8Stakeholder Analysis Identify all of the stakeholders. Who are the stakeholders?People or entities involved in or affected by project activitiesProject SponsorProject TeamSupport StaffCustomersUsersSuppliersOpponentsIdentify ALL of themDetermine ALL of their requirementsDetermine their expectationsCommunicate with themManage their influence
11Project Management at WCC Project SponsorProject ManagerProject Core TeamTeam LeadersRefer to Project Responsibilities Handout.
12WCC Project Plan Template Project CharterProject ScopeProcess and Organizational ImpactsRisk ManagementProject Organizational Structure (Roles and Responsibilities)Communication PlanVender Evaluation PlanTrainingTestingChange ControlIssues LogRefer to Project Plan Template Handout.
13BPA Review Identify a Process Document a Process Flowchart a Process SequentialCross-DepartmentalDocument a ProcessCurrent Process – is it a good process?CollaborateInclude the “why”List OpportunitiesList ObstaclesFlowchart a ProcessStart with Pen/Paper or WhiteboardFinish using software tools like VisioReengineer a ProcessSimplifyAutomateReview OpportunitiesReview Obstacles
14BPA and the Project Management Process Which comes first?.....it dependsRe-engineer current process before automateDegree and Certificate Completion: BPA before new software purchasePM Process Team identifies a process to analyzeAd Astra V7: BPA on room scheduling processBPA Tools – use tools as neededLarge projects/Multiple Departments do a flowchartSmall projects do sequence of steps
15Waubonsee Community College Project Management Training Case StudyWaubonsee Community College Project Management Training
18Construction projects High physical capital costsHigher dependence of government factors (zoning, permits)Many more handoffs between unrelated teams (the trades).People waiting for materials.Work waiting for people.Storage of materials that arrive early.Weather.A “Master Schedule” that often bears no resemblance to reality.A design firm, a construction firm and a number of unrelated trades that do not typically work together.
19BAA Renovation of Heathrow Terminal 1 Refurbishment of Terminal year old building within Heathrow.Star Alliance - First Global Airline Alliance would be moving their operations to Terminal 1 at Heathrow.Strict Time DeadlineHealth and Safety ConcernsTerminal Would not close.Any interruption of service would result in financial penalties for BAA.Public perception a major issue.42 Phases to this project.
20HR Management 11 suppliers - large number of workers Communications / Time management - collaborative approach to problem solving.As is the case managing multiple contractors that performed different trades, one dependent on the other, managing them became essential in meeting time goals.
21Cost and Procurement Management Last Minute Changes4 weeks to go in the project an elaborate concourse display, originally part of the project, was removed.An alternate needed to be found that met the needs of all the stakeholders.
22Scope ManagementA large piece of this project was replacing some damaged floor work.This repair could potentially add 12 weeks of work.A discovery was made that a portion of floor was constructed from different materials than the rest.The floor was an uneven concrete surface, different than the rest of the floor, and a correction could add multiple weeks of work.
23Scope ManagementIT - Needed to replace existing systems in the building, such as normal office network systems, specialist flight systems, regulatory systems, closed circuit TV.A strong attempt was made in transforming the old fashioned building to be more sustainable.
24Communications Management Multiple high level stakeholders who had to be updated each time a new risk was identified or when a change was made to schedule or budget.
25Risk Management Asbestos Risk Discovery of asbestos in the ceiling. Creation of an airtight containment area around the damaged portion while a contractor removes.Electrical RiskA new distribution board had to be installed.As such, the power had to be turned off and on.It was unknown how much of the 40 year old equipment would respond when turned off and on.
27HR ManagementVery clear framework given to suppliers and contractors before they were able to pitch on the project.Competitive, fair, process was created for bidding which ensured best team got the job.Weekly meetings created with suppliers to address grievances.Strict management of contractors to ensure each aspect was delivered on time.
28Cost ManagementTo address last minute "cladding" display issue, brainstorming session was held and a paneling solution was discovered and agreed upon by all needed stakeholders.Balancing of work done at night (more costly) vs daytime hours (more people).
29Scope Management Flooring Teams were planning on using this area for storage as well.Meetings held between multiple contractors to phase work in shifts in order for re flooring to occur and to prevent a potential 21 day delay from occurring.
