevelt Churchill Hitler Contestant #1
5Rise of Dictators A dictator has absolute rule of a nation. Dictators with evil plans took charge of some countries in Europe.Dictators often used harsh treatment for those who disagreed or were considered undesirable.
6In Italy, the dictator who rose to power was MussoliniIn Italy, the dictator who rose to power wasBenito Mussolini
7King Victor Emmanuel III CAUSES Event EFFECTSIn 1922, about 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome demanding Mussolini be put in charge of the governmentMussoliniabolished democracy;outlawed all politicalparties but his ownFascist party-based on loyalty to the state and obedience to the leader.imposed Censorship;had opponents jailed;outlawed strikes;made allies withthe rich industrialists.Fearing a Communist Revolution in Italy…The King of Italy believed Mussolini and his “Far Right” was the best hope for his own troubled dynasty to survive.King Victor Emmanuel IIIof ItalyAfter Mussolini took power,a foreign diplomatreturned to Englandand remarked,“He’s an actor,a dangerous rascal,and possiblyslightly off his head.”Il Duce“the leader”KingVictor Emmanuel IIIputs Mussolini in charge of the government
8HitlerIn Germany, the dictator who rose to power wasAdolf Hitler
9Hitler is tried for treason and sentenced to prison. CAUSES Event EFFECTSHitler is tried for treasonand sentenced to prison.Inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome, Hitler & the Nazis decide to overthrow the government & seize power in Munich GermanyIn jail, Hitler writes “Mein Kampf” (which means My Struggle) This book became the plan of action for the Nazis.The Munich Beer Hall PutschNovember 9, 1923Hitler, at 34, entered a Munichbeer-hall calling for a revolution against the Weimar Republic by hisNazi followers. When faced with the opposing Army, Hitler and theNazis made a quick retreat, in which 16 Nazi’s died.For this attempted overthrow of the government, Hitler received a5 year prison sentence in a tightly controlled minimum-securityprison; after 9 months, he was set free on good behavior.Hitler put his jail time to good use, finally sharing his ideas with theworld by writing Mein Kampf.
10When the Great Depression hit, the German economy collapsed and people began to look to Hitler for security and leadership1932 German leaders think they can use Hitler for their goals. They name him Chancellor, or president, giving him legal power in Germany.1932 Hitler calls for new elections and turns Germany into totalitarian state.He arrests anyone who opposes him and develops the SS (Schutzstaffel – protection squad.)1936 Hitler put millions to work and decreased the unemployment rate from 6million to 1.5million
11Hitler has books burned in huge bonfires. CAUSES Event EFFECTSHitler has books burned in huge bonfires.Hitler wanted to control every aspect of German life and shape public opinion through propaganda.Boys were forced to join Hitler Youth. Girls were forced to join the League of German Girls.Hitler gained totalitarian control – he silenced his opposition & forced people to accept only Nazi beliefs.Books were burned, Churches could not say anything negative about the Nazi Party, anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews) increased.Under the order of Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's Minister of Propaganda, Nazi gangs (“Brown Shirts”) entered all libraries and gathered books that didn’t support the “family values” of the Fatherland, including books by Thomas Mann, Jack London, H. G. Wells, Charles Dickens, Emile Zola and those of Jewish writers.Hitler Youth march through Nuremberg, Germany past Nazi officials.
12CAUSES Event EFFECTSNazis used the Jews as the reason for Germany’s troubles. Anti-Semitism was an important part of Nazi ideology.In 1933, the Nazi-controlled German government passes the “Nuremburg Laws” - laws depriving Jews of their rights.Violence against Jews increased. Kristallnacht signaled the real start of the process of eliminating Jews from German life.A synagogue is set fire the night of Kristallnacht.Above: Jewish citizens being “relocated” to the ghetto.Right: Germans pass by damaged Jewish shops the morning after Kristallnacht – Night of the Broken Glass, Nov. 9, Nazi groups attacked Jews in their homes and their businesses.
