Presentation on theme: "Winter 20151 Lecture 9 Project Scheduling Time Events Resources."— Presentation transcript:
Winter 20151 Lecture 9 Project Scheduling Time Events Resources
Winter 20152 Project Scheduling Once the project is defined, the schedule becomes the most visible project document. Developing a schedule is an iterative process. Remember the triangle. Task Description Resource needs Features Preliminary Linking Resource Availability Working Schedule Time No Yes Final Schedule
Winter 20153 Development time-T Development cost-C Product Features-F C=F/T Control Documents support key factors PFSDFSDCG&S Schedule Final Project Reports The FSD answers the What? The CG&S answers the How? And the Schedule answers the When?
Winter 20154 Development time-T Development cost-C Product Features-F C=F/T The key parameters of Development Trade offs between the key product development factors.
Winter 20155 Murphy’s Law of Development A project can be done; –quickly, –inexpensively, –or well. One can pick any two of the three variables at the same time, but not all three. –(informally it’s fast, cheap, or good) Inherent trade-off between: Speed Cost Quality
Winter 20156 Project Scheduling When does a team develop a Project Schedule? It doesn’t make too much sense to do a detailed schedule before the project definition is complete. However, a rough schedule with approximate milestones is generally created early in the concept development phase. This preliminary schedule is used for project justification and project pipeline planning. Once the project passes through the system level design checkpoint, and project level feasibility is proven, then the detailed schedule is completed. This coincides with the addition of project resources from other functional areas, and the authorization of large project funds to complete the project. The detailed schedule becomes a contract between the development team and the company. Contracts and schedules can be modified over time, but both require the explicit consent of both parties.
Winter 20157 Project Scheduling 8 Steps to complete a schedule Step 1 The first step is to develop a task description list. This is list of all the tasks that you can think of that will be necessary to complete the project. It is very important not to skip over some of the more common tasks, such as system integration or testing time.
Winter 20158 Project Scheduling Practice assignment. Develop a Gantt Chart for the following project; Fixing dinner The dinner will include a tossed salad, mushroom and rice casserole, baked salmon, and rolls. Step 1. Major activities wash and cut vegetables for the salad toss the salad set the table prepare the mushrooms cook the mushrooms mix rice with casserole ingredients bake the casserole 350 degrees prepare the salmon bake the salmon prepare the rolls serve the dinner
Winter 20159 Project Scheduling Step 2 Next you make a first pass at the resource requirements to complete each task. The resource requirements need to consider both time and the number of people available. This will be hard for some of your projects, because most of you don’t have any prior experience to give you a baseline. Don’t estimate too tightly: allow for the unexpected. You will also have to make some fundamental assumptions about the project.
Winter 201510 Project Scheduling Fixing dinner The dinner will include a tossed salad, mushroom and rice casserole, baked salmon, and rolls. Assumptions: casserole requires the mushrooms to be precooked. We can cook both the casserole and the salmon in the same oven. We have only two people to complete the assignment Step 2. Assign resource requirements Major activities and times wash and cut vegetables for the salad--15 minutes toss the salad--5 minutes set the table -- 8 minutes prepare the mushrooms– 5 minutes Precook the mushrooms– 10 minutes mix casserole ingredients— 10 minutes bake the casserole 350 degrees--25 minutes prepare the salmon -- 10 minutes bake the salmon -- 20 minutes prepare the rolls -- 5 minutes serve the dinner -- 5 minutes
Winter 201511 Project Scheduling Step 3 The third step is to identify linkages between the various tasks. Certain tasks are independent and can be started at any time. Most tasks require the completion of other activities before they can be started. Some tasks will have multiple linkages. You may want to use a “task structure matrix” to determine linkages.
Winter 201512 Three Fundamental Activity Relationships Example: Kodak Cheetah Microfilm Cartridge
Winter 201513 #TaskTime 1.wash and cut vegies15m 2.set the table10m 3.Prepare the mushrooms5m 4.precook the mushrooms10m 5.mix casserole ingredients10m 6.bake the casserole25m 7.prepare the salmon10m 8.bake the salmon20m 9.prepare the rolls5m 10.serve the dinner 5m 11.toss the salad5m 12.heat the oven10m Step 3. Identify the dependencies between activities. Dependencies none 3 4 5,12 none 7, 12 none 6,11,2,8,9 1 none What assumptions are you making about available resources?
Winter 201514 Project Scheduling Step 4 Identify the major checkpoint activities that will require the completion and demonstration of project status. Example Check if Casserole and Salmon are done.
Winter 201515 Development Phase Activities A B C D E Checkpoint Meeting Proceed to next phase 1 Cancel Project 3 Redirect Project 2 Many activities may need to come together for the checkpoint meetings.
