Presentation on theme: "Masters of Business Administration"— Presentation transcript:
1Masters of Business Administration Research MethodologyTheory DevelopmentBy:Associate Professor Dr. GholamReza Zandi
2What is Theory Theory must be able to Make predictions Explain the relationship, - why such relationship holds and when this prediction holds.Make description – about the constructs, relationship and assumptions
3What is TheoryA framework of constructs (and their manifest indicators – variable/ operational definition),An interrelated relationship (how the construct causally related - between the constructs),
4What is TheoryWhat is the unit of analysis (e.g. agency theory – individual; resource based view and contingency theory etc– organizational), andTheir boundaries (moderating conditions)
5What are the contributions from a thesis? Theoretical contributionsPractical contributionsMethodological contributions – statistics, method etc.Measurement modelConceptual model – acceptable conceptual framework
6What is theoretical contributions To what extend your study shows a progression in the theory that you have used?Or extending previous theoretical framework into an area where there is a gap,An area that is not well understood,
7What is theoretical contributions Where previous model have not predicted an outcome well,What is the additional explanation and moderating conditions of the theory ( or third variable that alter the relations of the theoretical framework)
8What is theoretical contributions Different level of conceptualization and implicationsDifferent measurement and methodology
9Antonakis (2002)Making substantive contribution will mean extending previous theoretical work into an area where there is a gapWhat is gap?An area that is not well understood
10Antonakis (2002)Where previous models have not predicted an outcome wellWhere concept of the variable has not been explore or use - conceptualisation.Additional explanatory (or possibly dependent variables) and moderating conditions of the theory
11Whetten (1989) ViewpointsWhat are the building blocks of theory development?What is a legitimate value-added contribution to theory development?
12What are the building blocks of theory development? Four essential elements:What – which factor logically should be considered as part of the explanation of the social or individual phenomena of interest? – comprehensiveness & parsimony
13What are the building blocks of theory development? How – how are the related? – using “arrows” and “boxes” – introduced “causality”Why – what are the underlying psychological, economic, or social dynamics that justify the relationships?
14What are the building blocks of theory development? What and How – provide a framework for interpreting patterns, or discrepancies, in our empirical observations.
15What is a legitimate value-added contribution to theory development? Are we generating a new theory?What are you doing is to improve what already exists.The question is what constitutes enough for PhD or DBA thesis?
16What is a legitimate value-added contribution to theory development? Identify as many factors as possible and identify the strength of the relationships? But this is not a contribution….Contributions – by having one variables that can alter the relationship or alter our understanding of the phenomena.
20Conceptualisation Use of different concepts For example: organizational cultureKatz and Kahn (1978) – roles, norms and values – not explicitly conceptualise as “culture” or “climate”Schein (1990) conceptualised it as a pattern of basic assumptions, invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal intergration…(p.111).Hofstede (1980) – the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another.
21Measurement Based on conceptualisation: Borrow and adapt or adopt Self-constructRigorous testing – test-retest or split-half or multitrait-multimethod techniqueFactor analysis – exploratory or confirmatory – dimensions and items
22Practical Contributions How your study can helps targeted group of organisation or managers etc.?Holistic view of the framework – modifiedInter relationship between variables“What” questions can be used for practical contributions – e.g. descriptive statistics and test of difference.
23What is your research endeavour? Have you solved theProblem and answerYour research questions?Research problem/Focus of your studyLiterature review/Observation/knowledgeYou are the expert.Your observation.Why this?How do you see this –Where is the knowledgereside?Your hypothesis.Based on what?What is your answer?Do you really an expert(scholar)?Which METHODOLOGY?True or Not trueWhat are looking for? TRUTH?
24Questions?Is there really an external world ‘out there’ from which we can obtain ‘true’ knowledge?• Categories and representations are socially and culturally constructed. Can we talk of a single true version of reality? Especially when exploring a social rather than physical reality.• The search for predictive rules deals with structure but denies agency.• All knowledge is spontaneous.
25EpistemologyEpistemology is the study of how to acquire knowledge by observing the world around you.
26Epistemology What is true knowledge and what is false knowledge? Two main epistemological positions dominated philosophy:empiricism, which sees knowledge as the product of sensory perception, andrationalism which sees it as the product of rational reflection.
27Epistemology Assumptions deal with the basic of knowledge; How it is possible to identify and communicate what we know? The truth..The role of researcher is to explore, to explain and to predict the knowledge (about something – e.g. business strategy in that particular setting)Belief, trust, and commitment – where are these concepts resided – within or outside there
28EpistemologyThe goal is to end up believing things that are true and not believing things that are false.
