Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web Roberto García Universitat de Lleida, Spain September 20, 2007.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web Roberto García Universitat de Lleida, Spain September 20, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web Roberto García Universitat de Lleida, Spain September 20, 2007 Sophia Antipolis, France

2 Smart University DRM, from research to implementations Where did you say you come from? 2Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007

3 Table of Contents Introduction –Semantic Web Objectives Specification Conceptualisation Implementation Evaluation Conclusions Future Work Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 20073

4 Introduction Digital media: easy production and copy Digital Rights Management (DRM) Windows Media DRM, iTunes FairPlay, RealNetworks Helix, Sony MagicGate… DRM copy play … Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 20074

5 Introduction Internet: easy distribution DRM interoperability DRM REL Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 20075

6 Introduction Need for a standard REL (Rights Expression Language) Some efforts: –XML-based RELs Formal syntax XML Schema for standard grammar Informal semantics Rights Data Dictionaries –Creative Commons simple predefined licenses Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 20076

7 XML-based RELs: –Limited expressivity –No interoperability mechanisms –Informal semantics, re-implement for each tool Creative Commons: –Predefined and closed set of licenses –Non-commercial purposes Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Introduction

8 DRM Watch: 2005 Year in Review: DRM Standards 1 –…consumer complaints have moved beyond overly restrictive DRMs to lack of interoperability among them… –…we see no production implementations… –…ContentGuards asserts its patents apply to any REL implementation in DRM… Electronic Frontier Foundation 2 –…fail to accommodate… copyright regimes Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 20078

9 Introduction DRM standardisation difficulties –Internet/Web open and heterogeneous –Copyright complex domain –High level of abstraction (not bits or pixels) Concentrate on the roots, formalise SEMANTICS ODRL Duplicate Reproduction Right Copy MPEG-21 Adapt CC Reproduction Copyright Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 20079

10 Introduction Why semantics are needed? Common scenario: web search and language ambiguity –Computers get confused because… …though we see: "Smart University" (3rd edition) is an educational program dedicated to advanced technologies of Smart Card, e-ID,... SMART (Sisterhood Mobilized for AIDS/HIV Research and Treatment) was founded in SMART University welcomes all women infected or affected by HIV/AIDS who... Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

11 Introduction Computers see: Smart University SMART University Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

12 Introduction XML allows some degree of automation –Data Interface: set of specific tags and grammar (DTD, XMLSchema) Faithless Insomnia... Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

13 Introduction With XML computers see:... Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

14 Introduction Interoperability problem Global agreement required –Just formal syntax, no semantic interoperability tools ? Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

15 Introduction If the previous tool is presented a piece of data based on a new schema: Garbage Version Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

16 Introduction That tool sees:... Code interoperability rules case by case Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

17 Introduction Semantic Web proposal –Web + Knowledge Representation –Web wide formal semantics RDF: semantic net, graph model RDF Schema: classes, inheritance,… Web Ontology Language (OWL) –OWL-DL: scalable (decidable and tractable) Semantic Web Rules Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

18 Introduction RDF provides graph model: Graph can model: –trees (XML) –tables (DBs) Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

19 Song Class Audio Class subClassOf /song1 type title Property attribute Property subPropertyOf Literal Class... title type domain range RDFSchema RDF type Introduction RDFSchema: OOP-like primitives –type –class, property –subclass, subproperty –domain, range Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

20 Introduction Web Ontology Language (OWL) –Logic reasoning –Primitives for semantic interoperability Equivalent classes and properties equivalentClass, equivalentProperty Disjoint classes disjointWith Inverse, transitive, symmetric properties inverseOf, TransitiveProperty, SymmetricProperty Cardinality maxCardinality, minCardinality Unique value properties FunctionalProperty Identificative properties InverseFunctionalProperty Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Semantic Web

21 Table of Contents Introduction Objectives Specification Conceptualisation Implementation Evaluation Conclusions Future Work Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

22 Objectives Semantic Web approach to DRM: –Knowledge Representation tools –Web Wide applicability Benefits: –Formalise semantics –Facilitate interoperability and implementation –Overcome REL patent? –Include copyright –Support full value chain Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

23 Objectives Ontology development based on Methontology: –Specification –Conceptualisation (and formalisation) –Implementation –Evaluation XML Semantics Reuse –Profit from existing XML Schema based RELs –Formalise implicit semantics –XML Schema to Web Ontology –XML data to semantic data (RDF) Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

24 Table of Contents Introduction Objectives Specification Conceptualisation Implementation Evaluation Conclusions Future Work Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

25 Specification Copyright domain analysis Generic Ontology –WIPO 1 worldwide harmonisation Literary, artistic and scientific works (not ideas) Maybe derived, but always original Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García World Intellectual Property Organisation Copyright Treaty,

