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Unit 3 Understanding Science 11 2 Text A Public Attitudes Toward Science.

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2 Unit 3 Understanding Science 11

3 2 Text A Public Attitudes Toward Science

4 3 Outline 1. Background Information(P3)(P3) 2. Warming-up Activities(P11)(P11) 3.Text A Detailed Study(P14)(P14) Part 1(P17) Part 2 (P54) Part 3(P81)P17P54P81 4. Text Analysis(P86) and Exercises(P88)(P86) (P88) 5. Homework (P98)(P98)

5 4 Stephen William Hawking Stephen William Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 (300 years after the death of Galileo) in Oxford, England. At eleven Stephen went to St Albans School, and then on to University College, Oxford, his father's old college. Because mathematics was not available there, he had to do Physics instead. Background Information 4

6 After three years and not very much work he was awarded a first class honors degree in Natural Science. Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology, there being no-one working in that area in Oxford at the time. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973 Stephen came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and since 5

7 +- × ÷ ? ! 1979 has held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas, who had been the Member of Parliament for Cambridge. It was first held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton. For much of his academic life, Hawking has been among a group of theoretical physicists searching for a "theory of everything" – one unified scientific theory that explains the big cosmological questions like How did the universe begin? Why is the universe the way it is and How will it end? 6

8 In the late 1960s, Hawking proved that if general relativity is true and the universe is expanding, a singularity must have occurred at the birth of the universe. In 1974 he first recognized truly remarkable property of black holes, objects from which everything even light was not supposed to be able to escape. Hawking is one of the world's leading theoretical physicists. Many consider him to be the most brilliant since Einstein. He's even had a TV cameo role in Star Trek in which he plays poker with scientific icons 7

9 Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. Yet when asked about comparisons between himself and the two scientists, he calls it all "media hype." Once asked how he felt about being labeled the world's smartest person, he responded: "It is very embarrassing. It is rubbish, just media hype. They just want a hero, and I fill the role model of a disabled genius. At least I am disabled, but I am no genius.” Hawking has ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a disease that progressively weakens muscle control. 8

10 As a 21-year-old graduate student in cosmology at Cambridge, doctors predicted an early death for him. Today, he's 62 and married with three children. He gets around in a wheelchair, and after completely losing the use of his vocal chords in an operation to assist his breathing in 1985, he communicates through a computer. A speech synthesizer "speaks" for him after he punches in what he wants to say, selecting words in the computer software by pressing a switch with his hand. Unfortunately, it 9

11 makes him sound like he has an American accent, he says. He has written the international bestseller A Brief History of Time. The book 10 spent more than four years on the London Sunday Times bestseller list --the longest run for any book in history and has been translated into 40 languages 10

12 and has sold ten million copies. His other famous books include Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays and most recently in 2001, The Universe in a Nutshell. (The Chinese Version ) 11

13 Warming-up Activities 1.Form groups to figure out some of the scientific and technological discoveries that have changed the way people live. 2.Some group leaders read out to the whole class their discussion results. 3.Determine in what ways these discoveries change our lives for the better and in what ways for the worse. 12

14 13 We can’t deny the fact that plastics, dynamite, batteries, cars, fridges, TV, cell phones, computers and many other scientific and technological inventions have greatly contributed to the improvement of our society and our living standards. However, we at the same time have to admit that they have also done us damage in one way or another. Take plastics as an example. It is a good substitute for

15 14 wood and even iron and steel in industry, and plastic bags make our life more convenient. However, rivers, lakes and banks full of plastic rubbish are never unusual.Take another example. Cars have greatly enhanced the efficiency of man’s work and life, but they are also the first killer of human lives. It seem that the same scientific and technological discovery can bring us good things and bad things. It is neither good or bad in itself, but lies in how we use it.

16 15 Text A General Understanding This text can be divided into 3 parts(P69). Read the text once and give the paragraph numbers of each part and its main idea. Part I (Paras 1- ___): Main idea: ______________________ _________________________________ ________________________________. 3 To make informed decisions about change, the pubic needs a basic understanding of science.