29“Scientific method” is part (not all) of epistemology.
30EpistemologyHow to form beliefs based on evidence: From Quantitative approach.(1) Propose a belief (a hypothesis).(It should be something that, if true, would be worth knowing, not a waste of mental effort.)(2) Try to confirm it.(3) Also try to disprove it.
31Epistemology Stages: (1) Conjecture or guess (2) Opinion; belief supported by evidence(3) Firm belief, thoroughly tested against evidence and still holding upThis looks like science, but is actually applicable to thinking about almost anything.
32Epistemology Really important point (from Sir Karl Popper): A belief isn’t warranted unless you could have known if it’s not true.That is, there should be some way that you could tell if it were false.
33Epistemology Popper’s principle implies: (1) Your guesses and opinions have to be testable.They have to say what will not happen.Beware of vague predictions that are compatible with any outcome!
34Epistemology Popper’s principle implies: (2) It’s your job to test your opinions against evidence.You should always be looking for evidence that your current beliefs are not correct.
35Epistemology Example: The earth is round. But some people think it’s flat, and we should be able to explain why it looks flat.People are motivated when management rewards good behaviour.How we want to explain that people are not motivated.
37How to develop our epistemology – “expertise”? ViaSensory perception.MemoryReasons etc.To account ones about knowledge.To determine the limits of your knowledge.To articulate principles for justifying and improving belief.
38Beliefs about knowledge. Objective vs. subjective.Normative vs. descriptive.
39Beliefs about knowledge Objectivist – knowledge is someway independent of personal and social biases, political ideologies and moral beliefs.Non-objectivist (subjectivist) - knowledge is socially constructed and is an artifact of various social institutions, political and economic interests, and so forth.
40Beliefs about knowledge Normative - Epistemology is concerned with how we ought to form our beliefs, how we ought to gather evidence for beliefs, and so forth.Descriptive approach - epistemology describes and explains how human beings form beliefs about the world, and social epistemology describes and explains the social aspects of knowledge production.
41Beliefs about knowledge The descriptivist approach to social epistemology is an empirical investigation of the social structures of inquiring communities, as well as the economic, political, technological and cultural forces that influence knowledge production.
42Assumptions in Social Science (Burrell & Morgan 1979) SubjectiveObjectiveOntologyNominalismRealismAnti -positivismPositivismEpistemologyHumannatureDeterminismVoluntarismIdeographicMethodologyNomothetic
43Which Methodology?Epistemological underpinnings to the use of different methods• Non-objectivist, normative, anti-realist, idealist, post-modern, social constructionist, interpretative orientations tend to employ qualitative methods.• Rationalist, positivist, empiricist, realist orientations (descriptive) tend to employ quantitative methods.
44Quantitative vs. Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods• Uses numbers & stats.• Formalised methods.• Many observations.• Little information.• Makes inferences from specific to general.• Replicable analyses.• Seeks social ‘regularities’or ‘laws’.Qualitative Methods• Uses ‘text’.• Less formalised methods.• Few observations.• Much information.• Not so concerned with inference.• Not necessarily replicable.• Seeks ‘understanding’ &interpretation.
45Quantitative vs. Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods• Censuses.• Surveys.• Official & administrative statistics.• Content analysis• Summarising and descriptive statistics.• Inferential statistics.Qualitative Methods• Unstructured/depth interviews.• Focus groups.• Participant observation.• Case studies.• Semiotics.• Discourse analysis.
46Where are we heading?Opinion is divided over the scientific status of social science – how far it can and whether it should be modeled on the physical sciences; what that model actually is.• Differences of opinion concerning the existence of an external reality and our ability to know it through observation (ontology and epistemology).• Epistemological divides tend to translate into methodological ones although not inevitable.
47Where are we heading?• In practice, research strategies often require both quantitative and qualitative methods.• Answer = qualitative research for the context of discovery (induction) and quantitative research for the context of justification (deduction)?
51What is Theory? Quantitative Perspective Kerlinger (1986, p.9) theory is “a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions, and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena”An explanation about the cause of a specific phenomenon by describing a relationship between variables or constructs.
52What is Theory? Quantitative Perspective Also known as “theoretical rationale” – why and how variables and relational statements are interrelated” (Creswell, 1994).How and why one would expect the independent variable to explain or predict the dependent variable.
53What is Theory? Quantitative Perspective Hypotheses provide information about the type of relationship (positive, negative, or unknown) and it magnitude (high, low).A theory also can be used to generate hypotheses that can be tested by research.
54What is Theory? Quantitative Perspective The results of such research may provide evidence that supports the theory, which, in turn strengthens the theory.On the other hand, research may produce results that causes the theory to be revised, or rejected.
