3Outline 1. Background Information(P3) 2. Warming-up Activities(P11) Text A Detailed Study(P14)Part 1(P17) Part 2 (P54) Part 3(P81)4. Text Analysis(P86) and Exercises(P88)5. Homework (P98)
4Background Information Stephen William HawkingStephen William Hawking was born on 8 January1942 (300 years after the death of Galileo) in Oxford,England. At eleven Stephen went to St Albans School,and then on to University College, Oxford, his father'sold college. Because mathematics was not availablethere, he had to do Physics instead.4
5After three years and not very much work he was awarded a first class honors degree in Natural Science.Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research inCosmology, there being no-one working in that areain Oxford at the time. After gaining his Ph.D. he becamefirst a Research Fellow, and later on a ProfessorialFellow at Gonville and Caius College.After leaving the Institute of Astronomyin 1973 Stephen came to the Departmentof Applied Mathematics and TheoreticalPhysics, and since5
6＋－× ÷？ ！1979 has held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas, who had been the Member of Parliament for Cambridge. It was first held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton.For much of his academic life, Hawking has been among a group of theoretical physicists searching for a "theory of everything" – one unified scientific theory that explains the big cosmological questions like How did the universe begin? Why is the universe the way it is and How will it end?6
7In the late 1960s, Hawking proved that if general relativity is true and the universe is expanding, a singularity must have occurred at the birth of the universe. In 1974 he first recognized truly remarkable property of black holes, objects from which everything even light was not supposed to be able to escape.Hawking is one of the world's leading theoretical physicists. Many consider him to be the most brilliant since Einstein. He's even had a TV cameo role in Star Trek in which he plays poker with scientific iconsThe background picture: It is a picture of a galaxy in Harbor Astronomical Telescope’s maiden constellation called NGC4261. It displays that dust and air is spinning into a large mass of black hole.7
8Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. Yet when asked about comparisons between himself and the two scientists,he calls it all "media hype." Onceasked how he felt about being labeled the world's smartest person, he responded: "It is very embarrassing. It is rubbish, just media hype. They just want a hero, and I fill the role model of a disabled genius. At least I am disabled, but I am no genius.” Hawking has ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a disease that progressively weakens muscle control.8
9As a 21-year-old graduate student in cosmology at Cambridge, doctors predictedan early death for him.Today, he's 62 and married with threechildren. He gets around in a wheelchair,and after completely losing the use of hisvocal chords in an operation to assist his breathing in 1985, he communicates through a computer. A speech synthesizer "speaks" for him after he punches in what he wants to say, selecting words in the computer softwareby pressing a switch with his hand. Unfortunately, it9
10makes him sound like he has an American accent, he says. He has written the internationalbestseller A Brief History of Time.The book 10spent morethan fouryears on the LondonSunday Times bestsellerlist --the longest run forany book in history andhas been translated into40 languages10
11and has sold ten million copies and has sold ten million copies. His other famous books include Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays and most recently in 2001, The Universe in a Nutshell.(The Chinese Version)11
12Warming-up Activities Form groups to figure out some of the scientific and technological discoveries that have changed the way people live.Some group leaders read out to the whole class their discussion results.Determine in what ways these discoveries change our lives for the better and in what ways for the worse.12
13We can’t deny the fact that plastics, dynamite, batteries,cars, fridges, TV, cell phones,computers and many other scientific and technological inventions have greatly contributed to the improvement of our society and our living standards. However, we at the same time have to admit that they have also done us damagein one way or another.Take plastics as anexample. It is a goodsubstitute forUpper left: products made of plasticsLower right: white pollution
14wood and even iron andsteel in industry, and plastic bags make our life more convenient. However, rivers, lakes and banks full of plastic rubbish are never unusual.Take another example. Cars have greatly enhanced the efficiency of man’s work and life, but they are also the first killer of human lives. It seem that the same scientific andtechnological discoverycan bring us good thingsand bad things. It is neithergood or bad in itself, but liesin how we use it.Airplanes, air crashes; delicate cars and car accidents
15Text A General Understanding This text can be divided into 3 parts(P69).Read the text once and give the paragraphnumbers of each part and its main idea.Part I (Paras 1- ___):Main idea: _______________________________________________________________________________________.3To make informed decisionsabout change, the pubic needs a basic understanding of science.