30Scope Management Technological Challenges IT played a crucial role in making sure the project was delivered in line with the scope, time a cost goals.Custom change control software was created so that key parties, onsite and offsite, could raise issues to the project management team and these issues would be routed to the appropriate stakeholders,
31Scope Management Environmental Challenges Changes were made to the lighting and heating system that made the 40 year old building more sustainable.
32Risk Managemenet Asbestos Project Team, including health and safety officer, main contractor and terminal operators reviewed all options and decided on airtight area within the contaminated roof.Two risk management schedules created. One high level strategic one and a lower level, day-to-day task driven one.
33Risk Management Electrical Switching off power - power might not return at all!High level meeting with all relevant stakeholders and main contractor to create a plan.Creation of a formal, meticulous process guidance document that included all relevant technical data and an action plan.Risk Schedules developed and updated throughout the process.
34END RESULTCompleted on time, within reasonable scope and kept within budget, despite expected extra work.Effective teamwork between suppliers, stakeholders, and support functions.6.3 million of out of scope work was completed without an increase to the budget (scope in other area was reduced).
35Waubonsee Community College Project Management Training Scope ManagementWaubonsee Community College Project Management Training
36Scope ManagementMISTAKE: Project Managers do not break down larger problems into smaller sub-problems.The project manager feels overwhelmed!The people on the team feel overwhelmed!“There is no way we can make this happen!.”We want to minimize / eliminate this overwhelmed feeling as much as possible.
37What is Project Scope Management? Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create themA deliverable is a product produced as part of a project, such as hardware or software, planning documents, or meeting minutesProject scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in a project
38Project Scope Management Processes Collecting requirements: defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating themDefining scope: reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statementCreating the WBS: subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable componentsVerifying scope: formalizing acceptance of the project deliverablesControlling scope: controlling changes to project scope throughout the life of the project
40Collecting Requirements A requirement is “a condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system, product, service, result, or component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formal document” (PMBOK® Guide, 2008)For some projects, it is helpful to divide requirements development into categories called elicitation, analysis, specification, and validationIt is important to use an iterative approach to defining requirements since they are often unclear early in a project
41Relative Cost to Correct a Software Requirement Defect
42Methods for Collecting Requirements InterviewingFocus groups and facilitated workshopsUsing group creativity and decision-making techniquesQuestionnaires and surveysObservationPrototypingSoftware tools
43Documenting Requirements Requirements documents are often generated by software and include text, images, diagrams, videos, and other media; they are often broken down into different categories such as functional, service, performance, quality, training requirements, and so onA requirements management plan describes how project requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managedA requirements traceability matrix (RTM) is a table that lists requirements, various attributes of each requirement, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all requirements are addressed
45Defining ScopeKey inputs for preparing the project scope statement include the project charter, requirements documentation, and organizational process assets such as policies and procedures related to scope statements as well as project files and lessons learned from previous, similar projectsAs time progresses, the scope of a project should become more clear and specific
47Work Breakdown Structure A tool to help us get organized!It looks like an organization chart or a hierarchy chart.We define the project at the foot view, and then go down a level deeper to describe it in greater detail.After this, the project is better defined and feels more manageable.We feel like we’re more in control and can communicate to the team members what needs to be done.
48Creating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) A WBS is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the projectWBS is a foundation document that provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, resources, and changesDecomposition is subdividing project deliverables into smaller piecesA work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS
55Project 2007 File with WBS Generated from a Mind Map
56Approaches to Developing WBS Using guidelines: some organizations, like the DOD, provide guidelines for preparing WBSsThe analogy approach: review WBSs of similar projects and tailor to your projectThe top-down approach: start with the largest items of the project and break them downThe bottom-up approach: start with the specific tasks and roll them upMind-mapping approach: mind mapping is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas
57Verifying ScopeIt is very difficult to create a good scope statement and WBS for a projectIt is even more difficult to verify project scope and minimize scope changesScope verification involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholdersAcceptance is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables
58Controlling ScopeScope control involves controlling changes to the project scopeGoals of scope control are to:Influence the factors that cause scope changesAssure changes are processed according to procedures developed as part of integrated change controlManage changes when they occurVariance is the difference between planned and actual performance
59Best Practices for Avoiding Scope Problems 1. Keep the scope realistic. Don’t make projects so large that they can’t be completed. Break large projects down into a series of smaller ones.2. Involve users in project scope management. Assign key users to the project team and give them ownership of requirements definition and scope verification.3. Use off-the-shelf hardware and software whenever possible. Many IT people enjoy using the latest and greatest technology, but business needs, not technology trends, must take priority.4. Follow good project management processes. Use well-defined processes for managing project scope and others aspects of projects.