13MilitaristsIn Japan the group who rose to power were theMilitarists
14To solve its economic problems (need for oil) 20th c. begins with Militarists Taking over JapanThis Military-Industrial establishment pursues Imperialism in Asia.1920 – Japan becomes democratic1929 – The Great Depression leads Japanese to blame the government for theireconomic troubles and begin to support the military leaders. They want to solvetheir country’s problems by expanding and taking control of China.The Militarists keep 24 year old Emperor Hirohito, as head of state but he is a puppet of the military.1931 – Japanese military fully invades Manchuria despite objections from Japan’s own Parliament. Why did the Japanese invade Manchuria?To solve its economic problems (need for oil)2. The army sets up a “puppet” govt. and begins to provide military protection to Japanese business interests who arrive to build mines / factories.This was the first direct challenge to the League of Nations.Japan ignores the protests of the League of Nations & withdraws from the League1937 Japan invades and conquers large parts of China.
15What were the immediate results of this invasion? 1937 – Japan invades ChinaWhat were the immediate results of this invasion?The Chinese retreated and set up a new capital in the south; Chinese guerilla fighters continued to fight in the northern occupied area.Japanese military killed tens of thousands of captured soldiers and civilians in Nanjing.The gruesome rapes and killings of thousands in the city of Nanjing by the invading Japanese military were well-documented by invited photographers.
16Chinese civilians at Nanking are buried alive by Japanese troops. Japanese invadersBuried alive more than 1,000elderly womenand children in ahuge pit.All their hands were tied behind their backs.Japanese commanders used killing competitions as a way to boost morale. They organized visiting and news reporters to appraise the "winner". One killing competition was reported by newspapers all over the world.Heads of female victims in Nanking.
17Europe AttacksBecause the League of Nations did not stop the Japanese, other leaders began to plan attacks of their own.
181935 – Mussolini invades Ethiopia…Why? - PROFIT: Mussolini wants to develop an Italian Empire in Africa- REVENGE: Bitter memories of Ethiopians defeating theItalian army in the Battle of Adowa in 1896.- WHY NOT? League of Nations had done nothing to stopJapanEthiopian ruler Halllie Selassie inspects his men.Why did Britain and France take no action against Italy?Both hoped to “keep the peace” in Europe – dreading another War.Ethiopian Emperor Hallie Selassie asked the League of Nations:"What answer shall I take back to my people?" He said, "It is us today, it will be you tomorrow." He ended by telling them, "God and History shall remember your judgment." It was a historic speech applauded around the world.The League of Nations wanted to keep the peace in Europe so they did nothing and allowed Mussolini to take control in Africa.
19He had already begun rebuilding Germany’s military. 1935 -Hitler is cheered after telling the Nazi-controlled Parliament that Germany would no longer follow the Treaty of Versailles’ restrictions.He had already begun rebuilding Germany’s military.The League of Nations issued only a mild warning.Banners throughout Germany read,“Today Germany! Tomorrow the World!”1936 – German troops move into the Rhineland (land on either side of the Rhine River between Germany and France.)What were some of the effects of appeasing Hitler after his invasion of the Rhineland?- Strengthened his power among the Germans;- Tilted the balance of power in Europe inGermany’s favor;- Encouraged Hitler to speed up his militaryand territorial expansion.
20Spain had been a monarchy until 1931, when it then became a republic. Like all European nations, Spain’s economy suffered during the Depression.In 1936, army leaders supported a Fascist-styled leader in Spain named Francisco Franco.Civil War started.1936 – Hitler & Mussolini lend troops, tanks, planes to help Spain’s Fascist leader Francisco Franco and his Nationalists in Spain’s Civil War.The liberal Republican government received little help from western democratic nations. In fact, only the Soviet Union sent equipment and advisers to try to negotiate the conflict in Spain.1939 – Franco becomes Spanish dictator.
