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1 Emotion and Efficacy Pathways to Normative and Non-normative Collective Action Nicole Tausch Cardiff University EASP Small Group Meeting on Resolving.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Emotion and Efficacy Pathways to Normative and Non-normative Collective Action Nicole Tausch Cardiff University EASP Small Group Meeting on Resolving."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Emotion and Efficacy Pathways to Normative and Non-normative Collective Action Nicole Tausch Cardiff University EASP Small Group Meeting on Resolving Societal Conflicts and Building Peace: Socio- Psychological Dynamics, 7-10 September, 2009, Jerusalem, Israel

2 2 Types of Collective Action Normative vs. Non-normative (e.g., Wright, 2001; Wright et al., 1990) Normative vs. Non-normative (e.g., Wright, 2001; Wright et al., 1990) Normative action: conforms to the norms of the existing social system (e.g., political participation, peaceful demonstrations) Normative action: conforms to the norms of the existing social system (e.g., political participation, peaceful demonstrations) Non-normative action: violates these rules, often illegal (e.g., sabotage, violence, terrorism) Non-normative action: violates these rules, often illegal (e.g., sabotage, violence, terrorism) But: doesn’t mean that these are non-normative for certain subgroups! But: doesn’t mean that these are non-normative for certain subgroups! Constitutional vs. Extra-constitutional (e.g., Hayes & McAllister, 2001) Constitutional vs. Extra-constitutional (e.g., Hayes & McAllister, 2001) IRA (Northern Ireland): ‘ArmaLite and the ballot box’ strategies IRA (Northern Ireland): ‘ArmaLite and the ballot box’ strategies Legitimate vs. illegitimate action (Martin et al., 1984) Legitimate vs. illegitimate action (Martin et al., 1984) Legal vs. Illegal Legal vs. Illegal Constructive vs. destructive action (Dion, 1986; Scheepers et al., 2006) Constructive vs. destructive action (Dion, 1986; Scheepers et al., 2006)

3 3 Research Questions Cycle of violence hinders building trust and resolution of conflict (e.g., Northern Ireland) Cycle of violence hinders building trust and resolution of conflict (e.g., Northern Ireland) Understanding and addressing factors predictive of (support for) violence important part of conflict resolution; first step Understanding and addressing factors predictive of (support for) violence important part of conflict resolution; first step What are the predictors of non-normative actions (vs. normative)? What are the predictors of non-normative actions (vs. normative)? Emotions: anger & contempt Emotions: anger & contempt Group efficacy Group efficacy

4 4 Focus: normative action Focus: normative action Collective action: arises from complex interactions of structural conditions and psychological processes (Wright, 2001) Collective action: arises from complex interactions of structural conditions and psychological processes (Wright, 2001) In-group disadvantage In-group disadvantage Structural or situation/event-based Structural or situation/event-based Illegitimacy (SIT, Tajfel & Turner, 1979, 1986; RDT, e.g., Crosby, 1976) Illegitimacy (SIT, Tajfel & Turner, 1979, 1986; RDT, e.g., Crosby, 1976) Sense of injustice of disadvantage Sense of injustice of disadvantage Emotion-based analyses (RDT/IET): Emotion-based analyses (RDT/IET): Appraisals lead to action tendencies because they arouse discrete emotions, such as anger (Mackie et al., 2000; Smith, 1993; Smith & Oritz, 2002) Appraisals lead to action tendencies because they arouse discrete emotions, such as anger (Mackie et al., 2000; Smith, 1993; Smith & Oritz, 2002) What motivates collective action?

