4 Samuels, Shinn, & Buckner 23 years of research; 2 primary waves Continuum of risk – gap closing (M-V!) Few longitudinal studies Symptoms for children peak at 4 months in shelter; then they adapt. Performance drops while in shelter. After 1 year, effects of homelessness fade. MH & academic achievement improves. Subsidized housing reduces repeat episodes of homelessness.
5 Culhane Homeless families are more similar to poor families than to homeless individuals. Homeless families moved an average of 5 times during an 18 month study. Rental subsidies improve residential stability. 80% housing retention vs. 18% Housing is an essential part of the remedy for homelessness.
6 The single greatest intervention for the children and youth is to move the family into permanent housing. Conclusion
7 ShelterHousing We have to help families move from temporary situations to permanent housing.
8 What does HEARTH say? Reduce length of homelessness –20 days (ultimate goal); 10% reduction Reduce the rate of return to homelessness to 5% or less Reduce the overall # of people experiencing homelessness Reduce the # of people experiencing homelessness for the first time; (prevention)
9 Continuum of Care HUD’s Continuum of Care (CoC) system is designed to address the critical problem of homelessness through a coordinated community-based process of identifying needs and building a system to address those needs. A regional or local planning body that applies for, distributes, & coordinates HUD homeless assistance funds in a geographic area.
10 Continuum of Care - Funding Competitive programs funded: –Supportive Housing Program (SHP) –Shelter + Care –Single Resident Occupancy Formula-based programs funded: –Emergency Solutions Grant Funded only through renewals: –Transitional Housing –Support services
11 Continuum of Care - Involvement Continuum of Care plans must describe how they will collaborate with LEAs to identify families, and how families and youth will be informed of their eligibility for McKinney-Vento education services. Sec. 427(a)(1)(B)(iii) Agencies must certify that programs that provide housing or services to families will designate a staff person to ensure that children are enrolled in school and connected to appropriate services in the community, including early childhood programs such as Head Start, part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and McKinney-Vento education services. Sec. 304(b)(4)(D). Collaborative applicants for HUD Continuum of Care funding must take the educational needs of children into account when families are placed in emergency or transitional shelter and will, to the maximum extent practicable, place families with children as close to possible to their school of origin so as not to disrupt children’s education. Sec. 304(b)(7).
12 Continuum of Care Transitional Housing Emergency Shelter Permanent Supportive Housing
14 Emergency Shelter Shorter term Length of stay up to 120 days No fees Case management Support services Typically single site
15 Transitional Housing For families needing a longer-term intervention than ES Length of stay up to 2 years Program fees up to 30% of income Case management Intensive support services Some single site, some scattered site HUD outcomes: 65% exit to permanent housing, 20% employed at exit
16 Housing First A philosophy End the homelessness by moving them into housing first. Work on other issues that may jeopardize the stable housing while they are in housing. Support them in the housing. Services are voluntary.
17 Bridge Housing Provides temporary housing until a housing option is available Emergency shelter may serve as the “bridge” until a HUD VASH voucher is assigned. A family might be moved from the streets to a hotel room until there is room in an ES.
18 HPRP Homeless Prevention and Rapid Rehousing Program (HPRP) Introduced as part of the ARRA Formula-based to local & state governments $ to keep families in their current housing and prevent eviction $ to move homeless families back into housing Up to 18 months of assistance Transitioning to Emergency Solutions Grant (ESG)
19 HUD Rapid Re-Housing HUD Demonstration grants to non- profit agencies Assistance with move in costs Temporary rent subsidies Basic case management
20 Affordable Housing Housing that a family is able to afford without exceeding 30% of their income No time limit No programs or support services Lease = Landlord Tenant Act applies
21 Permanent Supportive Housing Typically funded by HUD McKinney-Vento as SHP or S+CTypically funded by HUD McKinney-Vento as SHP or S+C Housing subsidiesHousing subsidies Program fees up to 30% of incomeProgram fees up to 30% of income Must have a documented disabilityMust have a documented disability Includes case management and ongoing support services No time limit
22 Tax Credit Housing An option for low income families Makes market rate housing “affordable” for families at 30-60% AMI Rental rates are reduced due to local or state tax credits Typically mixed income properties Must recertify annually; otherwise no time limit Lease = Landlord Tenant Act applies
23 Section 8 (subsidized) Housing HUD program with Public Housing Authorities or private owners Rent = 30% of income Sex offenders & people with certain drug offenses are ineligible Other eligibility criteria determined by local PHAs No time limit Lease = Landlord Tenant Act applies Project-Based –Subsidy remains with the unit Housing Choice Voucher –Subsidy remains with the family –Family can select unit (based on FMR and inspection)
24 HUD VASH (subsidized) Housing Collaboration with HUD, VA, and PHAs Section 8 voucher Available to families with veteran status Referrals are made by the local VA Must accept ongoing VA case management Rent = 30% of income Sex offenders and people with certain drug offenses are ineligible Other eligibility criteria determined by local PHAs or local VAMCs No time limit Lease = Landlord Tenant Act applies
25 Public Housing HUD program - housing owned by Public Housing Authorities (city or county) Rent = 30% of income Sex offenders and people with certain drug offenses are ineligible Other eligibility criteria determined by local PHAs No time limit Lease with PHA = Landlord Tenant Act applies
26 How can I find permanent housing opportunities?