55What is Theory? Quantitative Perspective Theories vary in term of their breath or scope. Merriam (1988) grouped:(a) grand theories – explain large categories of phenomena (e.g. Darwin theory, Newton theory (law));
56What is Theory? Quantitative Perspective (b) Middle-range theories – fall between hypotheses of everyday life (e.g. social bond theory, general system theory, cybernetic theory, Maslow theory);(c) substantive theories – restricted to specific setting, group , time or population (e.g. agency theory, contingency theory, resource-based view theory)
57Placement of the Theory (Quantitative) In the beginning of the plan for a study.To verify or test a theory – not develop it.To confirm or disconfirm by the results in the study.Underpinning the theoretical framework that helps to develop research questions and hypotheses and procedure in data collection.
58Options for placing theory In the introduction – in journal articles – will be familiar to readers.In literature review – inclusion and logical extension.
59Options for placing theory After hypotheses or research questions – explain why and how variables are relatedIn a separate section – to let reader better understand and identify how theory explain or predict the relationship.
60What is Theory (Qualitative) Less clearVaries from one approach to another:Ethnographic studies – begin with a theory that informs their study shape initial research questionsPhenomenology – no preconceived notions, expectations or framework guide research
61Placement of theory or pattern Does not begin with theory to test or verify.Emerge during data collection and analysis phaseUsed relatively late in research process – basis for comparison with other theoriesPossibly develop a theory or compare pattern with other theories.
62Technology Acceptance Model Main dependent construct(s)/factor(s)Behavioral Intention to Use, System UsageMain independentconstruct(s)/factor(s)Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use
63A g e n c y T h e o r y Alternate name(s) Principal-Agent Problem Main dependent construct(s)/ factor(s)Efficiency, alignment of interests, risk sharing, successful contractingMain independent construct(s)/ factor(s)Information asymmetry, contract, moral hazard, trust
64A g e n c y T h e o r y Information asymmetry risk sharing contract moral hazard
65Resource-based theory Concise description of theoryThe resource-based view (RBV) argues that firms possess resources, a subset of which enable them to achieve competitive advantage, and a subset of those that lead to superior long-term performance. Resources that are valuable and rare can lead to the creation of competitive advantage. That advantage can be sustained over longer time periods to the extent that the firm is able to protect against resource imitation, transfer, or substitution. In general, empirical studies using the theory have strongly supported the resource-based view.Main dependent construct(s)/ factor(s)Sustainable competitive advantageMain independent construct(s)/ factor(s)Assets, capabilities, resources
66Resource-based theory capabilitiesknowledgePerformanceInformationtechnologyCustomer relation
67The Role of Model/Framework The Role of Conceptual ModelsSometimes, theories are used to generate conceptual models, which are often represented as graphical figures that display variables and their interrelationships.Conceptual models have many practical implications for practitioners. Among these are the following:Models can serve as the conceptual underpinning for a given set of activities.
68The Role of Model/Framework They provide a graphic representation of the variables associated with the topic of interest and their interrelationships.They facilitate communication among staff who use them and are helpful in communicating information about the topic of interest to others.They can be used to identify elements of an activity that require evaluation.
69What is a conceptual framework? There are many ways to explain a conceptual framework. It can be any or all of the following:A set of coherent ideas or concepts organized in a manner that makes them easy to communicate to others.An organized way of thinking about how and why a project takes place, and about how we understand its activities.The basis for thinking about what we do and about what it means, influenced by the ideas and research of others.
70THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Helps to postulate and test certain relationship - to improve understanding of the dynamics of the situationtestable hypotheses can be developedthe basis of entire research restswe can identify the variables
71THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A framework can help us decide and explain the route we are taking:why would we use certain methods and not others to get to a certain point.
72THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK People might have tried a similar path before and have had different experiences using one road versus another.Or, there may be paths that have never been explored.With a conceptual framework, we can explain why we would try this or that path, based on the experiences of others, and on what we ourselves would like to explore or discover.
73How do we derive TF? From previous research in the problem area Based on theoriesIntegrating one’s logical beliefs with published researchEstablishing gaps – literature review
74The Components of the TF Identifies and labels the important variables in the situation that are relevant to the problemShows the relationship of variables and elaborates
75The Components of the TF How and why moderating and intervening variables are treatedSchematic diagram of he conceptual model help to visualise the theorised relationships
77What is Hypothesis?A statement that shows a relationship between two or more variables in testable form.