5 5 Group efficacy (McCarthy & Zald, 1977; Martin et al., 1984) Group efficacy (McCarthy & Zald, 1977; Martin et al., 1984) Belief that group can solve their group-related problem by unified effort (Bandura, 1995) Belief that group can solve their group-related problem by unified effort (Bandura, 1995) Related to notion of (in)stability of in-group disadvantage in SIT Related to notion of (in)stability of in-group disadvantage in SIT Pragmatic consideration Pragmatic consideration Dual Pathway Model (Van Zomeren, Spears & Leach, 2004) Dual Pathway Model (Van Zomeren, Spears & Leach, 2004) Group-based anger and group efficacy as distinct routes to collective action Group-based anger and group efficacy as distinct routes to collective action But only normative actions examined But only normative actions examined Less clear when group members will resort to non- normative action Less clear when group members will resort to non- normative action Group Efficacy

6 6 Normative Collective Action Tendencies Non-normative Collective Action Tendencies Appraisals Emotions Action Tendencies Group Efficacy + _

7 7 Resort to more extreme measures when situation hopeless Resort to more extreme measures when situation hopeless Stable low status of the in-group leads to more extreme forms of bias (outgroup derogation) (Scheepers et al., 2006) Stable low status of the in-group leads to more extreme forms of bias (outgroup derogation) (Scheepers et al., 2006) Non-normative action when legitimate channels closed (Wright et al., 1990) Non-normative action when legitimate channels closed (Wright et al., 1990) Group Efficacy and Normative vs. Non- normative Collective Action

8 8 Normative Collective Action Tendencies Non-normative Collective Action Tendencies Anger Appraisals Emotions Action Tendencies Group Efficacy ++ + Injustice ++

9 9Anger Constructive emotion (Fischer & Roseman, 2007) Constructive emotion (Fischer & Roseman, 2007) Involves certain amount of control, greater intimacy, less dispositional attributions Involves certain amount of control, greater intimacy, less dispositional attributions Positive outcome sought by coercing change in another person’s behaviour Positive outcome sought by coercing change in another person’s behaviour Hostile and antagonistic behaviours; but reconciliation in the long term Hostile and antagonistic behaviours; but reconciliation in the long term

10 10Contempt ‘Other-critical’ emotion like anger (Rozin, Lowery, Imada, & Haidt, 1999) ‘Other-critical’ emotion like anger (Rozin, Lowery, Imada, & Haidt, 1999) Distinct social functions and consequences (Fischer & Roseman, 2007) Distinct social functions and consequences (Fischer & Roseman, 2007) Often arises when anger is recurrent and remains unresolved (develops on top of anger) Often arises when anger is recurrent and remains unresolved (develops on top of anger) Lack of control over the other person, less intimacy Lack of control over the other person, less intimacy When no reconciliation is sought When no reconciliation is sought Negative and permanent changes in beliefs about another person (dispositional attributions) Negative and permanent changes in beliefs about another person (dispositional attributions) Less constructive for social relationships Less constructive for social relationships Dehumanization and moral exclusion of others (Leyens et al.,2000) Dehumanization and moral exclusion of others (Leyens et al.,2000) Feeling (morally) superior to others Feeling (morally) superior to others

11 11 Moral Appraisals Group morality important for in-group evaluation (Leach et al., 2007) Group morality important for in-group evaluation (Leach et al., 2007) Intergroup conflict often has symbolic elements Intergroup conflict often has symbolic elements discrepancies in beliefs, values, and moral codes strongly predict hostility towards the out-group (e.g., Biernat et al., 1996; Esses et al., 1993; Sears, 1988) discrepancies in beliefs, values, and moral codes strongly predict hostility towards the out-group (e.g., Biernat et al., 1996; Esses et al., 1993; Sears, 1988) Beliefs of the moral superiority of the in-group (‘ingroup virtue’ Reicher, Haslam, & Rath, 2008) and the immorality of the out-group can serve to justify action (e.g., Tetlock, 2002) Beliefs of the moral superiority of the in-group (‘ingroup virtue’ Reicher, Haslam, & Rath, 2008) and the immorality of the out-group can serve to justify action (e.g., Tetlock, 2002) Strong link to contempt felt toward an opponent (e.g., Fischer & Roseman, 2007) Strong link to contempt felt toward an opponent (e.g., Fischer & Roseman, 2007)