17 16 +- × ÷ ? ! Part II (Paras ____- ___): Main idea: ______________________ _________________________________ ________________________________. Part III (Paras 7): Main idea: ______________________ _________________________________ ________________________________. What can be done to educate the public about science. 46 With an informed public, human civilization will survive.

18 Part One What’s the theme of this part? 17

19 1. What is the attitude of some people towards the changes brought about by science and technology? 2.What was life like before science and technology began to change our way of life? Questions for Paragraph One : 18

20 19 Language points Attitude (+to, towards) What’s your attitude towards college entrance examination? Their attitudes to video games are quite different.

21 20 +- × ÷ ? ! Likely (L2) Adj. Probable (used in the following patterns: It is likely that…, be likely to do sth.) ________________our athletes will win the most gold medals in the 2008 Olympics. Economists say that the quick economic growth_________ continue throughout the 2010s. Adv. Probably (often preceded by “most”, “more than” or “very”. Don’t’ use it as an ad. alone ) We will ________________ stay in the dormitory at weekend, watching football games. It is likely that is likely to most(very) likely

22 21 Do without(L6) manage to survive, continue, or succeed although you do not have sth. you need or have 没有 … 而设法对付过去 We cannot do without the help of your organization. How will you do without when your parents are not here with you?

23 22 Highly(L6) 1. very She dreams of a highly successful career. 2. to a high level or standard Which is the highly ranked soccer team in the world? Highly educated people will more than likely find highly paid jobs. 3. Do you think highly of your senior middle school?

24 23 1. Why couldn’t one live the life of an earlier age? 2. Why can’t one prevent advances in the future? 3. Would social developments be stopped if there was a global state that suppressed anything new? Why or why not? 4. What conclusion can we draw from the first two paragraphs? Questions for Paragraph Two 23

25 24 Language Points Anyway(L9) Anyhow, in any case, at any rate ( used to change the subject of a conversation or to support an idea or argument) -- “I’ve got a terrible cold.” -- “ Have you? Oh, dear. Anyway, so you’re not going to go away this weekend. I’m certain David’s told you his business trouble. Anyway, it’s no secret that he owes money.

26 25 Put/turn the clock back(L 9) Return to a situation that used to exist, usually because the present situation is unpleasant 倒退 他们似乎决心要倒退到冷战时期 忘掉一切,着眼未来;你无法使时光倒流 They seemed determined to turn the clock back to the days of the cold war. Forget all about it and look to the future, you can’t turn the clock back.

27 26 Cut off(L12) Stop providing (sth.) 切断, 中断,砍下 Water and electricity supplies in the city have been cut off because of the flood. We were cut off in the middle of our telephone conversation. He cut off some tree branches for heating before winter came.

28 27 辨析 Cut down :减少,砍倒 Cut in :插言,夹塞 Cut out :删掉,停止 Cut short: 打断(谈话) A speeding car ______ and nearly caused an accident. They are trying their best to _______ the cost of the production. He ______ a lot of unimportant details when the secretary handed the report in. cut in cut down cut out

29 28 Bring about(L13) Make sth. happen Computers have brought about many changes in our daily life. Jealousy in a relationship is often brought about by a lack of trust. Some educators are hoping to bring about major changes in the educational system. 同义短语: lead to, result in, give rise to

30 29 +- × ÷ ? ! 辨析 Bring back: 带回,使回忆起 Bring up: 养育 Bring down: 使倒下 ( 下台 ) ,使下降 Bring out: 使带出来,出版,发挥(才能) The wind had ______ several trees _____. The whole scene __________ the days of my childhood. The publishing house has recently _________ another revised version of “The Brief History of Time”. I __________ two children on my own. brought down brought back brought out brought up

31 30 Moreover(L13) Ad. In addition to what has been said; further, besides 再者,而且 I don’t want to go traveling and moreover, I’m penniless. The proposal was not well thought out; moreover, it would have been too expensive.

