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Presentation on theme: "ORIENTATION AND TRAINING ORIENTATION AND TRAINING 1."— Presentation transcript:


2 Entry Issues Realistic Job Preview (RJP) and The Psychological Contract Developing commitment in the new recruit Understanding Culture/Climate Orientation Socialization 2

3 What is Socialization? Process by which an employee begins to adapt to the values, norms, and beliefs of the organization and its members ◦ Focus on a long term program ◦ Involves learning the organization’s climate and “learning to fit in” ◦ Foster links between employees and organization 3

4 4 Strategic Importance of Socialization Sets the tone of employment relationship Clarifies expectations / how things are done Reduces anxiety for new employees ◦ Will I fit in? Will I enjoy the job/coworkers/etc? Effects employee attitudes and behaviour ◦ Job satisfaction, commitment ◦ Job performance

5 Socialization vs Orientation Socialization ◦ Process of employees adapting to organization ◦ Long-term process, often informal Orientation ◦ Program that informs new employees about their job and company ◦ Short-term, often formal Examples of Tim Hortons employee orientation and socialization techniques 5

6 6 Stages of Socialization 1. Anticipatory (Pre-Arrival) Employees begin with certain expectations about organization and job ◦ May be unrealistic – if unmet, result in dissatisfaction, turnover, etc. ◦ Realistic Job Preview (RJP) may be helpful  Info about job demands and working conditions – both positive and negative aspects

7 7 Stages of Socialization 2. Encounter ◦ Employee has started new job ◦ Inconsistencies between expectations and reality emerge ◦ Needs info re: policies, procedures, etc.  E.g., via Orientation program  Organizational issues, policies, etc.  Benefits  Introductions  Job Duties

8 8 Stages of Socialization 2. Encounter (cont’d) ◦ Benefits of a good orientation program  Shows organization values to employee  Reduces employee anxiety and turnover  Reduces start-up costs  Clarifies job and organizational expectations  Improves job performance

9 9 Stages of Socialization 3. Change (Settling in) ◦ Inconsistencies start to get worked out ◦ Employee begins to identify with organization ◦ Transition from being an “outsider” to feeling like an “insider” ◦ Often involves taking on new attitudes, values, and behaviours to align with organization’s ◦ Misalignment = dissatisfaction and turnover

10 Summary New employees face many challenges Realistic job previews and employee orientation programs can: ◦ Reduce stress ◦ Reduce turnover ◦ Improve productivity 10

11 The challenge? Information overload Information irrelevance Too much “selling” of the organization No evaluation program Lack of follow up 11

12 Training and Development Training vs Development ◦ Both refer to the learning of job-related behaviour Training ◦ Focuses on job performance ◦ Emphasis is on acquisition of specific KSAs needed for present job Development ◦ Focuses on personal growth, longer-term development ◦ Emphasis is on acquiring KSAs needed for future job or organizational need 12

13 Trends Affecting Training Low unemployment = tight labour market ◦ T&D opportunities to attract & retain employees Alternatively, high unemployment, or economic recession ◦ T&D opportunities to create more and better work opportunities ◦ However, some companies may offer less T&D to cut costs Globalization ◦ Training for employees with international assignments New and changing technology – new KSAs Mergers, acquisitions, restructuring ◦ Jobs change, employees need new KSAs 13

14 Training Process Model 1. Needs assessment 2. Design training objectives 3. Develop program content 4. Implement training program 5. Evaluate effectiveness of training program 14

15 Step 1: Needs Assessment Needs Analysis ◦ Proactive or Reactive ◦ Diagnosis of problems and future challenges that can be met through training & development Organizational analysis ◦ Culture, values, mission, goals, strategy Job / task analysis ◦ KSA requirements Person analysis ◦ Consider pre-training states: predicted by individual (e.g., age, anxiety, cognitive ability, etc.) and situational characteristics (e.g., organizational climate) (Colquitt et al., 2000). ◦ Gaps between employee KSAs and KSAs required by jobs ◦ E.g., performance evaluations, self- or supervisor identification 15

16 Step 2: Develop Training Objectives Must include: ◦ The desired behaviour ◦ The conditions under which it is to occur ◦ Performance criteria ◦ E.g., “By the end of this week, you will be able to list and define the 5 main steps involved in the development of a training program, without referring to your notes” Objectives are standards that allow the success of training to be measured 16

17 Step 3: Develop Program Content and Learning Principles Issues to consider ◦ Needs assessment ◦ Training objectives ◦ Audience ◦ Class size ◦ Time availability ◦ Cost ◦ Training format ◦ Learning principles 17

