Presentation on theme: "The Next Best Alternative. Incentives are factors that encourage or discourage various types of behaviors, actions or activities. Changes in incentives."— Presentation transcript:
Incentives are factors that encourage or discourage various types of behaviors, actions or activities. Changes in incentives alter the way people behave. Incentives influence behavior at all levels- personal, familial, business, government, and national.
What is the opportunity cost of investing $500 in a new stereo system? What is the opportunity cost of going to college?
6 What if a financial planner offers to buy you lunch? You incur no money cost but you sacrifice time that could have been used to do something else. The value of your next best option is the opportunity cost of going to the “free” lunch.
Michael Jordan was cut from his high school varsity basketball team in his sophomore year. He then had to make the decision to either work harder to improve his skills or focus on another choice. Jordan decided to work harder on Basketball, but he faced the factor of not enough time. Once he decided to skip Biology to go to the gym to practice his skills. If you go to biology class, what do you have to give up? If you go to the gym to practice, what is your opportunity cost?
1. is the value of the best alternative. 2. measures the undesirable aspects of that action. 3. is the average amount of unhappiness experienced by everyone involved. 4. will be the same for everyone.
What would you have purchased if you did not purchase the $500 stereo system? What could you “earn” if you don’t go to college
Surf the television channels, glance at any news stand, or open a clothing catalog, and it becomes clear: Americans admire people who look slender and physically fit. Yet, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, only about 25 percent of Americans are getting enough exercise and about 35 percent of American adults are overweight. The percentage of children who are overweight has doubled since the early 1970s.
THE MYSTERY Why do an increasing number of Americans, the same ones who admire the trim, slender look so often featured in the media, exercise too little and eat too much?
Americans are not gaining extra weight because they are lazy or because of a sudden increase in the desire to eat fatty foods. Instead, they are choosing new jobs created in a changing market system — new jobs that have resulted in less exercise.
Americans have in effect traded thinness for other values and work-related benefits enabling them to live longer and healthier lives. Some Americans enjoy new forms of passive entertainment; for them, the opportunity cost of physical activity would include giving up time they now spend watching TV or playing video games.
1. the cost of books and supplies at the rival college 2. the income he could have earned at the printed circuit board factory plus the direct cost of attending college here (tuition, textbooks, etc.) 3. the benefits he could have received from going to the rival college 4. only the tuition and fees paid for taking classes here
1. it would not affect the opportunity cost of playing basketball or of broadcasting 2. it would increase the opportunity cost of continuing to play professional basketball 3. it would cause the production possibilities frontier to become convex 4. it would increase the opportunity cost of becoming a broadcaster
Of course, hard work and fulfilling requirements If you are unable to achieve an A by fulfilling requirements, you may be able to buy one. The going rate is one million dollars
1. only $5,000 of tuition. 2. only $20,000 of foregone income. 3. $15,000, the difference between tuition and foregone income. S 4. at least $25,000 of tuition and foregone income. 5. less than $20,000 and more than $5,000.
1. investment that a nation gives up to increase its economic growth. 2. present consumption that a nation gives up to accumulate capital 3. future consumption that a nation gets if it gives up some present consumption. 4. future consumption that a nation gives up to consume more today