32 31 Inquire(L 14) Seek information by questioning; ask(also spelt “enquire”; usually in the pattern: ~ sth. of sb. or ~ of sb. about sth.) They inquired the way of a boy. We inquired of him whether his wife would come to our party. They all inquired what had happened/how to get there.

33 32 Initiative(L17) 1. 首创精神,主动 A statesman must have/show initiative. 2. take the initiative: 采取主动,首先采取行 动 He has taken the initiative to improve relations with her. They took the initiative in establishing an international broadcasting research trust.

34 33 Such…that(L 17) (formal or literary)used to give a reason or explanation for sth. His behavior was such that everyone disliked him. The nature of the job was such that he felt obliged to tell no one about it.

35 34 Translation (L15-17) The only way to prevent further developments would be …are such that even this wouldn’t succeed. 唯一能阻止进一步发展的办法或许是一个压 制任何新事物的全球政府,但人类的进取 心与创造力如此旺盛,即使这个政府也不 会成功。

36 35 Slow down(L18) Become slower, or make sb. or sth. slower Slow down before you reach the crossroads. You should slow down a bit if you want to avoid a breakdown. It seems likely that the economy will slow down over the next twelve months.

37 36 Rate(L18) the speed at which sth. happens over a period of time 速度 The rate at which hair grows can be very slow. The world’s tropical forests are disappearing at an even faster rate than experts had thought. 比率 Britain held the record of having the highest divorce rate in Europe.

38 37 +- × ÷ ? ! 3. At any rate=in any case=anyhow =anyway 无论如何  It isn’t much of a car, but at any rate, it was not expensive. 4. At this/that rate: 照这(那)样的情形  At this rate, she would be almost seven feet tall by then.  we can’t go on spending money at that rate. 我们可不能照那样子花钱了。

39 38 1. What does the author think we should do about the unavoidable changes? 2. Why is it necessary for the public to have a basic understanding of science? 3. How does the public feel about science? How do you know? Questions for Paragraph Three: 38

40 39 Mary W. Shelly ( ) and Frankenstein Mary is born in Somers Town, Great Britain, in 1797 to well-known parents: author and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft and philosopher William Godwin.Unfortunately, Wollstonecraft dies as the result of Mary's birth. Mary is therefore raised by her father and a much resented stepmother. When Mary is sixteen she meets the young poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, a devotee of her father's teachings.

41 40 Together with Mary's stepsister, they run off to continental Europe several times.In 1816, they go abroad again, this time spending time with Byron and his friend in Geneva. There Byron suggests that they should all write a ghost story. Mary writes Frankenstein, the only story of the four that was ever to be published as a novel. Later that same year, Percy's wife drowns herself: Percy and Mary marry in December Though having lost her beloved stepsister, two

42 41 daughters and husband, Mary spends the last years of her life in the loving company of her son and two good friends. She tries very hard to free herself from the strains put on her by being the daughter and wife of such well-known people. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley dies in 1851 at the age of fifty- three, leaving the famous novel “Frankenstein” which deals with a young Swiss student who

43 42 discovers the secret of animating lifeless matter and, by assembling body parts, creates a monster who vows revenge on his creator after being rejected from society. The name Frankenstein now is nearly a household name for horror.

44 43 Language Points Ensure(L 20) make sure(followed by a N. or that-clause) You have to ensure your safety when you are out traveling. I can’t ensure that he will be there in time. En-+ adj./N. V. enrich, enlarge, encourage, enthrone, entitle

45 44 Inform(L22) Tell (fairly formal. In conversation we usually use tell ) They informed us of/about their arrival. Have you informed the police that there’s been an accident? We were informed that two prisoners have escaped.

46 45 +- × ÷ ? ! inform on/against sb. 检举,告发 The spy, wishing for less punishment, informed against his superior soon after he was arrested. Informed : having/showing knowledge He is a well –informed man. 他是个消息灵通人士。 According to informed sources, he has been enrolled by Harvard University. Science enables us to make more informed choices.