60Suggestions for Improving User Input Develop a good project selection process and insist that sponsors are from the user organizationHave users on the project team in important rolesHave regular meetings with defined agendas, and have users sign off on key deliverables presented at meetingsDeliver something to users and sponsors on a regular basisDon’t promise to deliver when you know you can’tCo-locate users with engineers
61Suggestions for Reducing Incomplete and Changing Requirements Develop and follow a requirements management processUse techniques such as prototyping, use case modeling, and JAD to get more user involvementPut requirements in writing and keep them currentCreate a requirements management database for documenting and controlling requirements
62Suggestions for Reducing Incomplete and Changing Requirements (continued) Provide adequate testing and conduct testing throughout the project life cycleReview changes from a systems perspectiveEmphasize completion dates to help focus on what’s most important
63Waubonsee Community College Project Management Training Time ManagementWaubonsee Community College Project Management Training
64The Triple Constraint of Project Management Successful project management means meeting all three goals (scope, time, and cost) – and satisfying the project’s sponsor!
66Importance of Project Schedules Managers often cite delivering projects on time as one of their biggest challengesTime has the least amount of flexibility; it passes no matter what happens on a projectSchedule issues are the main reason for conflicts on projects, especially during the second half of projects
67Individual Work Styles and Cultural Differences Cause Schedule Conflicts One dimension of the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator focuses on peoples’ attitudes toward structure and deadlineSome people prefer to follow schedules and meet deadlines while others do not (J vs. P)Difference cultures and even entire countries have different attitudes about schedules
68Project Time Management Processes Defining activities: identifying the specific activities that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverablesSequencing activities: identifying and documenting the relationships between project activitiesEstimating activity resources: estimating how many resources a project team should use to perform project activitiesEstimating activity durations: estimating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activitiesDeveloping the schedule: analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create the project scheduleControlling the schedule: controlling and managing changes to the project schedule
70Defining ActivitiesAn activity or task is an element of work normally found on the work breakdown structure (WBS) that has an expected duration, a cost, and resource requirementsActivity definition involves developing a more detailed WBS and supporting explanations to understand all the work to be done so you can develop realistic cost and duration estimates
71MilestonesA milestone is a significant event that normally has no durationIt often takes several activities and a lot of work to complete a milestoneThey’re useful tools for setting schedule goals and monitoring progressExamples include obtaining customer sign-off on key documents or completion of specific products
72Sequencing Activities Involves reviewing activities and determining dependenciesA dependency or relationship is the sequencing of project activities or tasksYou must determine dependencies in order to use critical path analysis
73Network DiagramsNetwork diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencingA network diagram is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activitiesTwo main formats are the arrow and precedence diagramming methods
74Figure 6-2. Sample Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Network Diagram for Project X
75Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) Also called activity-on-arrow (AOA) network diagramsActivities are represented by arrowsNodes or circles are the starting and ending points of activitiesCan only show finish-to-start dependencies
76Process for Creating AOA Diagrams 1. Find all of the activities that start at node 1. Draw their finish nodes and draw arrows between node 1 and those finish nodes. Put the activity letter or name and duration estimate on the associated arrow.2. Continue drawing the network diagram, working from left to right. Look for bursts and merges. Bursts occur when a single node is followed by two or more activities. A merge occurs when two or more nodes precede a single node.3. Continue drawing the project network diagram until all activities are included on the diagram that have dependencies.4. As a rule of thumb, all arrowheads should face toward the right, and no arrows should cross on an AOA network diagram.
