Presentation on theme: "The Anti-Democratic Century 1860s-1960s A Small Sample."— Presentation transcript:
The Anti-Democratic Century 1860s-1960s A Small Sample
Individual people and private businesses were free to practice discrimination. States were allowed to require “separate but equal” services.
Reconsidering Equality Steps Forward Slavery outlawed Citizenship granted to all native born Rights of ‘equal protection’ and ‘due process’ granted to all Right to vote granted to black males Assistance to former slaves initiated Resistance Individuals and private businesses and organizations allowed to discriminate States allowed to require ‘segregated but equal’ services Former slaves quickly abandoned by the government
US Supreme Court Justification for “Separate but Equal” “Legislation is powerless to eradicate racial instincts or to abolish distinctions based on physical differences, and the attempt to do so can only result in accentuating the differences of the present situation. If the civil and political rights of both races be equal, one cannot be inferior to the other civilly or politically. If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them on the same plane.”
Women are Victorious 1920 19 th Amendment “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” Neither Susan B. Anthony nor Elizabeth Cady Stanton lived long enough to witness the 19 th Amendment
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 “BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and house of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all non citizen Indians born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Indian to tribal or other property.”
Post Civil War Means of Oppression 1860s – 1960s Segregated housing Segregated accommodations Social Sharecropping System Most jobs restricted Economic Poll tax, Literacy Test Grandfather clause Political Separate and unequal schools Educational Ku Klux Klan Terror Lynchings (2,805 from 1880-1930) Physical/Psycholo gical
California Constitution of 1879 SEC. 4. The presence of foreIgners ineligible to become citizens of the United States is declared to be dangerous to the well-being of the State, and the LegiSlature shall discourage their immigration by all the means within its power. Asiatic coolieism is a form of human slavery, and isforever prohibited in this State, and all contractsfor coolie l",bor shall be void. All companies or corporations, whether formed in this country or any foreign country, for the importation of such labor, shall be subject to such penaltIes as the Legislature may prescribe. The Legislature shall delegate all necessary power to the incorporated cities and towns of this State for the removal of Chinese without the limits of such citIes and towns, or for their loca- tion within prescribed portions of those hmlts, and itshall also provide the necessary legisla- tion to prohibit'the introduction into this State of Chinese after the ad option of this Constitu- tion. Thissection shall be enforced by appropriate legislation.
What to do about the Chinese? 1879 CA Referendum Are you “for” or “against” allowing more Chinese immigration? CA: Against 94% For 6% MC: Against 2,345 For 1 Monterey Californian, September 16, 1879 “The late election would seem to indicate pretty forcibly that as far as California is concerned John must certainly “go”, the vote all through the State going fifty to one against him...It can never be said gain that it is not the voice of the people of the whole State who wish their removal, but only a few malcontents. It is with almost one accord the demand for relief has been voiced. Take them, anybody. We don’t want them.”
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Preamble. Whereas, in the opinion of the Government of the United States the coming of Chinese laborers to this country endangers the good order of certain localities within the territory thereof: Therefore, be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act, and until the expiration of ten years next after the passage of this act, the coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be, and the same is hereby, suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come, or, having so come after the expiration of said ninety days, to remain within the United States.
US-Japan Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907 Japan agreed to voluntarily stop the emigration of Japanese workers to the US. Educted Japanese were allowed to continue emigration, as were the wives of the workers who were already in the US.