21three Neutrality Acts. They hoped to keep the U.S. out 1935 – U.S. Congress passes first of Why did isolationists want these laws?three Neutrality Acts They hoped to keep the U.S. outof another European War.“Let it be resolvedthat upon the outbreakor during the progress of warbetween, or among,two or more foreign states,the President shall proclaim such fact,and it shall thereafter be unlawfulto export arms, ammunition,or implements of warto any portof such beligerent states…nor shall these United Statesfeel compelled to intercedein such international tensionsas they unaffect us.”- U.S. Neutrality Act, 1935T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
22three Neutrality Acts They hoped to keep the U.S. out 1935 – U.S. Congress passes first of Why did isolationists want these laws?three Neutrality Acts They hoped to keep the U.S. outof another European War.Americans in the United States preferredIsolationism – choosing to “stay out of the tensions between other countries”RESULT: This official policy prevented the U.S. from taking an immediate stand against the Aggressors which might have prevented war.Britain and France choseAppeasement – choosing to “give in to an aggressor in order to keep the peace”RESULT: This policy only encouraged Japan, Italy, and Germany to keep taking more…“give ‘em an inch; they take a mile”Hitler’s growing military strength convinced Mussolini to seek an alliance with Germany1936 – The two dictators sign the Rome-Berlin Axis agreement.A month later Germany reaches an agreement with Japan.Axis Powers – Germany, Japan, ItalyRESULT: Strengthened by their alliance, further aggression was sure to happen.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
23lebensraum (living space) for the German people 1937 – Hitler plans to absorb Austria andCzechoslovakia into the Third Reich – or, the new Germany Empire.Pic below: Hitler's car passes through a triumphant crowd assembled in Vienna to celebrate the Anschluss,March 1938.lebensraum (living space) for the German people“The Treaty of Versailles prohibited Anschluss (union of Austria and Germany).However, many German-speaking Austrianssupported the idea.In March, 1938 Hitler sent his army intoAustria and annexed it.France and Belgium ignored a former pledge to protect Austrian independence.
24Followers of former Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg wait to be transported to a German concentration camp during the mass round-up that followed the Anschluss of March They were never seen again.Schuschnigg and his followers had tried to prevent the annexation.Immediately after the Anschluss, Nazis began a brutal crackdown on Austrian Jews, arresting them and publicly humiliating them.At right -- Austrian Nazis and local residents watch as Jews are forced to get on their hands and knees and scrub the pavement.
251937 – Hitler plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich. Since WWI, Czechoslovakia had developed into a prosperous democracy with a strong army and a defense treaty with France.But 3 million German-speaking people lived in the Sudetenland - a western border region of Czechoslovakia.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
261937 – Hitler plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich.“Since WWI, Czechoslovakia had developed into a prosperous democracy with a strong army and a defense treaty with France.But 3 million German-speaking people lived in the Sudetenland - a western border region of Czechoslovakia.This heavily fortified area also formed the Czech’s main defense against Germany.Anschluss had only increased pro-Nazi feelings among the Sudeten Germans.In September, 1938 Hitler demanded the Sudetenland be given to him.The Czechs refused and asked France for help.France and Britain were preparing for war when Mussolini decided to play negotiator and proposed a meeting….in Munich Germany.Why was the Munich Conference unsuccessful?The Czechs were not even invited;Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain >>thought he could appease Hitler and keep the peace;After Hitler was given Czechoslovakia he begandemanding Poland.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
27An historic example of the failings of appeasement is that of the British prime minister Neville Chamberlain, shown here upon his return from Munich with the scrap of paper that was to ensure "peace in our time!”One member of British Parliament was furious at what had happened to the Czechs at the Munich Conference:“You had a choice between war and dishonor and you chose dishonor. You shall have war."That Parliament member was Winston Churchill who will become Britain’s next Prime Minister and carry the country through WWII.
28When the German tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia… the Czech majority mourned as it was forced to offer up the Nazi salute,“Heil Hitler!”…while the Sudeten Germans cheered.At the end of WWII, no Jewish life in Bohemia and Moravia was left. Out of the 90,000 Czech Jews more than 72,000 were deported to Auschwitz immediately.Ecstatic Sudeten girls in traditional local costumes join in welcoming the German soldiers.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
291939 – Germany and Russia sign a Nonaggression Pact. Why did Stalin sign an agreement with Fascist Germany, once a bitter enemy?Stalin felt Russia’s former allies – Britain, France, U.S. – had snubbed him again and he resented having been left out of the Munich Conference;He also wanted to avoid another war in Germany since the Soviet Union was in no way prepared for one.1939 – Germany and Russia sign a Nonaggression Pact.The Secret Protocol was the agreement betweenthe Nazis and Soviets about what would takeplace the moment Hitler invaded Poland.For the Soviets, for agreeing to not join the possiblefuture war, Germany was giving the Soviets theBaltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania).Poland was also to be divided between the two.The new territories gave the Soviet Union the buffer(in land) that it wanted to feel safe from aninvasion from the West.For the Nazis, when attacking Poland on September 1, 1939, the Soviets promised not to interfere. This was the first time the Nazi’s had used blitzkrieg “lightning war”. It used fast moving planes and tanks, huge amounts of soldiers, and surprise attacks to overwhelm the enemy.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
30On September 3, 1939, France and Great Britain declared war on Germany and World War II had begun. On September 17, the Soviets rolled into eastern Poland to occupy the land given to them in the secret protocol with Germany.