26 Specification Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

27 Specification Applicable to the Controlled P2P metadata diffusion scenario Peer A Peer B Make Available Right Reproduction Right Scenario Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

28 Table of Contents Introduction Objectives Specification Conceptualisation –Creation, Rights and Action Model Implementation Evaluation Conclusions Future Work Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

29 Conceptualisation Complex domain, build model in three steps: Creation Model Rights Model Action Model Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

30 Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Conceptualisation Victor Hugos Les Misérables Creation Model

31 Conceptualisation Work –Mozart's The Magic Flute. ISWC Manifestation –The printed scores. ISBN Performance –A scenic play. Fixation –A sound recording. ISRC Communication –An Internet stream. Instance –A CD. UPC hasDerivation hasManifestation hasPerformance hasFixation hasCommunication hasInstance Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Creation Model

32 Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Conceptualisation Rights Model

33 End-users do not hold rights –Usage licenses –Special permissions: Quotation Education Information Official Act Private Copy Parody Temporary Reproduction 33Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Conceptualisation Rights Model

34 Actions, the building blocks Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Conceptualisation Action Model

35 Actions governed by Economic Rights: –Reproduction Right: copy –Distribution Right: distribute; sell, rent, lend –Public Performance Right: perform –Fixation Right: record –Communication Right: communicate; retransmit, broadcast, make available –Transformation Right: transform; adapt, translate 35Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Conceptualisation Action Model

36 Conceptualisation End-user actions, to use a… –manifestation: buy –instance: buy –performance: attend –communication: access broadcast: tune something made available: access picture, sculpture book, CD, DVD projection, recital, exhibition TV channel, radio station web page, stream Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Action Model

37 Altogether: model copyright value chains –E.g. serials adapted from literary works 37Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Conceptualisation Action Model

38 Actions for users special permissions: –Quotation Right: quote, limited extent copy, usually requiring an attribute action –Private Copy Right: copy producing a reproduction for private consumption –Education Right: educational act, any copy, communicate or perform with educational or research purposes –Temporary Reproduction Right: a copy that produces a temporal reproduction –… Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Action Model Conceptualisation

39 Case roles (linguistics): relate actions to involved entities Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Action Model Conceptualisation

40 License building primitives: –Event Patterns: to state what is obliged, permitted or prohibited Built from actions and case roles Scenario All copy events performed by agent granted who copies content01 from PeerA to two peers from the set PeerB, PeerC, PeerD at any time point six months after Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Action Model Conceptualisation

41 License building primitives: –Agree: model permissions theme points to the permitted event pattern Scenario Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Action Model Conceptualisation

42 License building primitives: –consequence: model obligations Points to the obliged event pattern Scenario Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Action Model Conceptualisation

43 License building primitives: –condition: model a priori conditions Points to the condition event pattern –Disagree: model prohibitions theme points to the prohibited event pattern –Other concepts: Transfer: model interchanges, commercial or not. Time Location... Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Action Model Conceptualisation

44 Rules, examples: –First sale exhaustion:s:Sell,i:Instance theme(s,i) ¬s:Sell theme(s,i)ss –Assign author rights on Manifest: Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García Action Model Conceptualisation

45 Table of Contents Introduction Objectives Specification Conceptualisation Implementation Evaluation Conclusions Future Work Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

46 Implementation One conceptual model, many implementations Semantic Web implementation with OWL OWL-DL variant –enables tractable and decidable reasoning for use-license checking, scalability Additionally, Semantic Web rules OWL Full OWL DL OWL Lite + expressivity - complexity Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

47 Implementation Rights and License Patterns implemented as Classes –Copyright, Reproduction Right, Copy, CopyPattern,... Uses implemented as Instances –u if u Copy Pattern then license pattern authorises u Reproduction Right Copy Copyright Copy Pattern u ? Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

48 Implementation License Pattern Class built from constraints on kind of actions, agents, time points, locations, etc. OWL Building Blocks –Classes for actions (e.g. Copy) –Logical operators (AND, OR, NOT) –OWL Restrictions, constraints on case roles (e.g. agent all values from PublisherSubscribers) Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

49 Implementation Copy pattern restricted to: –digital object (theme) –group of users (agent) or –non-commercial (aim) depending on –time range (pointInTime) Scenario Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

50 Implementation Description Logic notation for the commercial copy pattern: Pattern CopypointInTime , agent.PublisherSubscribers ( 1 agent)theme.{urn:doi /…} ( 1 theme) Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

51 Implementation Patterns permitted by Agree actions and prohibited by Disagree ones. Algorithm: –If disagreed not allowed –If agreed and not disagreed allowed –If not agreed not allowed Disagree precedence allows: –Revocation –More complex patterns –Avoid DL reasoners limitations (details Annex A) Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

52 Implementation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Copy all copy actions Pattern 2 Allowed Pattern 1 Agree Disagree Agree 52