47 46 +- × ÷ ? ! At the moment, the public is in two minds about science(L23-24): Now the public can’t decide whether they need science or not. At the moment : now, at the present moment At the moment she is totally at a loss for words. c.f. In a moment : 一会儿 It was done in a moment. In two minds (about sth.): 三心二意, 犹豫不决 I think he was in two minds about whether to give a high score for this essay or not.

48 47 +- × ÷ ? ! It has come to expect the steady increase in the standard of living that new developments in science and technology have brought to continue, but it also distrusts science because it doesn’t understand it(L24-27). 解析: The backbone of the sentence is: The public expects the steady increase to continue, but it also distrusts science. increase in sth.: 在某方面的提高 the standard of living that new developments in science and technology have brought 为定语从句

49 48 Steady(L24) 1. The company is enjoying a steady rate of progress. 2. There has been a steady improvement in her condition. 3. The vase is placed on a steady foundation. 4. Keep the camera steady while you take a picture. 1,2: constant 稳定的 3,4: firm 牢固的

50 49 +- × ÷ ? ! Paraphrase: It is also an important element behind support for the Green parties (L28-29): The public’s distrust of science is also an important factor leading to support for the political parties whose main concern is to protect the environment.

51 50 +- × ÷ ? ! Audience(L31) a collective countable noun 1.A group of people who watch and listen to sb. speaking or performing in public The audience was/were enjoying every minute of the show. The audience for the daily broadcasts to schools was enormous. 2. The people who read a writer’s books(usu. Sing.) That book has a large audience. His book reached an even wider audience when it was filmed for television.

52 51 Collective Noun 1. 通常作复数的集体名词,如: police, people, cattle, poultry 作主语时谓语动词用复数。 Domestic cattle provide us with milk, beef and hides. 2. 通常作不可数名词的集体名词,如: foliage, machinery, equipment, furniture 作主语时 谓语动词用单数。 All the machinery in the factory is made in china.

53 52 +- × ÷ ? ! 3. 既可作单数也可作复数的集体名词, 如 audience, committee, class, crew, family, government, public 作主语时如侧重将集体 视为一个整体,谓语动词用单数,如侧重于 集体成员,谓语动词用复数。 The anti-crime committee makes its report tomorrow. That group of soldiers have the best ratings of individual performance.

54 53 1. Do you want to return to an earlier age? Why or why not? 2. What’s you attitude toward science? Discussions for Part One 53

55 54 Part Two  1. What’s the theme of this part?  2. According to the author, what are the ways to help the public have the scientific background it needs to make informed decisions? 54

56  1. How is science taught in school?  2. What does the author think of equations as a way of expressing scientific ideas?  3. Why does the author say “May be I would have sold twice as many copies without it”? Questions for Paragraph 4: 55

57 56 Language points Basis(L36) (pl. bases) 1. Foundation(usu. used as a singular noun, followed by for or of) The video will provide a basis for class discussion Kindness toward others is the basis of her philosophy.

58 57 +- × ÷ ? ! 2.The circumstance that provides a reason for some action or opinion(usu. followed by of or that-clause) Students are able, on the basis of experience, to choose which subjects to specialize in. They form a relationship on a friendly basis. On the basis that recognizing the problem is halfway to a solution, we should pay much to his comments. c.f. Basic : adj. 基本的,根本的 n. (常作) basics: 基本原理(则) the basics of cooking

59 58 Lie in (L36) Exist or be found in sth. His skill lies in his ability to communicate quite complicated ideas. The root of all these events lay in history. What do you think the most important part of learning lie in?

60 59 In terms of(L39) As regards(sth.); expressed as (sth.) 从 … 方面 (角度)来说;按照,依据 She judges everyone in terms of her own standards. In terms of customer satisfaction, the policy can’t be criticized. The figures are expressed in terms of a percentage.

61 60 +- × ÷ ? !  He referred to your work in terms of high praise.  Which sport has the most expenses _______ training equipment, player’s personal equipment and uniforms? 〔 CET-4, 〕 A. in place of B. in terms of C. by means of D. by way of

62 61 Brief (L40) Adj. 1. Using few words, concise Please give a brief account of a typical problem you met with in English learning. 2. Lasting or taking a short time My brother once made a brief appearance on television.

