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Refresher Course over what you should have already learned or what I might have missed! MRS. MATA NYOS CHARTER SCHOOL.

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Presentation on theme: "Refresher Course over what you should have already learned or what I might have missed! MRS. MATA NYOS CHARTER SCHOOL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Refresher Course over what you should have already learned or what I might have missed! MRS. MATA NYOS CHARTER SCHOOL

2 Directions  Your teacher is hosting a “Dine with the Presidents” historical re-enactment and will need for you to refresh your memory about the concepts learned in history class.  Please click through this PowerPoint presentation and READ the information on each slide  It is not necessary to take notes, but if you feel that you will benefit from writing certain things down to help your memory, then please do so  You will be assigned a historical character and will need to prove that you know about the events, documents, people, and places related to your person through your dinner dialogue

3 American History Timeline   ies/presentations/timeline/ ies/presentations/timeline/ 

4 Electoral College

5 Text from the U.S. Constitution about Electoral College  The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; -- The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.-- The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

6 Interpretation and 12 th Amendment about the Electoral College  Approved by Congress on December 9, 1803, and ratified by the states on June 15, 1804, the Twelfth Amendment modifies the way the Electoral College chooses the president and vice president. Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution, which established the Electoral College, provided that each state appoint electors equal to the total number of House and Senate members in their state and that the electors shall vote for two persons.  The presidential candidate who received the most electoral votes won the presidency; the runner-up became the vice president. In 1796, this meant that the president and the vice president were from different parties and had different political views, making governance more difficult. The adoption of Amendment XII solved this problem by allowing each party to nominate their team for president and vice president.  The inhabitant clause of the Twelfth Amendment also suggests strongly that the president and vice president should not be from the same state. Although the provision does not directly disqualify a vice president who is from the same state as the president, the provision disqualifies the electors from that state from voting for both offices.  Prior to the 2000 election, both presidential candidate George W. Bush and vice presidential candidate Dick Cheney lived in and voted in Texas. To avoid problems with the inhabitant clause, Cheney registered to vote in Wyoming, where he previously lived.  The Twelfth Amendment also specifies how the president and vice president are to be selected should neither candidate obtain the votes of a majority of the electors: the House of Representatives selects the new president from the top three candidates. This is a slight variation from the original provision, which allowed the choice from among the top five candidates. However, the vote within the House is by state, not by representative. This gives equal weight to all states—the smaller, less populated states as well as the larger, more populated ones—and makes it more likely that the ultimate winner may not be the candidate who obtains the majority of the popular vote.  Lastly, this amendment extends the eligibility requirements to become president (the candidate must be a natural born citizen, must be at least thirty-five years old, and must have been a resident of the United States for fourteen years) to the vice president since no person who is constitutionally ineligible to be president can be vice president.

7 Recap of the U.S. Presidents PresidentForeign PolicyEconomic PolicyPolitical Conflicts 1 (2 terms) George WashingtonNeutrality1 st National Bank setupFrench Revolution Tension in executive cabinet (AH & TJ) 2 (1 term) John AdamsNeutralityContd GW policyXYZ Affair Alien & Sedition Acts 3 (2 terms) Thomas JeffersonNeutralityIncreased tariffsMarbury v. Madison Louisiana Purchase Barbary Pirates 4 (2 terms) James MadisonWar of 1812Beginning of Industrial RevolutionBeginning of nationalism 5 (2 terms) James MonroeMonroe DoctrineEra of Good Feelings Industrial Revolution Era of Good feelings Acquisition of Florida 6 (1 term) John Quincy AdamsCont. Monroe Doctrine Increased tariffs to improve nationCorrupt bargain, split of Democratic-Republican Party 7 (2 terms) Andrew JacksonExpansionDecrease tariffs Veto 2 nd National Bank charter Beginnings of economic depression Nullification Crisis/Sectionalism Indian Removal Act Trail of Tears 8 (1 term) Martin Van BurenNonePanic of 1837 Economic depression 9 (Died in office) William Henry HarrisonNone

8 Effect: Effect: Improved transportation and carried people and goods farther and faster and led to the growth of cities along rivers, brought people closer, able to travel upstream. 1807 Robert Fulton’s Steamboat

9 Steam-Powered Locomotive Effect: Effect: Improves transportation by providing cheaper & faster method of shipping of goods & people across the country. Most railroads were in the North. 1826

10 Effect: Effect: Improves transportation by providing cheaper & faster method of shipping goods & people from Midwest to Northeast. Erie Canal

11 Eli Whitney’s Interchangeable Parts Effect: Effect: created the ability to mass produce goods, made repairs easy, and allowed the use of lower-paid, less-skilled workers. 1798

