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ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ The Theoretical Basics in Learning and Teaching.

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Presentation on theme: "ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ The Theoretical Basics in Learning and Teaching."— Presentation transcript:

1 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ The Theoretical Basics in Learning and Teaching

2 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Three basic theories of learning: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism

3 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Behaviorism: Based on observable changes in behavior. Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic..

4 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Cognitivism: Based on the thought process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learner's mind.

5 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Constructivism: Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations.

6 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Watson focused on “stimuli” in the environment and “responses” or behaviors of people or organism. His major idea was that the complex behaviors of adults were built on the elementary foundation of the simple inborn reflexes of infants continually refined through life experiences.

7 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured.

8 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ It views the mind as a "black box" in the sense that response to stimulus can be observed quantitatively, totally ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind.

9 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Some key players in the development of the behaviorist theory were Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner.

10 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Pavlov ( ) Stimulus and Response Items of Pavlov's Experiment Food Unconditioned Stimulus Salivation Unconditioned Response (natural, not learned) Bell Conditioned Stimulus Salivation Conditioned Response (to bell)

11 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Other Observations Made by Pavlov Stimulus Generalization: Once the dog has learned to salivate at the sound of the bell, it will salivate at other similar sounds. Extinction: If you stop pairing the bell with the food, salivation will eventually cease in response to the bell.

12 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Other Observations Made by Pavlov Spontaneous Recovery: Extinguished responses can be "recovered" after an elapsed time, but will soon extinguish again if the dog is not presented with food. Discrimination: The dog could learn to discriminate between similar bells (stimuli) and discern which bell would result in the presentation of food and which would not.

13 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Learning theories have generally agreed on two processes or types of conditioning that are important to human learning and development: Classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

14 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ The sight or smell of food produced salivating behavior >>> unconditional reflexes The bell ringing >>> conditional reflex

15 ÖĞRENME VE ÖĞRETMENİN KURAMSAL TEMELLERİ Operant conditioning is a learning process that depends on rewards and punishment (reinforcement). Behavior >>>> good >>> reinforced with rewards


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