12 12 Normative Collective Action Tendencies Non-normative Collective Action Tendencies Anger Contempt Appraisals Emotions Action Tendencies Group Efficacy ++ + Injustice Moral Appraisals + +

13 13 Study 1: British students willingness to engage in solidarity-based collective action for change in treatment of asylum seekers (Basic model)

14 14 Procedure & Respondents Online study, Cardiff University Online study, Cardiff University Link sent out to participant panel and activist groups mailing lists Link sent out to participant panel and activist groups mailing lists Sample: N=185 Sample: N= female 81 female Mean age = (SD=2.62) Mean age = (SD=2.62) Read a fictitious story about the negative treatment of an asylum seeker in the UK Read a fictitious story about the negative treatment of an asylum seeker in the UK

15 15Measures Injustice perceptions (α =.88) Injustice perceptions (α =.88) To what extent do you consider the treatment of asylum seekers in this country to be just/fair/legitimate?’ To what extent do you consider the treatment of asylum seekers in this country to be just/fair/legitimate?’ Anger (α =.81) Anger (α =.81) To what extent do you feel angry/furious/resentful when thinking about the treatment of asylum seekers in the UK? To what extent do you feel angry/furious/resentful when thinking about the treatment of asylum seekers in the UK? Efficacy (‘I think that, as a group, people campaigning for a better treatment of asylum seekers are able to improve the situation of asylum seekers in this country.’) Efficacy (‘I think that, as a group, people campaigning for a better treatment of asylum seekers are able to improve the situation of asylum seekers in this country.’)

16 16 Measures – Actions People have in the past taken a wide variety of actions in order to achieve their political goals. To what extent would you approve of the following actions aimed at improving the treatment of asylum seekers in this country? People have in the past taken a wide variety of actions in order to achieve their political goals. To what extent would you approve of the following actions aimed at improving the treatment of asylum seekers in this country? How willing would you be to engage in the following actions to improve the treatment of asylum seekers in this country? How willing would you be to engage in the following actions to improve the treatment of asylum seekers in this country? Scale: 9-point Likert (not at all, extremely) Scale: 9-point Likert (not at all, extremely)

17 17 PCA (oblique rotation) Sign petition Sign petition Donate to charities Donate to charities Attend meetings of groups campaigning for a change in policy Attend meetings of groups campaigning for a change in policy Write letters to MPs Write letters to MPs Hand out information leaflets about the cause Hand out information leaflets about the cause Participate in peaceful protest Participate in peaceful protest Block a building entrance Block a building entrance Block a road Block a road Sabotage, such as deleting files that contain details of failed asylum seekers destined for deportation Sabotage, such as deleting files that contain details of failed asylum seekers destined for deportation Trespass into an asylum seeker detention centre Trespass into an asylum seeker detention centre  Blackmail officials (e.g., government lawyers arguing for asylum seekers deportation) Participate in violent protest (i.e., that includes vandalism and setting fires) Participate in violent protest (i.e., that includes vandalism and setting fires) Damage government buildings (e.g., break windows, smash down doors) Damage government buildings (e.g., break windows, smash down doors) Set fire to government buildings Set fire to government buildings Normative ( Constitutional Protest) Non-normative, non-violent Non-normative, violent

18 18 Normative Action Non-normative action, non-violent Anger Injustice Appraisals Emotions Action Tendencies Group Efficacy.64*** Non-normative action, non-violent.44***.21** ** -.16*

19 19 Study 2: Protest against introduction of tuition fees in Germany Replicate results Replicate results Go beyond anger: Contempt as a particularly destructive emotion & moral superiority as relevant appraisal (Extended model) Go beyond anger: Contempt as a particularly destructive emotion & moral superiority as relevant appraisal (Extended model)