31The Fall of FranceOn June 22, France signed a treaty with Germany, agreeing to German occupation of northern France and the coast.The French military was demobilized, and the French government, now located at Vichy, in the south (and headed by Marshall Henri Philippe Pétain), would collaborate with the German authorities in occupied France.Refusing to recognize defeat, General Charles de Gaulle escaped to London and organized the Free French forces.Britain now stood alone against Germany.
32The Battle of BritainHitler expected Great Britain to make peace, however, led by a new Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, they refused to surrender.Hitler proceeded with invasion plans. The Luftwaffe (Germany’s air force) began bombing Great Britain to destroy its air defenses.Britain stayed strong despite horrible destruction to English cities.The British resistance convinced Hitler to postpone the invasion but he continued the bombing attacks.
33Erwin Rommel: “Desert Fox” German General who led the Axis attack on North Africa. Bernard Montgomery – British commander who launched Battle of El-Alamein, in which Rommel’s army was defeated.Battle of El Alamein – Forced Rommel’s forces to retreat westward from Egypt. Allies safeguard the Suez Canal.
34Invasion of the Soviet Union It was then that Hitler made his big mistake. He invaded the Soviet Union.The end of Bolshevism was a key part of Hitler’s ideology; but, it was a gigantic military mistake.On June 22, 1941, Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, which included an army of 4 million men spread out along a 2,000-mile front in three huge groups.The German army quickly advanced, but at a terrifying cost. Over the next 3 years 500,000 German soldiers would die here.
35JAPAN SEEKS A PACIFIC EMPIRE 1920s : A country overcrowded and short of resourcesMilitary Leaders begin to seek an Empire: Japan takes over Manchuria: Japan invades China – Chinese resistance causes prolonged war;Plan to pursue resources in European colonies of Southeast Asia: U.S. cracks Japanese secret code and discovers plan to attack Southeast Asia; fears loss of U.S.-controlled Philippines & Guam: January - U.S. begins to aid ChineseJune – Japan moves into French IndochinaJuly – U.S. President Roosevelt cuts off oil shipments to JapanT.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
36I will run wild and win victory after victory. CH 32: Section 2 – “The Surprise Attack on Pearl Harbor” Text p. 827; Packet p. 4Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto,Japan’s great naval strategist, argued that the U.S. fleet in Hawaii was “a dagger pointed at our throat,” and must be destroyed.Although Yamamoto argued for the attack on Pearl Harbor, he held no illusions about the war’s final outcome. He admitted to an aide,“In the first six to twelve months of a war with the United States and Britain,I will run wild and win victory after victory.After that, I have no expectation of success.”Video clip, America in the 20th Century: World War II: The Road to War / Japanese Attack Pearl HarborT.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
40Japanese Approach to Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941 The Imperial Japanese Navy fleet attacking Pearl Harbor launched a total of 423 aircraft in two waves against American military targets on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
41Attack onPearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941 Commander Fuchida led the first wave of torpedo bombers against the US Pacific Fleet ships at anchor in Pearl Harbor. Their first objective was to strike at the battleships.Live Webcam of U.S.S. Arizona MemorialT.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
42“The Surprise Attack on Pearl Harbor” Bombing of Pearl HarborU.S. Casualties:2,400 killed1,100 woundeda. Japanese launched a surprise attack, sinking or damaging almost the entire U. S. Pacific fleet.b U.S. declares war on Japan.CONNECTING PAST & PRESENTFollowing the Terrorist Attack of September 11, 2001,many in the United States found obvious comparisonswith the attack on Pearl Harbor sixty years earlier.In both instances, the United States admitted knowing from coded messages that such an attack might comeBut they did not know when or where it would occur.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
43“December 7, 1941… A Day That Will Live in Infamy.” ~ President Franklin D. Rooseveltdeclaring War on Japan before the U.S. CongressDecember 8, 1941.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
44“The Tide of Japanese Victories” Fall of Southeast Asian colonies.Hong Kong, Malaya,Dutch Indonesia,Singapore, Burmaa. Through a planned series of attacks in the Pacific, Japan seized control of rich European colonies.b. Helped Japan replenish depleted resources and cut China off from its supply route through Burma.Before they moved in and conquered,the Japanese dropped leaflets proclaiming their anti-colonialist message, “Asia for Asians.”After victory, however, the Japanese quickly made it clear that they had come as conquerors…in fact, native Asian people often received the same treatment as western POWs…such as those taken on the Bataan Death March.Textbook, p. 828T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