12 Lowell Textile Mill (Lowell, Massachusetts) Effect: Effect: the mass production of cheap, inexpensive goods like clothing provided jobs to women, immigrants, and children which led to the growth of urbanization (moving from farms to cities) 1820-1880

13 Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin Effect: Made the cotton-cleaning process far more efficient. With the new machine, one worker (slave) could now clean as much as 50 pounds of cotton a day. Slavery increased as cotton production increased. 1792

14 Cyrus McCormick’s Reaper & John Deere’s Steel-tipped Plow Effect: new machines increased the rate at which agricultural goods could be produced and reduced the amount of labor needed, making it easier to plant and harvest large quantities 1831 - 1847

15 Samuel Morse’s Telegraph Left: Key Switch (Sender) Right: Sounder (Receiver) Effect: Effect: It took only seconds to communicate with someone in another city. Telegraph lines spanned the country bringing people closer as a nation.

16 McCulloch v. Maryland  In 1816 Congress established the Second National Bank to help control the amount of unregulated currency issued by state banks. Many states questioned the constitutionality of the national bank, and Maryland set a precedent by requiring taxes on all banks not chartered by the state. In 1818 the State of Maryland approved legislation to impose taxes on the Second National Bank chartered by Congress.  James W. McCulloch, a Federal cashier at the Baltimore branch of the U.S. bank, refused to pay the taxes imposed by the state. Maryland filed a suit against McCulloch in an effort to collect the taxes. The Supreme Court, however, decided that the chartering of a bank was an implied power of the Constitution, under the “elastic clause,” which granted Congress the authority to “make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution” the work of the Federal Government.  This case presented a major issue that challenged the Constitution: Does the Federal Government hold sovereign power over states? The proceedings posed two questions: Does the Constitution give Congress power to create a bank? And could individual states ban or tax the bank? The court decided that the Federal Government had the right and power to set up a Federal bank and that states did not have the power to tax the Federal Government. Marshall ruled in favor of the Federal Government and concluded, “the power to tax involves the power to destroy. "

17 Gibbons v. Ogden  In this decision, Chief Justice John Marshall’s Court ruled that Congress has the power to “regulate commerce” and that Federal law takes precedence over state laws.  The State of New York passed a law giving Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston a monopoly on steamboat traffic on the Hudson Bay, "navigating all boats that might be propelled by steam, on all waters within the territory, or jurisdiction of the State, for the term of twenty years." Fulton and Livingston issued permits and seized boats that operated without their endorsement.  Aaron Ogden had a license from the State of New York to navigate between New York City and the New Jersey Shore. Ogden found himself competing with Thomas Gibbons, who had been given permission to use the waterways by the Federal Government. After the State of New York denied Gibbons access to the Hudson Bay, he sued Ogden.  The case went to the Supreme Court, and Chief Justice Marshall's opinion carried out the clear original intent of the Constitution to have Congress, not the states, regulate interstate commerce. Marshall’s decision sustained the nationalist definition of Federal power and ruled that Congress could constitutionally regulate many activities that affected interstate commerce.

18 Worcester v. Georgia  Question: Does the state of Georgia have the authority to regulate the intercourse between citizens of its state and members of the Cherokee Nation?  Conclusion: No. In an opinion delivered by Chief Justice John Marshall, the Court held that the Georgia act, under which Worcester was prosecuted, violated the Constitution, treaties, and laws of the United States. Noting that the "treaties and laws of the United States contemplate the Indian territory as completely separated from that of the states; and provide that all intercourse with them shall be carried on exclusively by the government of the union," Chief Justice Marshall argued, "The Cherokee nation, then, is a distinct community occupying its own territory in which the laws of Georgia can have no force. The whole intercourse between the United States and this nation, is, by our constitution and laws, vested in the government of the United States." The Georgia act thus interfered with the federal government's authority and was unconstitutional. Justice Henry Baldwin dissented for procedural reasons and on the merits.

19 The Monroe Doctrine  The Monroe Doctrine was articulated in President James Monroe's seventh annual message to Congress on December 2, 1823. The European powers, according to Monroe, were obligated to respect the Western Hemisphere as the United States' sphere of interest.  The Monroe Doctrine is the best known U.S. policy toward the Western Hemisphere. The doctrine warns European nations that the United States would not tolerate further colonization or puppet monarchs. The doctrine was conceived to meet major concerns of the moment, but it soon became a watchword of U.S. policy in the Western Hemisphere.  The Monroe Doctrine was invoked in 1865 when the U.S. government exerted diplomatic and military pressure in support of the Mexican President Benito Juárez. This support enabled Juárez to lead a successful revolt against the Emperor Maximilian, who had been placed on the throne by the French government.

20 Monroe Doctrine

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