Keeping Asians Out The Asiatic Barred Zone of 1917
Sec 3. That the following classes of aliens shall be excluded from admission into the United States: Immigration Act of 1917, Sec. 3
So much for that… 1886 Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses, yearning to breath free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore, Send these, the homeless, tempest tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door. Author: Emma Lazarus
Immigration to the U.S. Immigration Act of 1924 (until 1965) – An act intended to preserve the dominance of whites from the north and west of Europe within the U.S. population – Severely restricted total new immigrants – Assigned each foreign country a “quota” of immigrants, which was 2% of its population in the US in 1890 – Excluded all countries in the Americas from the quota system
European Countries Privileged by Immigration Law 1924-1965
Land Ownership California Alien Land Law of 1913-1952 – Prohibited all persons “ineligible for citizenship” from owning land in California – Directed specifically against competition from Japanese who were being very successful as truck farmers in the state
Marriage California “Antimiscegenation Laws” prohibited marriages between Whites and Negoes, Mulattos, Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos U.S. Cable Act of 1922 Any female US citizen who married an “alien ineligible for citizenship” would have her US citizenship taken away from her
Education California Education Code of 1921 – Allowed school districts in the state to operate segregated schools for American Indian, Chinese, and Japenese students – In practice, segregated schools also run for Black and Mexican students In 1947, the CA Supreme Court ruled that Mexican American students could not be segregated because they are white (Westminster v. Mendez)
Education Westminster v. Mendez California, 1947 After acknowledging that California state law did allow for racially segregated schools, the Court wrote: “As to these, there are laws requiring them in certain cases to attend separate schools. It may appropriately be noted that the segregation so provided for includes only children of parents belonging to one or another of the great races of mankind…” “Nowhere in any California law is there a suggestion that any segregation can be made of children within one of the great races.”
Racially Restricted Housing “New 5 room home with double garage in restricted community,” (SC, Aug. 6, 1942, 12) 4 room furnished house, garage, pressure system water supply. Mexicans or Filipinos can buy.” (SC, Sept. 21, 1945, 13) Large New 3 Bedroom Home. In the new restricted East Side Homes Tract in Alisal...” (SC, Oct. 29, 1945, 13) “For Sale — Large restricted lot... Carmel.” “Three beautiful connecting residential lots on Asilomar... One of the best restricted sites in Pacific Grove.” (DPH, Feb. 8, 1947, 8) “Colored Folk — Here is your chance to buy a new 2 bedroom home on Maple St.” East Monterey Properties Co., Seaside. (DPH, May 27, 1947, 13) “Beautiful Salinas Valley... Do you want Good Neighbors? You will find some of the best people living here or with the intention of building. As this subdivision is restricted you will always be protected.”64 A.V. Rianda, Jr., Realtor (SC, June 2, 1951, 11) “Two Bedroom home, restricted area in Alisal.” (SC, March 11, 1953, 20) Apartment rental in Castroville to “Quiet Mexican family only. $75.” (SC, Jan. 2, 1969, 33)
Repatriation Mexican “Repatriation” Act of 1930 – US forced or physically removed 2 million Mexican Americans to Mexico o 60% were U.S. citizens o In 2005, California issued a formal apology Filipino Repatriation Act of 1935 – US offered to pay the costs for any Filipino that would voluntarily go back to the Philippines
Mexican Repatriation Apology Act of 2005 “ (d) Throughout California, massive raids were conducted on Mexican-American communities, resulting in the clandestine removal of thousands of people, many of whom were never able to return to the United States, their country of birth. (e) These raids also had the effect of coercing thousands of people to leave the country in the face of threats and acts of violence. (f) These raids targeted persons of Mexican ancestry, with authorities and others indiscriminately characterizing these persons as "illegal aliens" even when they were United States citizens or permanent legal residents. ”
Cheap, Temporary Foreign Workers Bracero Program 1946-1964 – An agreement with Mexico to supply US farms, factories, and construction companies with hundreds of thousands of inexpensive, temporary workers – Braceros had 10% of their wages withheld, payable only after they returned to Mexico After 50 years of court battles, the Mexican government finally agreed to pay the Braceros or their descendents the withheld wages in August, 2011 ! Bracero Video
Japanese Concentration Camps Executive Order 9066 1942-1945 – After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941, all Japanese Americans were ordered to leave a zone along the west coast of the U.S. and report to “internment” camps. o 120,000 Japanese Americans (mostly US citizens) were held in ten concentration camps in the desert from 1942-1945.