16Part II (Paras ____- ___): Main idea: ______________________ _________________________________________________________________.Part III (Paras 7):＋－× ÷？ ！46What can be done to educatethe public about science.With an informed public,human civilization will survive.
18Questions for Paragraph One: 1. What is the attitude of some people towards the changes brought about by science and technology?What was life like before science and technology began to change our way of life?18
19Language points Attitude (+to, towards) What’s your attitude towards college entrance examination?Their attitudes to video games are quite different.
20Likely (L2) ＋－× ÷ ？ ！ It is likely that is likely to most(very) likely Adj. Probable (used in the followingpatterns: It is likely that…, be likely to do sth.)________________our athletes will win themost gold medals in the 2008 Olympics.Economists say that the quick economicgrowth_________ continue throughout the2010s.Adv. Probably (often preceded by “most”, “more than” or “very”. Don’t’ use it as an ad. alone )We will ________________ stay in thedormitory at weekend, watching football games.＋－× ÷？ ！It is likely thatis likely tomost(very) likely
21Do without(L6)manage to survive, continue, or succeed although you do not have sth. you need or have没有…而设法对付过去We cannot do without the help of your organization.How will you do without when your parents are not here with you?
22Highly(L6) 1. very She dreams of a highly successful career. 2. to a high level or standardWhich is the highly ranked soccer team in the world?Highly educated people will more than likely find highly paid jobs.3. Do you think highly of your senior middle school?
23Questions for Paragraph Two 1. Why couldn’t one live the life of anearlier age?2. Why can’t one prevent advances in thefuture?3. Would social developments be stopped ifthere was a global state that suppressedanything new? Why or why not?4. What conclusion can we draw from thefirst two paragraphs?23
24Language Points -- “I’ve got a terrible cold.” Anyway(L9)Anyhow, in any case, at any rate ( used to change the subject of a conversation or to support an idea or argument)-- “I’ve got a terrible cold.”-- “ Have you? Oh, dear. Anyway, so you’re not going to go away this weekend.I’m certain David’s told you his business trouble. Anyway, it’s no secret that he owes money.
25Put/turn the clock back(L 9) Return to a situation that used to exist, usually because the present situation is unpleasant 倒退他们似乎决心要倒退到冷战时期忘掉一切，着眼未来；你无法使时光倒流They seemed determined to turn the clock backto the days of the cold war.Forget all about it and look to the future, youcan’t turn the clock back.
26Cut off(L12) Stop providing (sth.) 切断, 中断，砍下 Water and electricity supplies in the city have been cut off because of the flood.We were cut off in the middle of our telephone conversation.He cut off some tree branches for heating before winter came.
27辨析 Cut down：减少，砍倒 Cut in：插言，夹塞 Cut out：删掉，停止 Cut short: 打断（谈话） A speeding car ______ and nearly caused an accident.They are trying their best to _______ the cost of the production.He ______ a lot of unimportant details when the secretary handed the report in.cut incut downcut out
28Bring about(L13) Make sth. happen Computers have brought about many changes in our daily life.Jealousy in a relationship is often brought about by a lack of trust.Some educators are hoping to bring about major changes in the educational system.同义短语：lead to, result in, give rise to
29Bring back: 带回，使回忆起 Bring up: 养育 Bring down: 使倒下(下台)，使下降 ＋－× ÷？ ！辨析Bring back: 带回，使回忆起 Bring up: 养育Bring down: 使倒下(下台)，使下降Bring out: 使带出来，出版，发挥（才能）The wind had ______ several trees _____.The whole scene __________ the days of mychildhood.The publishing house has recently _________another revised version of “The BriefHistory of Time”.I __________ two children on my own.broughtdownbrought backbrought outbrought up
30Moreover(L13)Ad. In addition to what has been said; further, besides 再者，而且I don’t want to go traveling and moreover, I’m penniless.The proposal was not well thought out; moreover, it would have been too expensive.