45was the last U.S. position CH 32: Section 2 – “The Tide of Japanese Victories” Text p. 828; Packet p. 4Bataan Death MarchKnown as “The Rock,”the island fortressof Corregidorin Manila Baywas the last U.S. positionin the Philippines to surrender to the Japanese.For a monthafter the fall of Bataan,13,000 American and Filipino troops held out in a concrete cave called Malinta Tunnel.Video clip, teacher’s personal library,“The Bataan Death March”T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
46. . . Bataan Death MarchAt dawn April 9, 1942, Major General Edward P. King, Jr., surrendered more than 75,000 starving and disease-ridden American soldiers, sailors, and Marines and their Filipino allies, to overwhelming Japanese forces.He asked theJapanese colonel towhom he surrendered his pistol whetherthe Americansand Filipinoswould be well treated.The Japanese colonel replied: “We are not barbarians.”The next 14 dayswould prove otherwise.
4765 miles into Japanese Prisoner-of-War camps. . . . Bataan Death MarchAugust, 1942The men were marched65 miles into Japanese Prisoner-of-War camps.The 75,000 prisoners of war were bound, beaten, or killed by their Japanese captors. Some were stabbed when they fell from exhaustion. Some were forced to dig their own graves and were buried alive.Only 56,000 prisoners reachedcamp alive. Thousands of themlater died from malnutrition anddisease.In August, 1945, the Russian Armyliberated the prison camp.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
48“The Allies Strike Back” Doolittle’s raid on Japan.April, 1942a As revenge for Pearl Harbor, U.S. sent sixteenB-25 bombers to bomb Japanese cities.b Showed that Japan could be attackedand raised American morale.James H. Doolittle –1993, American aviator,from Alameda, Calif.Doolittle commanded the first bombers that raided Tokyo and other Japanese cities (Apr. 18, 1942) from the aircraft carrier Hornet.He later headed the North African Strategic Air Forces and led the 8th Air Force in its massive attacks on Germany.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
49“The Allies Turn the Tide of War” May, 1942An American fleetwith Australian support intercepts a Japanese strike force on its way toPort Moresby inthe Coral Sea……the United States had installed a critical Allied air base here…should the Japanese take it, they could easily take Australia.CORALSEAT.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
50“The Allies Turn the Tide of War” Battle ofthe Coral Sea.May, 1942a Following an interception of Japanese attack on Port Moresby, Japanese and American naval fleets fought to a tie.b. US introduced a new kind of naval warfare, using only airplanes taking off from huge ships. The Americans lost more ships than the Japanese, but successfully stopped Japanese expansion southward.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
51June, 1942Another Japanese code was broken and their next target was realized – the key American airfield on Midway island.U.S. Pacific Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz knew the largest naval force ever assembled, 150 Japanese ships, were heading for Midway to finish off the U.S. crippled fleet – and on the lead Japanese flagship was Admiral Yamamoto himself.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
52U.S. Pacific Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz was outnumbered four to one in ships and planes. Even so, he set hisambush for the Japanese. On June 4, with American forces hidingbeyond the horizon, Nimitz allowed the enemy to launch the firststrike. Once the Japanese planes had lifted off to strike the island,Nimitz ordered American planes to swoop in and attack the Japanesefleet. American pilots destroyed 332 Japanese planes, all four aircraftcarriers, and one support ship. Yamamoto and his flagship withdrew.June, 1942T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
53“The Battle of Midway”Battle ofMidway.“The Americans hadavenged Pearl Harbor,” commented a Japanese official.a. An American carrier with planes defeated a Japanese fleet ready to attack Midway Island, a key American airfield.b. This battle reversed the war in the Pacific against the Japanese.American pilots viewof the Japanese air raidon Midway Islandbeginning June 4,
54Crew of U.S. Army Air Force First Lieutenant James Muri's “The Battle of Midway”Crew of U.S. Army Air ForceFirst Lieutenant James Muri'sB-26, who made a torpedo attack on a Japanese aircraft carrier during the early morning battle.The plane had more than500 bullet holes when it landedat Midway following this action.T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.