53 Implementation OWL-DL reasoners services: –Satisfiability: consistency, license verification –Subsumption: compute subclasses License interactions License search –Instance Checking: class an individual belongs to Check uses against licenses –Other: Debugging, justifications for conclusions Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Pattern A Pattern B Pattern Use 53

54 Implementation OWL-DL limitations: –No explicit variables –Difficult to model rules (if … then …) Semantic Web rules –Variables –Classical rules –Built-ins (math, comparisons, date/time ops,...) –Integrates OWL Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

55 Table of Contents Introduction Objectives Specification Conceptualisation Implementation Evaluation Conclusions Future Work Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

56 Evaluation Map MPEG-21 and ODRL ontologies to Copyright Ontology –Based on XML Semantics Reuse Methodology XML Schemas OWL Ontologies XML instances RDF metadata MPEG-21, ISO/IEC –Part 5 – REL, XML Schemas: Core RELOnto-R Standard Extensions RELOnto-SX Multimedia Extensions RELOnto-MX –Part 6 – RDD, informal ontology RDDOnto Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

57 Evaluation ODRL 1.1 (OMA V1.0 DRM REL) –XML Schemas: Expression Language ODRLOnto-EX Data Dictionary ODRLOnto-DD Benefits –Check Copyright Ontology coverage –Apply semantic tools existing RELs Validate MPEG-21 RDD standard Implement Data Dictionary inheritance License checking … Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

58 Evaluation Build SemDRMS Semantic Digital Rights Management System –Controlled P2P metadata diffusion Peer A SemDRM copy make available Licenses Store DL Reasoner Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

59 Evaluation Digital Media Project (DMP) –Traditional Rights and Usages informal descriptions, difficult to incorporate into DRM systems Quote Private Copy Time Shift... Copyright Ontology: profit from copyright model and capture rights exceptions –No enforcing mechanisms, accountability Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

60 Evaluation Quote scenario –Right exception model: Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

61 Evaluation Concrete quote action: –Tim wants to quote 10 seconds of a work by John Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

62 Evaluation Checking: Result: Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

63 Evaluation Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García 2007 Private Copy scenario –Right exception model: 63

64 Evaluation Concrete private copy action: –Peter wants to produce a personal copy of My best quote of the year Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

65 Evaluation Checking: Result Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

66 Table of Contents Introduction Objectives Specification Conceptualisation Implementation Evaluation Conclusions Future Work Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

67 Conclusions Concentrate on semantics Ontology, more expressivity Include copyright Facilitate implementation and interoperability –Reuse DL reasoners for license checking –RELs ontologies, XML Semantics Reuse Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

68 Table of Contents Introduction Objectives Specification Conceptualisation Implementation Evaluation Conclusions Future Work Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

69 Future Work Full SemDRMS based on OWL-DL Copyright Ontology Complete Mappings to Copyright Ontology –MPEG-21 REL Ontologies –ODRL Ontologies –Creative Commons Security and trust through RDF signatures Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

70 More details: Smart University DRM, from research to implementations Thank you for your attention Roberto García Universitat de Lleida, Spain

71 Smart University DRM, from research to implementations Annex A Implementation Details How to deal with licenses using Description Logic reasoners

72 Implementation Pattern Copy PatternpointInTime , agent.{granted}origin.{peerA}theme.{fragment01} ( 2 recipient)recipient.{peerB, peerC, peerD} Scenario Agree Problem Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

73 Implementation Problem: Open World Assumption (OWA) OWA sensible constructs: –maxCardinality ( n): new facts can make cardinality n –allValuesFrom (R.C): new facts where R.(¬C) –… OWA insensible constructs: –minCardinality ( n): once n, new facts cannot make cardinality n –someValuesFrom (R.C): once R.C, new facts cannot make ¬(R.C) –… 0132 maxCardinality 2 (n 2) minCardinality 3 (n 3) New facts OPEN WORLD Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

74 Implementation Metalevel negation to overcome OWA Agree OWA insensible constructs –,,… Disagree negated OWL sensible constructs –R.C R.¬C – n n+1 Allowed(u) Agree.theme(u) ¬Disagree.theme(u) Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

75 Implementation Pattern Copy PatternpointInTime , agent.{granted}origin.{peerA}theme.{fragment0001} Pattern Pattern ( ( 3 recipient)recipient.(¬{peerC, peerD, peerB}) ) Scenario Agree Disagree Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García

76 Implementation Scenario [ a Copy; agent :granted;origin :peerA; theme :fragment02;recipient :peerB ] [ a Copy; agent :granted;origin :peerA; theme :fragment01;recipient :peerC, :peerD ] [ a Copy; agent :granted;origin :peerA; theme :fragment01;recipient :peerB, :peerC, :peerE ] Allowed Copy Pattern Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web – © Roberto García


Download ppt "Enabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web Roberto García Universitat de Lleida, Spain September 20, 2007."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google