31Inquire(L 14)Seek information by questioning; ask(also spelt “enquire”; usually in the pattern: ～ sth. of sb. or ～ of sb. about sth.)They inquired the way of a boy.We inquired of him whether his wife would come to our party.They all inquired what had happened/how to get there.
32Initiative(L17) 1. 首创精神，主动 A statesman must have/show initiative. 2. take the initiative: 采取主动，首先采取行动He has taken the initiative to improve relations with her.They took the initiative in establishing an international broadcasting research trust.
33Such…that(L 17)(formal or literary)used to give a reason or explanation for sth.His behavior was such that everyone disliked him.The nature of the job was such that he felt obliged to tell no one about it.
34Translation (L15-17)The only way to prevent further developments would be …are such that even this wouldn’t succeed.唯一能阻止进一步发展的办法或许是一个压制任何新事物的全球政府，但人类的进取心与创造力如此旺盛，即使这个政府也不会成功。
35Slow down(L18) Become slower, or make sb. or sth. slower Slow down before you reach the crossroads.You should slow down a bit if you want to avoid a breakdown.It seems likely that the economy will slow down over the next twelve months.
36Rate(L18) the speed at which sth. happens over a period of time 速度 The rate at which hair grows can be very slow.The world’s tropical forests are disappearing at an even faster rate than experts had thought.比率Britain held the record of having the highest divorce rate in Europe.
37＋－× ÷？ ！3. At any rate=in any case=anyhow=anyway 无论如何It isn’t much of a car, but at any rate, itwas not expensive.4. At this/that rate:照这（那）样的情形At this rate, she would be almost seven feet tallby then.we can’t go on spending money at that rate.我们可不能照那样子花钱了。
38Questions for Paragraph Three: 1. What does the author think weshould do about the unavoidablechanges?2. Why is it necessary for the public to have a basic understanding of science?3. How does the public feel about science?How do you know?38
39and Frankenstein Mary W. Shelly(1797-1851) Mary is born in Somers Town, Great Britain, in 1797 to well-known parents: author and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft andphilosopher William Godwin.Unfortunately,Wollstonecraft dies as the result of Mary's birth.Mary is therefore raised by her father and a muchresented stepmother. When Mary is sixteen she meets the young poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, a devotee of her father's teachings.
40Together with Mary's stepsister, they run off to continental Europe several times.In 1816, they go abroad again, this time spending time with Byron and his friend in Geneva. There Byron suggests that they should all write a ghost story. Mary writes Frankenstein, the only story of the four that was ever to be published as a novel. Laterthat same year, Percy's wifedrowns herself: Percy andMary marry in December1816. Though having losther beloved stepsister, two
41daughters and husband, Mary spends the last years of her life inthe loving company of her sonand two good friends. She triesvery hard to free herself from thestrains put on her by being the daughter and wife of such well-known people.Mary Wollstonecraft Shelleydies in 1851 at the age of fifty-three, leaving the famous novel“Frankenstein” which deals witha young Swiss student who
42discovers the secret of animating lifeless matter and, by assembling body parts,creates a monster who vows revenge on his creator after beingrejected from society.The nameFrankensteinnow is nearly ahousehold namefor horror.
43Language Points Ensure(L 20) make sure(followed by a N. or that-clause)You have to ensure your safety when you are out traveling.I can’t ensure that he will be there in time.En-+ adj./N V.enrich, enlarge, encourage, enthrone, entitle
44Inform(L22) Tell (fairly formal. In conversation we usually use tell ) They informed us of/about their arrival.Have you informed the police that there’s been an accident?We were informed that two prisoners have escaped.
45Informed: having/showing knowledge ＋－× ÷？ ！inform on/against sb.检举，告发The spy, wishing for less punishment,informed against his superior soon after hewas arrested.Informed: having/showing knowledgeHe is a well –informed man.他是个消息灵通人士。According to informed sources, he has beenenrolled by Harvard University.Science enables us to make more informedchoices.
