Rosalind Franklin: X-ray images of DNA She did not receive the Nobel Prize because she was ineligible (she died in 1958).
NUCLEOTIDES: - building blocks of DNA -made of a a. nitrogenous base (A, T, C, or G), b. sugar (deoxyribose), and c. phosphate.
The Nitrogen Bases Purines A = Adenine G = Guanine Pyrimidines T = Thymine C = Cytosine
DNA Backbone The DNA backbone is a strand of alternating sugars and phosphates. The nitrogenous bases (A,T,C, & G) attach at the sugar site.
DNA Rungs The rungs of the DNA strand consist of the base pairs and are attached only to the sugar (deoxyribose). Adenine only pairs with thymine. (A & T) Cytosine only pairs with guanine. (C & G)
DNA Replication- occurs during interphase. DNA unwinds and each half strand creates a new DNA molecule from loose nucleotides in the nucleus. Step 1: Double strand unwinds, and is unzipped by an enzyme (helicase) to create a replication fork
Replication Step 2: Loose nucleotides join up with their matching base pairs on both separated strands. Enzymes called DNA polymerases attach the loose nucleotides.
Replication Result: Two chains formed, each with one old strand and one new strand.
DNA Replication 1.Enzyme Helicase unzips the DNA molecule 2.Each (half) strand is now a template for a new strand 3.Enzyme DNA Polymerase joins complementary nucleotides to the template strands 4.DNA polymerase also proofreads for mistakes Video
Do You Remember Ribosomes?? Ribosomes do Protein Synthesis- creation of proteins from your amino acids according to your DNA
Protein Synthesis Transcription- to read and write a copy(called RNA) of a section of DNA code for building a protein. Occurs in the nucleus. Translation- to translate the RNA code into building proteins from amino acids. Occurs at the ribosomes.
RNA RNA is like DNA, a long sequence of nucleotides. 3 main differences between RNA and DNA 1.The sugar is RIBOSE not deoxyribose 2.RNA is single stranded 3.RNA contains URACIL(U) instead of Thymine (T)
Types of RNA RNA is involved in protein synthesis. 2 main kinds of RNA 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA)- carries genetic messages from nucleus to ribosomes. Length= many letters= one gene 2. Transfer RNA (tRNA)- carries amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosomes. Length= 3 letters 3 rd type- Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Messenger RNA Genes(sections of DNA) contain instructions for assembling amino acids. The instructions are carried in messenger RNA(mRNA) with the complementary base: C in DNA is carried by G in mRNA. G in DNA is carried by C in mRNA T in DNA is carried by A in mRNA A in DNA is carried by U in mRNA(*RNA has Uracil instead of Thymine) The messenger RNA are messengers from DNA to the rest of the cell.
Transcription – DNA to mRNA Steps: 1.RNA polymerase separates the DNA strands 2.RNA polymerase then uses one strand of DNA as a template to make mRNA 3.mRNA is released into the cytoplasm. RNA polymerase always starts at a promoter(start letters) and ends with a terminator(end letters..
mRNA leaves the nucleus to find a ribosome to give its code to and translation begins.
Translation- translating the mRNA code into building proteins from amino acids. Occurs at the ribosomes. –Amino Acids- the building blocks of protein molecules. We get them from digesting the protein(meat, etc) we eat –Codon – a set of 3 nitrogen bases on the mRNA that codes for creation of one amino acid. Ex. GCA codes for the amino acid alanine
Note that the code for the mRNA codon is complementary to the code for the DNA codon. There will be one more complementary switch back to the original letters on the tRNA codon (sometimes referred to as the anticodon).
Transfer RNA(tRNA) During the construction of a protein, a 2nd type of RNA molecule transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by coded messages in mRNA. These RNA molecules are known as transfer RNA. tRNA codons are sometimes called anticodons.
Translation (In the cytoplasm) 1.mRNA molecule attaches to a ribosome 2.As each codon moves through the ribosome, the proper amino acid is brought into the ribosome by tRNA. 3.The amino acid is connected to the growing polypeptide(protein) chain. video
Main Point DNA Transcription and Translation is DNA mRNA tRNA Protein Video
1)Transcription is DNA converted to mRNA in nucleus 2)Translation is reading the mRNA code at the ribosome, the using tRNA to fetch the proper amino acid. video
Genetic Mutations Gene Mutations- errors in 1 or more nucleotides in the duplicated DNA sequence. May occur during replication or protein synthesis. –Deletion- 1 base removed from sequence –Insertion- 1 base added to sequence –Substitution- 1 base changed for another base
Genetic Mutations Chromosome Mutations- changes in the number or structure of chromosomes. Extra or lost chromosomes and added or deleted sections of chromosomes. –Duplication- extra copy of section of chromosome –Inversion- reverse the direction of a section of a chromosome –Translocation- a part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.