55He proposed an “island-hopping” strategy - General Douglas MacArthur was commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific.Believing that trying to storm each island in the Pacific would be a long, costly effort…He proposed an “island-hopping” strategy -he would bypass the Japanese,seize the islands LEAST heavily defendedbut closest to Japan,establish bases there,then use air powerto cut Japanese supply lines.ReadHistory Makers,p. 934
56They had to strike fast before it was completed. The U.S. learns the Japanese are building a huge naval base on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.They had to strike fast before it was completed.August 7, 194219,000 Marines with Australian support surprise the Japanese who radioed to Tokyo,“Enemy forces overwhelming! We will defend our posts to the death!”
57The battle for the island turned into a savage struggle. February, 1943After 6 months of fightingon land and at sea, the Battle of Guadalcanal ended.After losing 23,000 menout of 36,000, the Japanese abandoned the island they called“the island of Death.”
58Marines survey bodies of Japanese soldiers “The Allies Go on the Offensive”Marines survey bodies ofJapanese soldierscovering the battleground of Edson's Ridge.
59A Guadalcanal native pays tribute to American war dead on the island. “The Allies Go on the Offensive”A Guadalcanal native pays tribute to American war dead on the island.- August, 1946.
60Turning Points of the War Operation TorchBattle of StalingradInvasion of ItalyD-DayBattle of the Bulge
611. Battle of El Alamein – Forced Rommel’s forces to retreat westward from Egypt. Allies safeguard the Suez Canal.2. Operation Torch – Landing of American troops in North Africa; finally ending Rommel’s N.Africa campaign.Bernard Montgomery – British commander who launched Battle of El-Alamein, in which Rommel’s army was defeated.Erwin Rommel: “Desert Fox” German General who led the North African campaign.
62Battle of Stalingrad – Put German forces on the defensive with the Soviets, pushing them westward. T. Loessin; Akins High School
63…his own Italian people now hang him. Invasion of Italy – Roosevelt and Churchill decide to attack Italy. They captured Sicily and Mussolini fell from power.Il Duce “the leader” ……his own Italian peoplenow hang him.T. Loessin; Akins High School
64Mobilization In the U.S.The war effort required all of America’s huge productive capacity and full employment of the workforce.Government expenditures soared.U.S. budget increases1940 $9 million1944 $100 millionExpenditures in WWII greater than all previous government budgets combined (150 years)
65What was Operation Cornflake? Propaganda on the home fronts – Rallied people on the Homefront to do their part to support the war effort.Hollywood “Buy Bonds” drive / pro-war films / Stars go overseas for troops / Civil Defense precautionsCensorship / Mail read at Japanese Internment campsWomen in the factories“Rosie the Riveter”Victory GardensRationingWhat was Operation Cornflake?These stamps were key part of a high level plan to undermine the morale of the average German citizen. The Allies felt that if many German people started receiving Anti-Nazi propaganda in their morning mail delivered punctually at breakfast time by the mailman, they would feel that their "German Empire" was falling apart from within.
66D-Day Invasion – “Operation Overlord” June 6, 1944 The Allies invaded the beaches of Normandy, France in the largest land and sea attack in historyOpened up the planned second front in Europe …(something Stalin had been askingChurchill & Roosevelt to do since 1941)… and freed France, Belgium, and much ofthe Netherlands from the Nazis.Dwight D. Eisenhower – American general wholed the D-Day invasion.General Eisenhower rallies paratroopers prior to the Normandy invasion.