63 62 Accurate(L40) adj. Exact 准确的,精确的,无误的 You were pretty accurate in your calculations. She presents to the board a very accurate report. Is your watch accurate? N. accuracy

64 63 Paraphrase(L43-44) Maybe I would have sold twice as many copies without it. Subjunctive mood If my popular book had not included Einstein’s equation, maybe I would have sold twice as many copies(as I had sold).

65 64 倍数的表达 1. 倍数 +as+ 形容词 / 副词 (+ 名词 )(+ as )(C.f. Page 76) John’s luggage is three times as heavy as Mary’s. He lent to him twice as much money as she did. 2. 倍数 + 形容词 / 副词的比较级 +than A body of given mass would weigh six times less on the moon than on the earth. 3. 倍数 + 名词 The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 4. 动词 + 倍数 The personal income rose one and a half times.

66  Why do scientists need equations in expressing their ideas whereas the public doesn’t? Questions for Paragraph 5 65

67 66 Language Points Tend(L45) : Be likely to happen Plants tend to die in hot weather if you don’t water them. Do you tend to get up later at weekends? The school bus tends to be early on Monday mornings. N. tendency 趋势

68 67 In the form of(L45) 1. Having the shape of The lane was in the form of a big “S”. The flowers were laid out in the form of the character “ 欢度国庆 ”. 2. Existing in a particular form Some students received a benefit in the form of a tuition reduction.

69 68 Precise(L46) adj. Exact We never know the precise details of his death. 正好在我拿起听筒时门铃响了。 The door bell rang at the precise moment when I lifted the receiver.

70 69 +- × ÷ ? ! 辨析 precise , accurate Accurate :指某人(事)不仅没出错误, 而且与事实没有出入,非常忠实于实践证实 的或推导出的事实或真理。如: Is your watch accurate ? He found her report more accurate than his. Precise :多指下定义或划界限的精确性或工 作中的一丝不苟和机械结构的精密性。如: The definition he gives is not precise enough to be of any use. Precise instruments 精密仪器

71 70 Grasp(L47) V. 掌握,抓住 grasp sb’s hand/a rope/sb’s meaning N.Understanding Applied mathematics was beyond the grasp of most of her students. Who has a good grasp of English in your class?

72 71 Sufficient(L47) Enough (often followed by for or to +infinitive) There wasn’t sufficient evidence to prove that he was guilty. The supper is sufficient for everyone in the hall. N. sufficiency

73 72 Convey(L48) Make (ideas, feelings, etc.)known to another 传达,表达 Language conveys message. Their tears after winning the gold medals conveyed a lot: joy, excitement, and maybe pain that they had been experiencing.

74  1. What’s the role of science education in school?  2. Do books and magazines play the largest part in popularizing scientific ideas?  3. What is the the responsibility of TV science program producers? Questions for Paragraph 6 73

75 74 Language Points Put across(L55) Cause to be understand=put over, get across Good teachers are the ones who are able to put things across well. The government needs to put across the message that the economy is starting to recover. Did I put across the idea?

76 75 +- × ÷ ? ! put aside 储存;把 … 放在一边 put away 收好、放好 put forward 提出 put down 记下;镇压 put off 推迟 put on 穿戴;上演;增加 put out 熄灭;公布;生产 put through 接通 put up with 忍受 put in: 花费(时间,精力等) Never ________ till tomorrow what you can do today. Please hold on a minute. I’ll ___ you ______ to Mr. Smith right now. I have ______ 4 pounds during the last month. put off put through put on

77 76 Proportion(L56) 1. A part of a group or an amount(usu. Sing.) 部分 A large proportion of the city’s population is aged over 比例 The proportion of men to women in the medical profession has changed in recent years.

78 77 Fit into(L59) Be part of a situation, system, or plan The new college courses fit into a national education plan. It’s hard to see how he would fit into the team.