46In two minds (about sth.): 三心二意， 犹豫不决 At the moment, the public is in twominds about science(L23-24):Now the public can’t decide whether theyneed science or not.At the moment: now, at the present momentAt the moment she is totally at a loss for words.c.f. In a moment: 一会儿It was done in a moment.In two minds (about sth.): 三心二意， 犹豫不决I think he was in two minds about whether to give a high score for this essay or not.＋－× ÷？ ！
47＋－× ÷？ ！It has come to expect the steadyincrease in the standard of living that newdevelopments in science and technology havebrought to continue, but it also distrusts sciencebecause it doesn’t understand it(L24-27).解析：The backbone of the sentence is: The public expects the steady increase tocontinue, but it also distrusts science.increase in sth.: 在某方面的提高the standard of living that new developments inscience and technology have brought 为定语从句
481,2: constant 稳定的 3,4: firm 牢固的 Steady(L24)1. The company is enjoying a steady rate of progress.2. There has been a steady improvement in her condition.3. The vase is placed on a steady foundation.4. Keep the camera steady while you take a picture.1,2: constant 稳定的 3,4: firm 牢固的
49Paraphrase: It is also an important element ＋－× ÷？ ！Paraphrase:It is also an important elementbehind support for the Green parties(L28-29):The public’s distrust of science is also an important factor leading to support for the political parties whose main concern is to protect the environment.
50Audience(L31) ＋－× ÷ ？ ！ a collective countable noun A group of people who watch and listento sb. speaking or performing in publicThe audience was/were enjoying every minute of the show.The audience for the daily broadcasts to schools was enormous.2. The people who read a writer’s books(usu. Sing.)That book has a large audience.His book reached an even wider audience when it was filmed for television.
51Collective Noun1. 通常作复数的集体名词，如：police, people, cattle, poultry 作主语时谓语动词用复数。Domestic cattle provide us with milk, beef and hides.2. 通常作不可数名词的集体名词，如：foliage, machinery, equipment, furniture作主语时谓语动词用单数。All the machinery in the factory is made in china.
52＋－× ÷？ ！3. 既可作单数也可作复数的集体名词，如audience, committee, class, crew, family, government, public作主语时如侧重将集体视为一个整体，谓语动词用单数，如侧重于集体成员，谓语动词用复数。The anti-crime committee makes its reporttomorrow.That group of soldiers have the best ratings of individual performance.
53Discussions for Part One 1. Do you want to return to an earlier age? Why or why not?2. What’s you attitude toward science?53
54Part Two 1. What’s the theme of this part? 2. According to the author, what are the ways to help the public have the scientific background it needs to make informed decisions?54
55Questions for Paragraph 4: 1. How is science taught in school?2. What does the author think of equations as a way of expressing scientific ideas?3. Why does the author say “May be I would have sold twice as many copies without it”?55
56Language points Basis(L36) (pl. bases) 1. Foundation(usu. used as a singular noun, followed by for or of)The video will provide a basis for class discussionKindness toward others is the basis of her philosophy.
57＋－× ÷？ ！The circumstance that provides areason for some action or opinion(usu.followed by of or that-clause)Students are able, on the basis of experience,to choose which subjects to specialize in.They form a relationship on a friendly basis.On the basis that recognizing the problem ishalfway to a solution, we should pay muchto his comments.c.f. Basic: adj. 基本的，根本的n. （常作） basics: 基本原理（则）the basics of cooking
58Lie in (L36) Exist or be found in sth. His skill lies in his ability to communicate quite complicated ideas.The root of all these events lay in history.What do you think the most important part of learning lie in?
59In terms of(L39)As regards(sth.); expressed as (sth.) 从…方面（角度）来说；按照，依据She judges everyone in terms of her own standards.In terms of customer satisfaction, the policy can’t be criticized.The figures are expressed in terms of a percentage.
60A. in place of B. in terms of C. by means of D. by way of ＋－× ÷？ ！He referred to your work in terms ofhigh praise.Which sport has the most expenses _______ training equipment, player’s personal equipment and uniforms? 〔CET-4, 〕A. in place of B. in terms ofC. by means of D. by way of
61Brief (L40) Adj. 1. Using few words, concise Please give a brief account of a typical problem you met with in English learning.2. Lasting or taking a short timeMy brother once made a brief appearance on television.