78The importance of hypotheses? As the working instruments of theory – hypotheses can be deduced from theory or from other hypothesesHypotheses can be tested – shown either true or false – only relations are testedIt derives from theoretical framework – literature review
79The importance of hypotheses? The powerful tools for the advancement of knowledge – enable scientists to get outside themselvesThere are research problem behind the hypotheses
80Logic of Hypothesis Testing Two tailed testnondirectional testconsiders two possibilitiesOne tailed testdirectional testplaces entire probability of an unlikely outcome to the tail specified by the alternative hypothesis
81Types of HypothesesDescriptive hypotheses – proposition that typically state the existence, size, form or distribution of some variable – researchers tend to use research questions for these hypotheses.Relational hypotheses – correlational (unspecified relationship), explanatory or causal (predictable relationship)
82How do we derive hypotheses? From own dreams?From own observations?From other research?From other hypothesis?From literature review?From theoretical framework?
83How do we derive hypotheses? If it is from own observation, supported by other research, supported by other hypothesis, supported by other literature review, and supported by YOUR OWN theoretical framework…. Therefore IDEALLY YOU SHOULD EXPECT THAT THE HYPOTHESES TO BE ACCEPTED NOT REJECTED… AREN’T YOU?
84What is the problem?Average of 40%-50% hypotheses rejected – PhD and DBA ThesisWhat is the issue if the hypotheses are rejected?
85Poor theoretical framework…… Or…… This is a symptom of..Poor theoretical framework…… Or……
86What is the problem? That is what the study shows…… why bother? BUT - can you live with it?Have you take care of all the procedures and techniques == that cause ERROR
87What is ERROR?Error is a deviation from the exact or expected outcomes, beliefs or facts….Every statistic contains both a true score and an error score. A true score is the part of the statistic or number that truly represents what was being measured. An error score is that part of the statistic or number that represents something other than what is being measured.
88Source of ERRORTheoretical framework – not exhaustively search – poor conceptualisation - superficialResearcher - interferences and carelessness or satisfying…Measurement – instrument to measure the variables
89Theoretical Framework What is theoretical framework?There are many ways to explain a conceptual framework. It can be any or all of the following:A set of coherent ideas or concepts organized in a manner that makes them easy to communicate to others.
90What is a conceptual framework? An organized way of thinking about how and why a project takes place, and about how we understand its activities.The basis for thinking about what we do and about what it means, influenced by the ideas and research of others.Helps to postulate and test certain relationship - to improve understanding of the dynamics of the situation
91Have you take care of all these?? How do we derive TF?From previous research in the problem areaBased on theoriesIntegrating one’s logical beliefs with published researchEstablishing gaps – literature reviewHave you take care of all these??
92Researchers Interference to the subjects – Survey (leading questionnaire, guide or enumerators problems), choice of method (is this the best? What is the basis – philosophical reasoning?)
93ResearchersExperiment (during manipulation and overly coach, non-random problem)Satisfying – as long as I get the data…. Just fulfilling the procedure
94ResearchersSampling – What exactly the population – target and access? what is the technique – is it properly executed? Criteria for selecting the sample, sample size and effect size,Respondents – who are the respondents? What is the criteria? How many from one organization? How valid? Period of responses – 2 weeks or 2 months or more?
95Measurement Another source of error… How do you “design” your instrument?How valid and reliable your instrument?
96From a Concept to a Variable Operationalisation- turn into a workable or measurable concept.Provide a specific observable characteristic (properties) you would like to measure – based on definition – operational definition
97Measurement Poorly define and operationalise…. For example – PERFORMANCE – in the question you have – 10 items (with different characteristics)Profitability itemsCustomer satisfaction itemsGrowth itemsProductivity items
98Measurement Definition – which definition and which items you use? Use of one definition – however items from various researchers – lack of stability, parsimony and validity
99Measurement Reliability.. Good (normally) Measurement must be valid and reliable..Reliable does not mean valid….and vice versa….
100Measurement QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT Problem in questioning – leading questions, double barreled, relationship questions, value-laden questionsNo proper pilot study… What is pilot study? What is the purpose?
101General Rule to Overcome This Problem Research Design according to Kerlinger (1986) p.280) – two basic purposes:(1) to provide answers to research questions, and(2) to control variance
102General Rule to Overcome This Problem “Designs are carefully worked out to yield dependable and valid answers to the research questions epitomized (symbolise) by the hypotheses” (Kerlinger 1986)
103General Rule to Overcome This Problem Research Design as Variance ControlControl the variance of extraneous or “unwanted” variables. – choose a homogeneous subjects for independent variablesMaximise the variance of the variable – variability of independent variableMinimise the error of measurement – interview, pilot, stability and reliability