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Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition Note: See the text itself for full citations.

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Presentation on theme: "Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition Note: See the text itself for full citations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition Note: See the text itself for full citations.

2 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Discuss the process of planning schedule management 進 度管理  Describe how project managers use network diagrams 網 路圖 and dependencies( 相依關係 ) to assist in activity sequencing( 活動排序 )  Explain how various tools and techniques help project managers perform activity duration estimates( 活動工期估 算 )  Use a Gantt chart for planning and tracking schedule information, find the critical path( 關鍵路徑 ) for a project, and describe how critical chain scheduling( 關鍵鍊排程 ) and the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) 計劃評審技術 affect schedule development 2

3 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Managers often cite delivering projects on time as one of their biggest challenges  Time has the least amount of flexibility 最小彈性 ; it passes no matter what happens on a project  Schedule issues are the main reason 主要原因 for conflicts on projects 專案衝突, especially during the second half of projects 3

4 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  One dimension of the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator( 邁爾斯 - 布里格斯性格分類指標 )focuses on peoples’ attitudes toward structure and deadline  Some people prefer to follow schedules and meet deadlines while others do not  Difference cultures and even entire countries have different attitudes about schedules 4

5 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition 1.Planning schedule management 規劃進度管理 : determining the policies( 決定政策 ), procedures, and documentation that will be used for planning, executing, and controlling the project schedule 2.Defining activities: identifying the specific activities( 確定具體的活動 ) that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables( 交付 ) 3.Sequencing( 排序 xù) activities: identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities 4.Estimating activity resources 活動資源 : estimating how many resources a project team should use to perform project activities 5.Estimating activity durations( 持續期間 ): estimating the number of work periods( 工作期間 ) that are needed to complete individual activities 6.Developing the schedule( 進度表 ): analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create the project schedule 7.Controlling the schedule: controlling and managing changes to the project schedule 5

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7 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  The project team uses expert judgment, analytical techniques, and meetings to develop the schedule management plan  A schedule management plan includes: ◦ Project schedule model development( 進度模型開發 ) ◦ The scheduling methodology 排程方法 ◦ Level of accuracy and units of measure( 度量單位 ) ◦ Control thresholds( 門檻 ) ◦ Rules( 規則 ) of performance measurement ◦ Reporting formats( 報告格式 ) ◦ Process descriptions 7

8 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  An activity or task is an element of work( 工作的要 素 ) normally found on the work breakdown structure( 工作分解結構 ) (WBS) that has an expected duration, a cost, and resource requirements  Activity definition involves developing a more detailed WBS( 發展詳細的工作分解結構 ) and supporting explanations to understand all the work to be done so you can develop realistic cost( 切合 實際的成本 ) and duration estimates 8

9 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  An activity list is a tabulation of activities( 活動的 列表 ) to be included on a project schedule that includes ◦ the activity name ◦ an activity identifier or number ◦ a brief description of the activity  Activity attributes 活動屬性 provide more information such as predecessors( 前任者 ), successors( 後繼者 ), logical relationships( 邏輯關 係 ), leads( 提前 ) and lags( 延遲 ), resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates( 強制性 日期 ), and assumptions related to the activity 9

10 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  A milestone is a significant event( 重大事件 ) that normally has no duration  It often takes several activities and a lot of work to complete a milestone  They’re useful tools for setting schedule goals( 設 置計畫目標的工具 ) and monitoring progress  Examples include obtaining customer sign-off( 客 戶簽收 ) on key documents or completion of specific products 10

11 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Involves reviewing activities( 審查活動 ) and determining dependencies( 確定依賴關係 )  A dependency 依賴關係 or relationship 關係 is the sequencing of project activities or tasks  You must determine dependencies in order to use critical path analysis( 關鍵路徑分析 ) 11

12 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Mandatory dependencies( 強制 相依關係 ): inherent ( 固有的 ) in the nature of the work being performed on a project, sometimes referred to as hard logic( 硬邏輯 )  Discretionary dependencies ( 刻意 相依 關係 ): defined by the project team., sometimes referred to as soft logic 軟邏輯 and should be used with care since they may limit later scheduling options  External dependencies: involve relationships between project and non-project activities 12