79 78 Educate(L61) V. Teach or train Their children are all well-educated. The organization started a campaign to educate teenagers about the danger of smoking. educator/education/educational

80 79 Entertain(L62) 1. Give pleasure to They entertain the children with tricks. We were all entertained by his performance. 2. Receive people as guests The Smiths entertain a great deal. According to the school regulations, women students are not allowed to entertain men in their rooms. N. entertainment: 娱乐,游艺

81  What’s your way of learning science? Can you suggest some other ways to improve the public’s understanding of science? Discussion for Part 2 80

82 81 Part Three Questions:  1. What does the author think of the future of human civilization?  2. Do you think man will destroy themselves sooner or later? 81

83 82 Paraphrase(L63) …hence the sick joke that…(L63) Therefore the sick joke spreads that… Sick joke: sick jokes deal with death and suffering in a cruel and unpleasant way … 因此就有了令人毛骨悚然的玩笑 …

84 83 Hence(L63) As a result, therefore (formal, followed by a clause/noun group/a./ad./prepositional phrase) The trade imbalance is likely to rise again in this decade. Hence a new set of policy actions will be required soon. He’s extremely private person; hence his reluctance to give interviews.

85 84 +- × ÷ ? ! It was a difficult route and hence not too popular with walkers. It’s handmade and hence expensive. 2. From this time They will leave a month hence. Her birthday is not far hence. I don’t know where I will be 4 years hence.

86 85 Contact(L64) V. Get in touch with Feel free to contact me if you need my help. 请尽快与我们联系。 Please contact with us as soon as possible. Please contact us as soon as possible. N. Make /in /out of contact with: (与 … )结识 / 在接触中 / 停止接触 F T

87 Text Analysis Expository writing  Begins with a statement of opinion(P3), then goes on to supporting details(P4-6), and then draws a conclusion(P7)  Make a brief comparison in style between the first 10 lines of both All the Cabbie Had Was a Letter and Public Attitudes Toward Science. 86

88 87 Text A Unit 2 Unit 3 Paragraph length Sentence length Simple or compound Ss Any passive voice Any dialogue Any 3 rd person narrator? shorterlonger shorter longer simplecompound no yes no yes

89 88 Exercises Any of the scientists and engineers are judged _____ how great their achievements are. A. in spite of B. in ways of C. in favor of D. in terms of

90 89 +- × ÷ ? ! If any man here does not agree with me, he should __ his own plan for improving the living conditions of these people. 〔 1994 考研〕 A. put on B. put out C. put in D. put forward

91 90 +- × ÷ ? !  Jack was about to announce our plan but I _________. [CET-6, ] A. put him through B. turned him out C. gave him up D. cut him short

92 91 +- × ÷ ? ! Difficulties and hardships have _____ the best qualities of the young geologist. [ 考研 1991] A. brought out B. brought about C. brought forth D. brought up

93 92 +- × ÷ ? ! Recycling wastes slows down the rate ____ which we use up the earth’s finite resources. [CET-6, ] A. in B. of C. with D. at

94 93 +- × ÷ ? ! The younger person’s attraction to stereos cannot be explained only ____ familiarity with technology. [CET-6 , ] A. by means of B. in terms of C. in quest of D. by virtue of

95 94 +- × ÷ ? ! We had to _____ a lot of noise When the children were at home. [CET-4, ] A. go in for B. hold on to C. put up with D. keep pace with

96 95 +- × ÷ ? ! During the conference the speaker tried to ____ his feelings concerning he urgency of a favorable decision. [CET-6, ] A. comply B. impose C. imply D. convey

97 96 +- × ÷ ? ! If you suspect that the illness might be serious you should not _____ going to the doctor. 〔 CET-4, 〕 A. put off B. hold back C. put aside D. hold up

98 97 +- × ÷ ? ! Nowadays advertising costs are no longer in reasonable ____ to the Total cost of the product. [ 考研 1990] A. proportion B. correlation C. connection D. correspondence

99 98 Recitation(Paras 1-2) and Exercises on the text book(P72-79) Reading Exercises of Text B (P 84-86) Preview of Unit 4 Ho mework 98

100 Bye

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