67Battle of the Bulge – Allies moved toward Germany from the east and the west. Hitler attacked the American and British armies hoping to divide them. At first this German offensive forced Allies to retreat; but soon they stopped the Germans. This resulted in heavy losses for Hitler.The Germans retreat.Germans run out of gas and come to the end of the road!T. Loessin; Akins High School
68On April 25, 1945 the Soviets surrounded Germany’s capital On April 25, 1945 the Soviets surrounded Germany’s capital. On April 29, 1945 Adolph Hitler married his long-time girlfriend Eva Braun. On April 30, 1945 Hitler and Braun commit suicide. Their bodies are carried outside and burned On May 9, 1945 Germany surrenders unconditionally known as V-E Day
69V – E day = May 9, 1945 “Victory in Europe” While Londoners wave Union Jacks,"out of work" American bombersreturn to their English base on May 8, 1945.T. Loessin; Akins High School
70New York’s Times Square V – E day = May 9, 1945“Victory in Europe”Celebrations inNew York’s Times SquareT. Loessin; Akins High School
71He will best be remembered for his development of the New Deal program Franklin D. RooseveltDies April 12, 1945He was 63.President Roosevelt did not live to see this victory. He passed away suddenly on April 12, 1945.He will best be remembered forhis development of the New Deal programfor helping America out of the great depressionfor his determination to help Allied nations defeat Hitler in WWIIand his ideas that inspired the foundation of the United Nations Organization.F.D.R. at 60.T. Loessin; Akins High School
72War in the Pacific Continues MacArthur keeps his promise andreturns to the PhilippinesT. Loessin; Akins High School
73Battle of Leyte Gulf – October 23-27, 1944 MacArthur and the Allies wiped out the Japanese navy. This beautiful monument is dedicated to the memory of Vice Admiral Clifton A. F. Sprague and the 13 ships and 7,300 men of Task Unit , also known as Taffy 3, which were under his command during the furious and heroic naval action fought off the island of Samar on October 25, 1944, during the Battle for Leyte Gulf.
75Battle of Okinawa – Japanese used kamikaze pilots (suicide pilots) to sink ships. In March 1945, after a month of fighting American Marines took control of Iwo Jima. On April 1 they entered Okinawa. On June 21, the battle ended. The Japanese had lost 100,000 troops, the US 12,000.The famous Iwo Jima moment…U.S. marines planting the flag on the beach…the actual photo below,the memorial in Arlington Cemetery, Washington D.C. at right.
76Atom DiplomacyFDR had funded the top-secret Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bombDr. Robert Oppenheimer successfully tested in the summer of 1945.FDR had died on April 12, 1945, and the decision was left to Harry Truman.
77On Aug. 9 the US bombs Nagasaki killing 70,000 more people. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki –July 16, 1945 first A-bomb exploded in New Mexico desert. President Truman warns the Japanese to surrender or expect attack. Japan does not answer, so On Aug. 6 the US plane Enola Gay drops A-bomb on Hiroshima killing 70-80,000 people.On Aug. 9 the US bombs Nagasaki killing 70,000 more people._______August 6, 1945______August 9, 1945Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer headed the newU.S. laboratory built to design an atomic bomb.Oppenheimer recommended a remote site in NewMexico for the new facility, where project scientists,many of them world-famous, could work together incomplete secrecy. The Los Alamos Laboratorywas opened in April 1943.