13 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing  A network diagram is a schematic display 示意圖 顯示 of the logical relationships 邏輯關係 among, or sequencing of, project activities  Two main formats are the arrow 箭頭 and precedence 優先 diagramming methods 圖表方法 13

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15 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Also called activity-on-arrow (AOA) network diagrams( 網路圖 )  Activities 活動 are represented by arrows  Nodes( 節點 ) or circles are the starting and ending points of activities  Can only show finish-to-start dependencies 15

16 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition 1. Find all of the activities that start at node 1. Draw their finish nodes and draw arrows between node 1 and those finish nodes. Put the activity letter or name and duration estimate on the associated arrow 2. Continuing drawing the network diagram, working from left to right. Look for bursts and merges. Bursts( 分支 ) occur when a single node is followed by two or more activities. A merge( 合併 ) occurs when two or more nodes precede a single node 3. Continue drawing the project network diagram until all activities are included on the diagram that have dependencies 4. As a rule of thumb 經驗法則, all arrowheads should face toward the right, and no arrows should cross on an AOA network diagram 16

17 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Activities are represented by boxes  Arrows show relationships between activities  More popular than ADM method and used by project management software  Better at showing different types of dependencies 顯示不同型態的 相依 關係 17

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20 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Before estimating activity durations, you must have a good idea of the quantity and type of resources that will be assigned to 分配給 each activity; resources are people, equipment, and materials( 材料 )  Consider important issues in estimating resources ◦ How difficult will it be to do specific activities on this project? ◦ What is the organization’s history in doing similar activities? ◦ Are the required resources available?  A resource breakdown structure( 資源分解結構 ) is a hierarchical structure( 層次結構 ) that identifies the project’s resources by category and type 20

21 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Duration 時間長短 includes the actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed time( 經過 時間 )  Effort is the number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task  Effort does not normally equal duration  People doing the work should help create estimates, and an expert should review them 21

22 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Instead of providing activity estimates as a discrete number( 獨立的號碼 ), such as four weeks, it’s often helpful to create a three-point estimate( 三點估算法 ) ◦ an estimate that includes an optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimate, such as three weeks for the optimistic, four weeks for the most likely, and five weeks for the pessimistic estimate  Three-point estimates are needed for PERT and Monte Carlo simulations( 蒙地卡羅模擬法 ) 22

23 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Uses results of the other time management processes to determine the start and end date of the project  Ultimate goal is to create a realistic project schedule 實際工作時間表 that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project  Important tools and techniques include Gantt charts, critical path analysis 關鍵路徑分析, and critical chain 關鍵鏈 liàn scheduling, and PERT 計劃 評審技術 analysis 23

24 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Gantt charts provide a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format  Symbols include: ◦ A black diamond: a milestones ◦ Thick black bars: summary tasks( 摘要任務 ) ◦ Lighter horizontal bars: durations of tasks ◦ Arrows: dependencies between tasks 24

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26 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Many people like to focus on meeting milestones, especially for large projects  Milestones emphasize important events or accomplishments on projects  Normally create milestone by entering tasks with a zero duration, or you can mark any task as a milestone 26

27 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Milestones should be ◦ Specific 具體詳細的 ◦ Measurable 可測量的 ◦ Assignable( 可分配的 ) ◦ Realistic( 實際的 ) ◦ Time-framed( 時間架構 ) 27

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29 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  CPM is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration 預測專案時程  A critical path for a project is the series of activities( 一系列的活動 ) that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed  The critical path is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or float  Slack or float( 浮時或時差 ) is the amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying 不會延 遲 a succeeding activity 後續活動 or the project finish date 29

30 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  First develop a good network diagram  Add the duration estimates for all activities on each path through the network diagram  The longest path( 路徑 ) is the critical path  If one or more of the activities on the critical path takes longer than planned, the whole project schedule will slip( 進度將會溜走 ) unless the project manager takes corrective action 糾正措施 30

