Presentation on theme: "1 Tuition Policies in a Comparative Perspective Theoretical and Political Rationales P. Marcucci."— Presentation transcript:
1 Tuition Policies in a Comparative Perspective Theoretical and Political Rationales P. Marcucci
2 Tuition Fees Charges levied upon students and their families to cover some portion of underlying costs of higher education. Related to institutional costs of instruction. Not related to student living costs or administrative costs (fees).
3 Main Issues Involved in a Country’s Tuition Policy Division of the burden of these instructional costs between: – the student and his/her family and the government, or taxpayer. –parents and students Accompanying financial assistance policies/programs that are adopted to ensure access for low income students.
4 Tuition Fee Policies Generally based on a law or other legal instrument such as the Constitution that provides basis for charging or prohibiting tuition.
5 Legal Basis of Tuition Fee Policies National and/or state policies of moderate tuition fees in public higher education institutions National and/or state policies of free higher public education.
6 Tuition Fee Policy in Russia 1992 - Law on Education 1993 - Constitution of the Russian Federation 1994 – Governmental Decree 407 1996 – Russian Federation Law on Education 2000 – Development strategy оf Russian education
7 Who Sets Tuition? National Government State/Provincial Government Institution Some combination of the above.
8 Types of Public Tuition Policies Up-front tuition No tuition Deferred tuition Dual track tuition
9 Dual Track Tuition Policy Policy of free tuition for students admitted at the top of the competitive admission examinations, that allows universities to admit others scoring below the cut-off for a fee.
11 Flat Vs. Differentiated Tuition
12 UK Tuition Policy 1998/99 PolicyWhite Paper Proposed Policy Upfront vs. deferred tuition Upfront, means- tested tuition Deferred tuition Who sets?GovernmentInstitution Flat vs. differentiated FlatDifferentiated Student Assistance covering tuition costs Means-testing of tuition Deferred payment of tuition ( issues of repayment point & subsidy)
13 Hypotheses on the Impact of Tuition on Enrollment Behavior the charging of tuition will lead to increased equity (fairness) and expanded capacity, as long as implemented with means tested grant and loan programs. the charging of tuition (upfront or deferred) or increasing tuition will have a negative impact on enrollment rates and/or on enrollment behavior and on post- enrollment behavior.
14 Findings on the Impact of Tuition on Enrollment Behavior in some countries net price changes have little effect on enrollment rates at the macro level; in some of these same countries (or at some tuition levels) net price may have a discouraging impact on low income students and/or implications for enrollment behavior; not clear to what extent the discouraging impact offset by increasing need based aid or other factors; more research critical.
15 Challenge To document impact of tuition and financial aid on enrollment behavior; To design efficient and effective student aid programs that can offset any discouraging impact on the participation of low-income students.