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# PREPARED BY : NOR AZAH BINTI AZIZ KOLEJ MATRIKULASI TEKNIKAL KEDAH 1 3.3 PROJECT NETWORK DIAGRAM.

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PREPARED BY : NOR AZAH BINTI AZIZ KOLEJ MATRIKULASI TEKNIKAL KEDAH 1 3.3 PROJECT NETWORK DIAGRAM

OBJECTIVES 2 Define Network Diagram Purpose of Network Diagram Method : Activity On the Node (AON) Identify ES, EF, LS, LF using Forward Pass Calculation and Backward Pass calculation Identify Critical Path Identify Slack Time

INTRODUCTION 3 A PND is a pictorial representation of the sequence in which the project work can be done. The activities and its duration are the basic building blocks needed to construct a graphic picture of the project Its provide - the earliest time at which work can be begin on every activity that makes up the project - the earliest expected completion date of the project

IMPORTANCE OF ND 4 ND can be used for ; i)Planning : gives a clear graphical picture of the relationship between project activities ii)Implementation : when updating the project file with activity status and estimate to completion data, the ND is then automatically updated and can be printed or viewed iii)control : while updated ND will retain the status of all activities, the best graphical report and controlling project work will be Gantt Chart

METHODS 5 I) THE ACTIVITY ON THE NODE ( AON) Basic unit of analysis in ND is the activity Each activity is represented by a rectangle ( activity node) Arrows represent the predecessor/successor relationship between activities Every activity in the project will have its own activity node ( each rectangle)

METHODS 6 I) THE ACTIVITY ON THE NODE ( AON) A B C D E F PDM format of a project network diagram

METHODS 7 I) THE ACTIVITY ON THE NODE ( AON) Dependencies - A dependency is simply a relationship that exists between pairs of activities - 4 types of activity dependencies ABFS : A finishes, B start

METHODS 8 I) THE ACTIVITY ON THE NODE ( AON) Dependencies FF : A finishes, B finish A B A A SS : A start, B start

METHODS 9 I) THE ACTIVITY ON THE NODE ( AON) Dependencies SF : A starts, B finish A B

I)THE ACTIVITY ON THE NODE ( AON) 10

11 I) THE ACTIVITY ON THE NODE ( AON) Forward Pass calculations Creating an initial project network schedule A 1 B 3 C 2 D 5 E 2 F 3 Start End

EST, LST, EFT, LFT 12 CPM uses the following times for an activity EST- Early Start time is the earliest time the activity can begin LST- Late Start Time is the latest time the activity can begin - still allow the project to be completed on time EFT- Early Finish Time is the latest time the activity can end LFT- Late Finish Time is the latest time the activity can end - still allow the project to be completed on time

Forward Pass calculations 13

Backward Pass calculations 14

CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) 15 An effective way to analyze complex projects Represent the critical set of activities to complete a project Help to focus on essential activities which are critical to run the project Allows the project manager to concentrate on important activities CP is the longest path on ND and the most important part Any delays on the CP will lead to delay of the project

CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) 16

FLOAT 17 Also known as slack, total float and path float Is computed for each task by subtracting EFT from the LFT ( @ the early start from the late start) Is the amount of time the task can slip without delaying the project finish date. Free float is the amount of time a task can slip without delaying the early start of any task that immediately follows it.

Slack Time calculations 18

EXAMPLE 19 ActivityPrecursorDuration (week) A-7 BA6 CA5 DA,B4 EB,C3 FD,E2 1. TABLE 1 shows the activities and the durations required to complete a construction project, including the precursor activity. Refering to the TABLE 1: i) draw the project network diagram. ii) state the activities on the critical path. iii) calculate the minimum duration of the project.

20 project network diagram A D C E F B START END 0 7 7 0 0 7 13 4 17 13 0 17 7 6 13 7 0 13 7 5 12 9 2 14 14 3 16 14 1 17 17 2 19 17 0 19 19 0 activity ES D EF LS F LF

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