62Accurate(L40) adj. Exact 准确的，精确的，无误的 You were pretty accurate in your calculations.She presents to the board a very accurate report.Is your watch accurate?N. accuracy
63Paraphrase(L43-44)Maybe I would have sold twice as many copies without it.Subjunctive moodIf my popular book had not included Einstein’s equation, maybe I would have sold twice as many copies(as I had sold).
64倍数的表达 1. 倍数+as+形容词/副词(+名词)(+ as )(C.f. Page 76) John’s luggage is three times as heavy as Mary’s.He lent to him twice as much money as she did.2. 倍数+形容词/副词的比较级+thanA body of given mass would weigh six times less on the moon than on the earth.3. 倍数+名词The earth is 49 times the size of the moon.4. 动词+倍数The personal income rose one and a half times.
65Questions for Paragraph 5 Why do scientists need equations in expressing their ideas whereas the public doesn’t?65
66Language Points Tend(L45) : Be likely to happen Plants tend to die in hot weather if you don’t water them.Do you tend to get up later at weekends?The school bus tends to be early on Monday mornings.N. tendency 趋势
67In the form of(L45) 1. Having the shape of The lane was in the form of a big “S”.The flowers were laid out in the form of the character “欢度国庆”.2. Existing in a particular formSome students received a benefit in the form of a tuition reduction.
68Precise(L46)adj. ExactWe never know the precise details of his death.正好在我拿起听筒时门铃响了。The door bell rang at the precise moment when I lifted the receiver.
69＋－× ÷？ ！辨析precise，accurateAccurate：指某人（事）不仅没出错误，而且与事实没有出入，非常忠实于实践证实的或推导出的事实或真理。如：Is your watch accurate？He found her report more accurate than his.Precise：多指下定义或划界限的精确性或工作中的一丝不苟和机械结构的精密性。如：The definition he gives is not precise enough to be of any use.Precise instruments 精密仪器
70Grasp(L47) V. 掌握，抓住 grasp sb’s hand/a rope/sb’s meaning N.UnderstandingApplied mathematics was beyond the grasp of most of her students.Who has a good grasp of English in your class?
71Sufficient(L47) Enough (often followed by for or to +infinitive) There wasn’t sufficient evidence to prove that he was guilty.The supper is sufficient for everyone in the hall.N. sufficiency
72Convey(L48) Make (ideas, feelings, etc.)known to another 传达，表达 Language conveys message.Their tears after winning the gold medals conveyed a lot: joy, excitement, and maybe pain that they had been experiencing.
73Questions for Paragraph 6 1. What’s the role of science education in school?2. Do books and magazines play the largest part in popularizing scientific ideas?3. What is the the responsibility of TV science program producers?73
74Language Points Put across(L55) Cause to be understand=put over, get acrossGood teachers are the ones who are able to put things across well.The government needs to put across the message that the economy is starting to recover.Did I put across the idea?
75＋－× ÷？ ！put aside储存；把…放在一边put away收好、放好put forward提出 put down记下；镇压put off 推迟 put on穿戴；上演；增加put out熄灭；公布；生产 put through接通put up with忍受 put in:花费（时间，精力等）Never ________ till tomorrow what you can do today.Please hold on a minute. I’ll ___ you ______ to Mr. Smith right now.I have ______ 4 pounds during the last month.put offputthroughput on
76Proportion(L56) 1. A part of a group or an amount(usu. Sing.)部分 A large proportion of the city’s population is agedover 50.2. 比例The proportion of men to women in the medicalprofession has changed in recent years.
77Fit into(L59) Be part of a situation, system, or plan The new college courses fit into a national education plan.It’s hard to see how he would fit into the team.