20 20 Tuition Fees in Germany Federal ‘higher education bill’: tuition fees were prohibited Federal ‘higher education bill’: tuition fees were prohibited 2002: several states took legal action, education should be the sole responsibility of the states 2002: several states took legal action, education should be the sole responsibility of the states 2005: ruling that a federal law prohibiting tuition fees is unconstitutional 2005: ruling that a federal law prohibiting tuition fees is unconstitutional Introduction of local laws that allowed tuition fees (around 500 Euro per semester) Introduction of local laws that allowed tuition fees (around 500 Euro per semester) Decisions were met with much opposition by students Decisions were met with much opposition by students Difficult to get loans Difficult to get loans Threatens the social welfare state Threatens the social welfare state Wave of student protests ( ), still ongoing Wave of student protests ( ), still ongoing

21 21

22 22 Procedure & Respondents Online study, University of Marburg Online study, University of Marburg Link sent out to various university lists Link sent out to various university lists Sample: N=307 students Sample: N=307 students 51.8% female 51.8% female Mean age = (SD=3.40) Mean age = (SD=3.40) Wide range of subjects represented Wide range of subjects represented Biology, Business, Chemistry, Ethnology, Philology, Peace studies, Geography, German, History, Law, Maths, Physics, Psychology, Education, Theology, Philosophy, Medicine, Politics, Sociology Biology, Business, Chemistry, Ethnology, Philology, Peace studies, Geography, German, History, Law, Maths, Physics, Psychology, Education, Theology, Philosophy, Medicine, Politics, Sociology

23 23 Measures - Appraisals Injustice appraisals (α =.86) Injustice appraisals (α =.86) The introduction of tuition fees is unfair. The introduction of tuition fees is unfair. Tuition fees are socially unjust. Tuition fees are socially unjust. The introduction of tuition fees is not legitimate. The introduction of tuition fees is not legitimate. The introduction of tuition fees is justified. (-) The introduction of tuition fees is justified. (-) Moral Superiority Moral Superiority ‘Members of the protest movement against tuition fees are morally superior to advocates of the introduction of tuition fees.’ ‘Members of the protest movement against tuition fees are morally superior to advocates of the introduction of tuition fees.’ Group Efficacy (α =.84) Group Efficacy (α =.84) I think that students can stop the introduction of tuition fees. I think that students can stop the introduction of tuition fees. I think that students can successfully defend their rights. I think that students can successfully defend their rights. Students are strong as a group and can move a lot. Students are strong as a group and can move a lot. I think students have already lost the fight against tuition fees. (-) I think students have already lost the fight against tuition fees. (-)

24 24 Measures - Emotions Anger (α =.93) Anger (α =.93) I’m furious about the planned introduction of tuition fees. I’m furious about the planned introduction of tuition fees. The introduction of tuition fees angers me. The introduction of tuition fees angers me. Contempt (α =.93) Contempt (α =.93) I despise people who advocate tuition fees. I despise people who advocate tuition fees. I detest people who advocate tuition fees. I detest people who advocate tuition fees.

25 25 Measures – Action tendencies Action tendencies Action tendencies How likely is it that you would participate in the following actions against tuition fees in the future? (1 = very unlikely, 7 = very likely) How likely is it that you would participate in the following actions against tuition fees in the future? (1 = very unlikely, 7 = very likely)

26 26Actions Discussion meetings Discussion meetings Plenary meetings Plenary meetings Writing flyers Writing flyers Signing a complaint against unconstitutionality Signing a complaint against unconstitutionality Street theatre Street theatre Demonstrations Demonstrations Boycott tuition fees Boycott tuition fees Go on strike Go on strike Disturb events Disturb events Block university buildings Block university buildings Block highway Block highway Throw stones or bottles Throw stones or bottles Arson attacks on university buildings Arson attacks on university buildings Arson attacks on private property of responsible persons Arson attacks on private property of responsible persons Attacks on police Attacks on police Attacks on responsible persons Attacks on responsible persons Protest Resistance Violence