78Within a few seconds the thousands of people in the streets and the gardens in the center of the town were scorched by a wave of searing heat. Many were killed instantly, others lay writhing on the ground, screaming in agony from the intolerable pain of their burns. Everything standing upright in the way of the blast, walls, houses, factories, and other buildings, was annihilated ~ Japanese journalist, August 6, 1945.“I could see below the mushroom cloud…the thing reminded me more of a boiling pot of tar than any other description I can give. It was black and boiling underneath with a steam haze on top of it…We had seen the city when we flew in, and there was nothing to see when we came back. It was covered by this boiling, black-looking mass.”~ Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr. (pilot, Enola Gay)8:15 a.m.Hiroshima, JapanAugust 6, 1945
79Atomic bomb survivor. 1945This patient's skin is burned in a pattern corresponding to the dark portions of a kimono worn at the time of the explosion. U.S. National Archives & Records Administration, Washington D.C.Years after WWII,President Harry S. Truman was asked if he had difficulty making the decision to use this new weapon. He responded without hesitation,“Hell no. I made it just like that.”And he snapped his fingers.T. Loessin; Akins High School
80V-J Day: September 2, 1945 (Victory over Japan) The Japanese Emperor Hirohito surrendered to General Douglas MacArthur aboard the U.S.S. Missouri battleship docked in Tokyo Bay……oddly, on the same day WWII had officially begun in Europe6 years earlierwhen Hitler invaded Poland.T. Loessin; Akins High School
81New York’s Times Square V – J day = Sept. 2, 1945“Victory in Japan”Celebrations inNew York’s Times SquareT. Loessin; Akins High School
82Cost of WarGermany- 3 million combat deaths (3/4ths on the eastern front)Japan – over 1.5 million combat deaths; 900,000 civilians deadSoviet Union - 13 million combat deathsU.S. – 300,000 combat deaths, over 100,000 other deathsWhen you include all combat and civilian deaths, World War II becomes the most destructive war in history with estimates as high as 60 million, including 25 million Russians.
83Destroyed hundreds of major cities, factories, farmland, and utilities Note three ways WWII affected the land and people of Europe.Destroyed hundreds of major cities, factories, farmland,and utilitiesresulting in aruined economy,shortages,hunger, disease,unemployment,and destroyed lives.
84Displaced persons, discredited governments, Note three political problems postwar governments now faced.Displaced persons, discredited governments,lack of political leadership,threat of Communist (USSR) takeovers.T. Loessin; Akins High School
85Post – WWIIA Germany divided. Wall line between West- and East-Berlin
86…ironically, the place where Hitler Note one way the Allies dealt with the Holocaust.Put the Nazis on trial for “crimes against humanity” – the first ever War Crimes Tribunal was held in Nuremberg, Germany……ironically, the place where Hitlerfirst put his anti-Semitic Nuremberg laws into action back in 1933.The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials :23 Allied nations brought22 Nazi officials to courtinPhoto credit:National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives
87Note two effects of Allied bombing raids on Japan. Destroyed numerous cities, shattered the economy, caused deaths of 2 million people.In the background are the remains of a Roman Catholic cathedral on a hill in Nagasaki, Japan following the atomic blast of Aug. 9, 1945.
88U.S. Occupation of Japan: A few days after the surrender of Japan to the Allies, a dignified but defeated Hirohito paid a visit to General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces.MacArthur arranged for this one photo to be taken, sending the Japanese people a clear message that their Emperor was, in fact, a small man, and leaving no doubt about who was in charge.Hirohito was not executed for his war crimes, because the Allies felt that as a symbolic Emperor, he could be useful to them in carrying out their plans for post-war Japan.Under MacArthur's advice, Hirohito announced that he was not a god, but merely a normal man. MacArthur and the Americans prepared a new Constitution for Japan which is still in use today.T. Loessin; Akins High School
89Democratization – a government elected by the people was created; Note three ways U.S. occupation changed Japan.Democratization – a government elected by the people was created;[The former Empire was now a parliamentary democracy much like Britain.]Huge land estate owners were forced to sell lands to former tenant farmersDemilitarization - standing army was disbanded, preventing Japan from ever again making war.25 Surviving War Crimes defendants brought to trial. Premier Tojo and six others sentenced to hanging.Independent labor unions were formed.[Contrary to common misconception, the United States (still bitter about Pearl Harbor) offered very little money to help rebuild Japan. Only 2 billion dollars directed toward emergency relief in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.]T. Loessin; Akins High School
90A two-house Parliament (the Diet) elected by the people; Note three provisions in Japan’s new constitution.A two-house Parliament (the Diet) elected by the people;Elections held for all persons over 20, including women.A Prime Minister elected by majority in the Diet;A Bill of Rights protecting basic freedoms;Article 9 – stipulates that Japan can never again make war;only defend itself if attacked.In September 1951 the US and 47 other nations signed a formal peace treaty with Japan to officially end the war. 6 months later US occupation of Japan was over. The US and Japan were now allies.T. Loessin; Akins High School
91Postwar Reality Consequences of World War II Soviet Union and U.S. become the world’s 2 major powers.Unlike the isolation after WWI, the U.S. was involved in world affairsThe triumph of Communists in China