18 Learning Principles How do people learn most effectively? Participation ◦ Participants are actively involved Repetition ◦ Repeated review of material Relevance ◦ Material is meaningful Transference ◦ Application of training to actual job situations Feedback ◦ Information given to learners re: their progress 18

19 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory High self-efficacy ◦ Belief one can achieve a behaviour High outcome expectancy ◦ Belief that behaviour will lead to an outcome of value 19 Higher level of learning

20 Organizational Influences on Transfer of Training Relates to trainee’s outcome expectancies ◦ Will the behaviour lead to desired outcomes? Rewards, pay, & promotion ◦ Are there rewards for demonstrating the new behaviour? Environmental constraints / obstacles ◦ Is equipment, time, etc. avail. for person to use skills? Supervisory and peer support ◦ Is the training reinforced / encouraged / rewarded on the job? ◦ Train coworkers together – reinforce each other Organization’s learning climate ◦ Learning is encouraged, supported, rewarded, etc. 20

21 Step 4: Deliver Training On-the-job On-the-jobOff-the-job Job instruction Job rotation Apprenticeships Coaching Lectures & videos Vestibule training Role-playing/Cases Simulation Self-Study & Programmed Computer-based (CBT) Virtual reality Internet/Web-based/Intranet Video-conferencing Numerous methods to choose from:

22 Strengths and Weaknesses of various Methods MethodKnowledgeSkillsAttitudesTransfer LectureYesNo Low VideoYesNoYesMed Role playNoYes High SimulationYes NoHigh Case studyYesMedYesMed 22

23 Step 5: Evaluating Training Effectiveness 5 Criteria - Kirkpatrick’s 4 levels plus 1 1.Reaction  Are participants satisfied with training? 2.Learning  How much has been learned? 3.Attitude Change (not 1 of Kirkpatrick’s 4 criteria)  Did training result in attitude change? 4.Behaviour change  Did the learning transfer to the job? 5.Results criteria  Was the training worth the cost to the company? 23

24 Evaluating Training Evaluation method used should assess all important training objectives ◦ Typically, focuses on whether change has occurred If possible, use an evaluation method that will allow you to draw accurate conclusions about the program’s effectiveness 24

25 Training Evaluation Designs Reaction measures ◦ Important, but don’t refer to effectiveness Measure behaviour post-training ◦ Can’t determine whether change occurred Pre-test – Post-test Design ◦ Measure → Training → Measure ◦ Allows you to see if change has occurred ◦ E.g., # of items produced before training = 10/minute ◦ # produced after training = 16/minute But, what if other employees who did not receive training average 15 items/minute? ◦ Is training effective? 25

26 Training Evaluation Designs Mere passage of time or task experience could also influence post-test performance. ◦ Could not necessarily attribute post-test scores to training Should also use a control group ◦ Employees who did not receive training – often called a “waiting list” control group ◦ Control group post-test could also be influenced by time and experience – therefore, the only difference between the groups would be training 26

27 Cost benefit analysis at Fed Ex Canada 2 week training program for new courier van drivers Costs of accidents: ◦ $ 399 for a trained driver compared to $1920 for an untrained driver ◦ Annual cost of all accidents for trained drivers was $2492 and $4833 for untrained drivers Value of the training course: ◦ Difference between trained and untrained driver which is $2341 Costs of training was $1890 Thus net benefit was $451 ($2341-$1890) ROI is 1.24 ($2341/$1890). Thus training program resulted in a return of $1.24 on every dollar spent on training! 27

28 Does training increase turnover? Debate: Do employers see a return on investment in tuition reimbursement? ◦ 2 sides of the debate:  Employee development leads to positive employee attitudes and motivates them to stay  Employee development increases employees’ employment options outside the organization and results in increased voluntary turnover (as per human capital theory) ◦ Which do you think is true? 28

29 Does training increase turnover? Study: Benson et al. (2004) AMJ, 47(3), 315-331. In this study, 9543 workers whose company provided full tuition reimbursement were studied Results ◦ Turnover is very low while participants are taking classes or pursuing a degree ◦ When participants complete advanced/graduate degrees, turnover increases dramatically ◦ However… 29

30 Does training increase turnover? When these participants (who completed advanced degrees) were promoted, turnover was less ◦ 56% less than participants who earned degrees but were not promoted ◦ 55% less than participants who were promoted but did not take part in tuition reimbursement Conclusion – tuition reimbursement can be an effective retention strategy, provided attention is paid to job-skill match after someone has received an advanced degree 30


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