27 27 Group Efficacy Protest Resistance Violence χ2(70) = ***, χ2/df=2.03, CFI =.98, RMSEA =.06 (p-close=.16), SRMR =.03 Anger Contempt.21***.80***.62***.33*** Perceived Injustice.59*** -.17**.24***.25***.35***.26***.35***.41*** Moral Superiority.48***.23***.49***.09*

28 28Discussion Further theoretical development in order! Further theoretical development in order! Two emotional routes to collective action: Two emotional routes to collective action: Injustice appraisals, anger, normative action (like in previous research) Injustice appraisals, anger, normative action (like in previous research) Moral superiority, contempt, non-normative action (chronic ideological route?) Moral superiority, contempt, non-normative action (chronic ideological route?)

29 29Discussion Group efficacy predicts both normative and non- normative collective action Group efficacy predicts both normative and non- normative collective action But nature of effect differs for different types of action But nature of effect differs for different types of action Consistent with previous lab work (Wright et al., 1991) Consistent with previous lab work (Wright et al., 1991) Negative relation to violent action (after repeated frustration?) Negative relation to violent action (after repeated frustration?) Extreme actions in desperate circumstances! Extreme actions in desperate circumstances! Seems somewhat inconsistent with ‘rational actor model’ Seems somewhat inconsistent with ‘rational actor model’ Explore other functions of violence, more intermediate Explore other functions of violence, more intermediate Influence third parties Influence third parties Provoke counter-reaction and expose opponent Provoke counter-reaction and expose opponent Revenge Revenge

30 30 Study 3: The role of response efficacy in predicting support for violence among third parties How does the effectiveness of violent and non-violent resistance strategies by Palestinians against Israelis influence the attitudes of third parties toward the use of each strategy? (Reem Saab)

31 31 Procedure Participants: Cardiff students (study ongoing) Participants: Cardiff students (study ongoing) 15-minute documentary clip about the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories 15-minute documentary clip about the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories Contained the manipulation of effectiveness of peaceful and violent action strategies by Palestinians (expert opinions) Contained the manipulation of effectiveness of peaceful and violent action strategies by Palestinians (expert opinions) 2x2 design: Effectiveness of armed struggle (high/low) x Effectiveness of non-violent resistance (mass demonstrations, boycott, civil disobedience; high/low). 2x2 design: Effectiveness of armed struggle (high/low) x Effectiveness of non-violent resistance (mass demonstrations, boycott, civil disobedience; high/low). DVs: Perceived legitimacy of attacks on Israeli settlers and attacks on Israeli civilians; Support for attacks on Israeli soldiers, settlers and civilians DVs: Perceived legitimacy of attacks on Israeli settlers and attacks on Israeli civilians; Support for attacks on Israeli soldiers, settlers and civilians

32 32 Perceived legitimacy of violent attacks on settlers

33 33 Perceived legitimacy of attacks on civilians

34 34 Support for attacks on soldiers

35 35 Support for attacks on settlers

36 36 Support for attacks on civilians

37 37Discussion When groups are in a desperate circumstances (nothing to lose)… When groups are in a desperate circumstances (nothing to lose)… Low perceived group efficacy Low perceived group efficacy Low perceived response efficacy (of non-violence and even violence) Low perceived response efficacy (of non-violence and even violence) …then more extreme measures favored (or less opposed) …then more extreme measures favored (or less opposed) ‘Crushing’ resistance won’t necessarily reduce violence, likely to incite even more violence (Pratto et al., 2009) ‘Crushing’ resistance won’t necessarily reduce violence, likely to incite even more violence (Pratto et al., 2009) Increase efficacy Increase efficacy open up legitimate channels for engagement open up legitimate channels for engagement empowerment of disadvantaged groups empowerment of disadvantaged groups Threatening to advantaged groups, reluctant to let go of power Threatening to advantaged groups, reluctant to let go of power

38 38 Acknowledgements Julia Becker, University of Marburg Russell Spears, Cardiff University Oliver Christ, University of Marburg Reem Saab, Cardiff University


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