Winter 201516 Project Scheduling Step 5 Develop the preliminary schedule. There are many software programs, such as Microsoft Project, that can be used to actually complete the schedule.
Winter 201517 10 min20 min30 min40 min50 min60 min * Wash and cut vegies * Prepare mushrooms * Precook mushrooms * Mix casserole * Cook Casserole * Cook Salmon * Prepare Salmon * Preheat oven * Prepare rolls * Set the table * Toss the salad * Serve dinner Gantt Chart for Dinner exercise Person 1Person 2
Winter 201518 PERT and CPM Charts 42 Start 3 6 Finish 8 5 4 days activity precedence activity and duration Simple network diagrams are easy to understand. We cannot represent the coupled/iterative task relationships.
Winter 201519 Project Scheduling Step 6 Analyze the results. Most schedules require many passes to balance the tasks, resources, and requirements. This is just like the project triangle. If the project schedule doesn’t meet the market requirements, then the project team must either modify the number of available resources, or reduce the scope of the project. In the case of your project, it is important to identify what degrees of freedom are available. The project end point is fixed. Therefore, you can only change the resources, (the amount of time that the team will commit to this project), or the scope of the development effort, (the features that your product will have).
Winter 201520 #TaskTime 1.Heat the oven10m 2.Prepare mushrooms5m 3.Precook the mushrooms10m 4.mix casserole ingredients 10m 5.bake the casserole 25m 6.prepare the salmon 10m 7.bake the salmon 20m 8.Wash and cut vegies15m 9.Toss the Salad5m 10.Set the table 10m 11.Prepare the rolls5m 12.Serve the dinner5m Step 3. What changes if you only have one person? Dependencies none 2 3 4 4 6 6 8 9 10 5, 7, 9, 10, 11 You have to determine a new sequence of task completion. Now the activity takes 75 minutes!!
Winter 201521 Project Scheduling What can you do to reduce the time to complete the dinner? Could 3 or more people help? If you had more time to prepare, how could you shorten the schedule?
Winter 201522 Project Scheduling Step 7 Identify the Critical Path, the series of tasks that have no slack time associated with their completion. Then look for ways to do more in parallel to shorten the time. The perfect schedule has all paths at their critical points.
Winter 201523 10 min20 min30 min40 min50 min60 min * Wash and cut vegies * Prepare mushrooms * Precook mushrooms * Mix casserole * Cook Casserole * Cook Salmon * Prepare Salmon * Preheat oven * Prepare rolls * Set the table * Toss the salad * Serve dinner Slack time Critical Path
Winter 201524 Project Scheduling Step 8 When the schedule is close to completion, most smart teams insert into the schedule some planned slack time for contingencies.
Winter 201525 Project Scheduling DSM - design structure matrix. Shows serial, coupled, and parallel tasks Gantt chart - horizontal time line of the project. Commonly used to show completion status. PERT chart - explicitly shows both timing and task dependencies. The nodes of the chart are the task descriptions, and the lines show the duration. It is easy to add critical path identification to the chart. (In most development projects a person is assigned to develop and manage the schedule. Most projects with over 15 people or multiple teams will require a full time project coordinator.)
Winter 201526 Computer tools for Scheduling There are several alternatives for doing automated scheduling. The “gold standard” program is Microsoft Project. It is very powerful for larger projects, but is still useful for smaller efforts. The Open Software initiative developed a knock off for Project, called, “Project Libre” which is a free download and basically works just like Project, even with the same file types. And, “GanttProject” is another program that is free to download and is advertised as being compatible with Project files.
Winter 201527 Homework Assignment Prepare the “task list” for your actual project. (Use Microsoft Project or one of the alternatives to complete the Schedule for your project.) Email a copy of your task list to me before the lecture on Thurs Feb 12. Review the material in Chapter 16 of Ulrich and Eppinger
Winter 201528 PERT Chart and Critical Path A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 24 8 8 5 2 14 10 6 4 2 2 A 2 task duration (weeks) critical path
Winter 201529 Design Structure Matrix Receive and Accept Specification Concept Generation/Selection Design Beta Cartridges Produce Beta Cartridges Develop Testing Program Test Beta Cartridges Design Production Cartridge Design Mold Design Assembly Tooling Purchase Assembly Equipment Fabricate Molds Debug Molds Certify Cartridge Initial Production Run TASK. J D A L K I E C H F G B N M BJDALKIECHFGNM Coupled Tasks Parallel Tasks Sequential Tasks C D N M L K J I H G F E A B Example: Kodak Cheetah Microfilm Cartridge