78Educate(L61) V. Teach or train Their children are all well-educated. The organization started a campaign to educate teenagers about the danger of smoking.educator/education/educational
79Entertain(L62) 1. Give pleasure to They entertain the children with tricks.We were all entertained by his performance.2. Receive people as guestsThe Smiths entertain a great deal.According to the school regulations, women students are not allowed to entertain men in their rooms.N. entertainment: 娱乐，游艺
80Discussion for Part 2What’s your way of learning science? Can you suggest some other ways to improve the public’s understanding of science?80
81Part ThreeQuestions:1. What does the author think of the future of human civilization?2. Do you think man will destroy themselves sooner or later?81
82Paraphrase(L63) …hence the sick joke that…(L63) Therefore the sick joke spreads that…Sick joke: sick jokes deal with death and suffering in a cruel and unpleasant way…因此就有了令人毛骨悚然的玩笑…
83Hence(L63)As a result, therefore (formal, followed by a clause/noun group/a./ad./prepositional phrase)The trade imbalance is likely to rise again in this decade. Hence a new set of policy actions will be required soon.He’s extremely private person; hence his reluctance to give interviews.
84not too popular with walkers. It’s handmade and hence expensive. ＋－× ÷？ ！It was a difficult route and hencenot too popular with walkers.It’s handmade and hence expensive.2. From this timeThey will leave a month hence.Her birthday is not far hence.I don’t know where I will be 4 years hence.
85Contact(L64) F T V. Get in touch with Feel free to contact me if you need my help.请尽快与我们联系。Please contact with us as soon as possible.Please contact us as soon as possible.N. Make /in /out of contact with:（与…）结识/在接触中/停止接触FT
86Text AnalysisExpository writingBegins with a statement of opinion(P3), then goes on to supporting details(P4-6), and then draws a conclusion(P7)Make a brief comparison in style between the first 10 lines of both All the Cabbie Had Was a Letter and Public Attitudes Toward Science.86
87shorter longer longer shorter simple compound no yes yes no no yes Text AUnit 2Unit 3Paragraph lengthSentence lengthSimple or compound SsAny passive voiceAny dialogueAny 3rd person narrator?shorterlongerlongershortersimplecompoundnoyesyesnonoyes
88ExercisesAny of the scientists and engineers are judged _____ how great their achievements are.A. in spite of B. in ways ofC. in favor of D. in terms of
89If any man here does not agree with me, he should __ his own plan for ＋－× ÷？ ！If any man here does not agree withme, he should __ his own plan forimproving the living conditions of thesepeople. 〔1994考研〕A. put on B. put outC. put in D. put forward
90Jack was about to announce our plan but I _________. [CET-6, 1997.6] ＋－× ÷？ ！Jack was about to announce ourplan but I _________. [CET-6, ]A. put him throughB. turned him outC. gave him upD. cut him short
91Difficulties and hardships have _____ the best qualities of the young ＋－× ÷？ ！Difficulties and hardships have_____ the best qualities of the younggeologist. [考研1991]A. brought outB. brought aboutC. brought forthD. brought up
92Recycling wastes slows down the rate ____ which we use up the ＋－× ÷？ ！Recycling wastes slows downthe rate ____ which we use up theearth’s finite resources. [CET-6, ]A. in B. ofC. with D. at
93A. by means of B. in terms of C. in quest of D. by virtue of ＋－× ÷？ ！The younger person’s attraction to stereos cannot be explained only ____ familiarity with technology.[CET-6，1999.6]A. by means of B. in terms ofC. in quest of D. by virtue of
94We had to _____ a lot of noise When the children were at home. ＋－× ÷？ ！We had to _____ a lot of noiseWhen the children were at home.[CET-4, ]A. go in forB. hold on toC. put up withD. keep pace with
95＋－× ÷？ ！During the conference the speaker tried to ____ his feelings concerning he urgency of a favorable decision.[CET-6, ]A. comply B. imposeC. imply D. convey
96＋－× ÷？ ！If you suspect that the illness might be serious you should not _____ going to the doctor. 〔CET-4, 〕A. put off B. hold backC. put aside D. hold up
97Nowadays advertising costs are no longer in reasonable ____ to the ＋－× ÷？ ！Nowadays advertising costs areno longer in reasonable ____ to theTotal cost of the product. [考研1990]proportioncorrelationconnectioncorrespondence
98Ho mework Recitation(Paras 1-2) and Exercises on the text book(P72-79) Reading Exercises of Text B(P 84-86)Preview of Unit 498