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32 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  The critical path 關鍵路徑 is not the one with all the critical activities; it only accounts for time  There can be more than one critical path if the lengths of two or more paths are the same  The critical path can change as the project progresses 32

33 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Free slack or free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities 下一个的活動  Total slack or total float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date( 計畫專案的完成日期 )  A forward pass( 前推法 ) through the network diagram determines the early start 最早開始 and finish 結束 dates  A backward pass( 後推法 ) determines the late 最後 start and finish dates 33

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36 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Three main techniques for shortening schedules( 縮短進度 ) ◦ Shortening durations of critical activities/tasks by adding more resources or changing their scope ◦ Crashing activities( 趕工活動 ) by obtaining the greatest amount of schedule compression( 壓縮進度 ) for the least incremental cost ◦ Fast tracking( 快速跟進 ) activities by doing them in parallel( 同時進行 ) or overlapping them 36

37 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  It is important to update project schedule information to meet time goals for a project  The critical path may change as you enter actual start and finish dates  If you know the project completion date will slip( 日 期會延期 ), negotiate with the project sponsor 37

38 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Critical chain scheduling ◦ a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers( 緩衝 ) to protect the project completion date  Attempts to minimize multitasking( 多工作業 ) ◦ when a resource works on more than one task at a time 38

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40 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  A buffer is additional time to complete a task  Murphy’s Law 摩菲定理 states that if something can go wrong, it will  Parkinson’s Law 帕金森定律 states that work expands to fill the time allowed  In traditional estimates, people often add a buffer to each task and use it if it’s needed or not  Critical chain scheduling removes buffers from individual tasks and instead creates ◦ a project buffer 專案緩衝 or additional time( 額外時間 ) added before the project’s due date 專案截止日期 ◦ feeding buffers 進給緩衝區 or additional time added before tasks on the critical path 40

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42 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  PERT is a network analysis technique used to estimate project duration 專案時程 when there is a high degree of uncertainty 不確定性程度 about the individual activity duration estimates  PERT uses probabilistic time estimates( 機率性 的時間估計 ) ◦ duration estimates based on using optimistic 樂觀, most likely, and pessimistic 悲觀 estimates 估計 of activity durations, or a three-point estimate 42

43 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  PERT weighted average = optimistic time + 4X most likely time + pessimistic time 6  Example: PERT weighted average = 8 workdays + 4 X 10 workdays + 24 workdays = 12 days6 where optimistic time= 8 days most likely time = 10 days, and pessimistic time = 24 days Therefore, you’d use 12 days on the network diagram instead of 10 when using PERT for the above example 43

44 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Perform reality checks( 實際檢查 ) on schedules  Allow for contingencies( 偶然事件 )  Don’t plan for everyone to work at 100% capacity all the time100% 工作能力  Hold progress meetings 舉行進度會議 with stakeholders and be clear and honest in communicating schedule issues 44

45 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Goals are to know the status of the schedule, influence factors that cause schedule changes, determine that the schedule has changed, and manage changes when they occur  Tools and techniques include ◦ Progress reports ◦ A schedule change control system ◦ Project management software, including schedule comparison charts like the tracking Gantt chart ◦ Variance analysis( 變異分析 ), such as analyzing float or slack ◦ Performance management 績效管理, such as earned value 淨 值 (chapter 7) 45

46 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Strong leadership( 較強的領導力 ) helps projects succeed more than good PERT charts  Project managers should use ◦ Empowerment( 賦權 ) ◦ Incentives( 獎勵 ) ◦ Discipline( 紀律 ) ◦ Negotiation( 協調 ) 46

47 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Software for facilitating communications 溝通 helps people exchange schedule-related information  Project management software can help in various time management areas ◦ You must enter dependencies to have dates adjust automatically and to determine the critical path ◦ You must enter actual schedule information to compare planned and actual progress 47

48 Copyright 2014 Information Technology Project Management, Seventh Edition  Project time management is often cited as the main source of conflict on projects, and most IT projects exceed time estimates  Main processes include ◦ Plan schedule management ◦ Define activities ◦ Sequence activities ◦ Estimate activity resources ◦ Estimate activity durations ◦ Develop schedule ◦ Control schedule 48


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