79Estimating Activity Resources Before estimating activity durations, you must have a good idea of the quantity and type of resources that will be assigned to each activity; resources are people, equipment, and materialsConsider important issues in estimating resourcesHow difficult will it be to do specific activities on this project?What is the organization’s history in doing similar activities?Are the required resources available?A resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project’s resources by category and type
80Activity Duration Estimating Duration includes the actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed timeEffort is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a taskEffort does not normally equal durationPeople doing the work should help create estimates, and an expert should review them
81Developing the Schedule Uses results of the other time management processes to determine the start and end date of the projectUltimate goal is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the projectImportant tools and techniques include Gantt charts, critical path analysis, and critical chain scheduling, and PERT analysis
82Gantt ChartsGantt charts provide a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar formatSymbols include:Black diamonds: milestonesThick black bars: summary tasksLighter horizontal bars: durations of tasksArrows: dependencies between tasks
83Gantt Chart for Project X Note: Darker bars would be red in Project 2007 to represent critical tasks.
85Adding Milestones to Gantt Charts Many people like to focus on meeting milestones, especially for large projectsMilestones emphasize important events or accomplishments on projectsNormally create milestone by entering tasks with a zero duration, or you can mark any task as a milestone
86SMART Criteria Milestones should be: Specific Measurable Assignable RealisticTime-framed
87Critical Path Method (CPM) CPM is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project durationA critical path for a project is the series of activities that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completedThe critical path is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or floatSlack or float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or the project finish date
88Calculating the Critical Path First develop a good network diagramAdd the duration estimates for all activities on each path through the network diagramThe longest path is the critical pathIf one or more of the activities on the critical path takes longer than planned, the whole project schedule will slip unless the project manager takes corrective action
90More on the Critical Path A project team at Apple computer put a stuffed gorilla on the top of the cubicle of the person currently managing critical taskThe critical path is not the one with all the critical activities; it only accounts for timeRemember the example of growing grass being on the critical path for Disney’s Animal KingdomThere can be more than one critical path if the lengths of two or more paths are the sameThe critical path can change as the project progresses
91Using Critical Path Analysis to Make Schedule Trade-offs Free slack or free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activitiesTotal slack or total float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish dateA forward pass through the network diagram determines the early start and finish datesA backward pass determines the late start and finish dates
92Calculating Early and Late Start and Finish Dates
94Using the Critical Path to Shorten a Project Schedule Three main techniques for shortening schedulesShortening durations of critical activities/tasks by adding more resources or changing their scopeCrashing activities by obtaining the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental costFast tracking activities by doing them in parallel or overlapping them
95Schedule Control Suggestions Perform reality checks on schedulesAllow for contingenciesDon’t plan for everyone to work at 100% capacity all the timeHold progress meetings with stakeholders and be clear and honest in communicating schedule issues
96Controlling the Schedule Goals are to know the status of the schedule, influence factors that cause schedule changes, determine that the schedule has changed, and manage changes when they occurTools and techniques include:Progress reportsA schedule change control systemProject management software, including schedule comparison charts like the tracking Gantt chartVariance analysis, such as analyzing float or slackPerformance management, such as earned value (Chapter 7)
97Reality Checks on Scheduling First review the draft schedule or estimated completion date in the project charterPrepare a more detailed schedule with the project teamMake sure the schedule is realistic and followedAlert top management well in advance if there are schedule problems
98Working with People Issues Strong leadership helps projects succeed more than good Network diagramsProject managers should use:EmpowermentIncentivesDisciplineNegotiation
99Waubonsee Community College Project Management Training Cost managementWaubonsee Community College Project Management Training
100The Importance of Project Cost Management Many projects have a poor track record for meeting budget goalsThe CHAOS studies found the average cost overrun (the additional percentage or dollar amount by which actual costs exceed estimates) ranged from 180 percent in 1994 to 56 percent in 2004; other studies found overruns to be percent
101What is Cost and Project Cost Management? Cost is a resource sacrificed or foregone to achieve a specific objective or something given up in exchangeCosts are usually measured in monetary units like dollarsProject cost management includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within an approved budget
103Basic Principles of Cost Management Most members of an executive board better understand and are more interested in financial terms than project specific terms, so project managers must speak their languageProfits are revenues minus expendituresProfit margin is the ratio of revenues to profitsLife cycle costing considers the total cost of ownership, or development plus support costs, for a projectCash flow analysis determines the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project and the resulting annual cash flow
104Cost Estimation Tools and Techniques Basic tools and techniques for cost estimates:Analogous or top-down estimates: use the actual cost of a previous, similar project as the basis for estimating the cost of the current projectBottom-up estimates: involve estimating individual work items or activities and summing them to get a project totalParametric modeling uses project characteristics (parameters) in a mathematical model to estimate project costs