2 Learning GoalsRecognize the variety of constraints that can affect a project, making scheduling and planning difficult.Understand how to apply resource-loading techniques to project schedules to identify potential resource over-allocation situations.Apply resource-leveling procedures to project activities over the baseline schedule using appropriate prioritization heuristics.Follow the correct steps necessary to effectively smooth resource requirements across the project life cycle.Apply resource management within a multi-project environment.
3 Resource ManagementResource management is an iterative process scheduling activity of balancing the activity network and overall schedule against the available resources.Project scheduling is a two step processConstruct the networkCheck the network against resource availabilityResource availability always has a direct bearing on the duration of project activities.
4 Types of ConstraintsA restriction or limitation, either internal or external to the project, that will affect the performance of the project or process.TechnicalPhysicalTimeMixedResourcePeopleMaterialsMoneyEquipment
5 Resource Constraint Example How do we handle this constraint?
6 Resource Loading Table With Over Allocation Jeff is over allocated(unless we can work him 16 hours a day)Need to use a resource loading chart
7 Resource LoadingThe amount of individual resources that a schedule requires during specific time periodsResource loading attempts to assign the appropriate resource for the appropriate amount to each project activityResource Loading ChartAdded “Bob” as a resource
9 Resource Leveling (Smoothing) The process that addresses the complex challenges of project constraintsObjectivesTo determine the resource requirements so they will be available at the right timeTo allow each activity to be scheduled with the smoothest possible transition across resource usage levels
10 Prioritization Rules for Leveling Simple leveling heuristics (rules of thumb) for prioritizing resource allocation include applying resources to:Task with the smallest amount of slack Task with the smallest durationTask that start earliest in the WBSTask with the most successor tasksTask requiring the most resourcesThe implication of how resources are prioritized is significant, as it has a “ripple” effect throughout the remainder of the activity network
11 General Procedure for Leveling First create a project activity network diagram (slide 13/14)Create a table showing the resources required Resource Loading Table (slide 15/16/17)Determine resources needed, the activity early starts and late finish dates (slide 18)Identify resource conflicts and “smooth” over allocation with Leveling Heuristics (slide 10/19)Repeat step 4 until resources are level
12 Example: Sample Project Data Develop the projectDetermine the WBSDetermine timingActivityDurationPredESEFLSLFSlackA5---B496101CD118143E1516FG18H7E,F23I20JKH,I,J28
14 Example: Sample Project Gantt Chart Create a Gantt Chart as a visual representation of the WBS
15 Example: Sample Project Slack and Resource Needs Determine the resources needed to complete the WBS taskUse to develop the resource loading tableActivitylabelDurationSlacktimeResource Hours Needed Per WeekTotal ResourcesRequiredA5630B4128C20D318EF12G16H721IJK25Total194Step 1Develop Table
18 Example: Sample Project Resource Loading Table with Slack Included Step 2 Find LFDates3 days slack0 days slack - on CPStep 3 Find Over AllocationLet’s say we only have 9 resources available per day.What about?
19 Example: Sample Project - Resource Leveling the Network Use Leveling Heuristics (slide 10)Step 4 Level the resourcesX3X271199
20 Creating Resource Loading Charts Displays the amount of resources required as a function of timeAnother way to create a graphic of the resource management process0 A 4 Res = 64 B 5 Res = 25 D 9 Res = 79 E 11 Res = 34 C 7 Res = 211 F 12 Res = 6Start with a network diagramSample Network
21 Sample Network Data Table ActivityResourceDurationESSlackLFOrderA64B215C311D79EF12Project ends Day 12Produce a table that shows the duration, early start, late finish, slack, and resource(s) required for each activity.List in order of increasing slack, then latest finish time for activities with the same slack
22 Sample Project Resource Load Chart Draw an initial loading chart with each activity duration scheduled at its ES.8D6AFResource imbalance 8 Hours AvailableResources4BE2CNotice: Day 14 Not 122468101214Project Days
23 Creating Resource Loading Charts Rearrange activities within their slack to create a more level profile. Splitting C creates a more level project. C has 4 days of slack available.A2468121014CBDEFProject DaysResourcesNotice: Day 12
24 Key Parameters in Multi-Project Environments Eventually you will be confronted with dealing with resource allocation across multiple projectsAllocations made in one project are likely to effect other projectsThis leads toInefficient use of resourcesBottlenecksRipple effectsHeightened pressure on personnel to multitask
25 Key Parameters in Multi-Project Environments Need to minimize the negative effectsSchedule slippageResource utilizationIn-process inventoryA2468121014CBDEFProject DaysResources
26 Prioritizing Resource Allocations in Multi-Project Environments Each have their advantages and disadvantagesFirst come first served (Lean Push)Greatest resource demand (TOC)Greatest resource utilization (Time Management)Minimum late finish time (CPM)Mathematical programming (Optimization)
27 Discussion QuestionsConsider a project to build a bridge over a river gorge. What are some of the resource constraints that would make this project challenging?For many projects, the key resources to be managed are the project team personnel. Explain in what sense and how project team personnel are often the project critical resource.What is the philosophy underlying resource loading? What does it do for our project? Why is it a critical element in effectively managing the project plan?It has been argued that a project schedule which has not been resource leveled is useless. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why or why not?Discuss the nature of “time/cost tradeoffs” on projects. What does this concept imply for our project management practices?
28 Discussion QuestionsWhen resource leveling a project, there are a number of heuristics that can help us prioritize those activities that receive resources first. Explain how each of the following heuristics works and give an example:a. Activities with the smallest slack:b. Activities with the smallest duration:c. Activities with the lowest identification number:d. Activities with the most successor tasks:e. Activities with requiring the most resources:Multi-tasking can have an important negative impact on your ability to resource level a project. When your team members are involved in multiple additional commitments, we must be careful not to assign their time too optimistically. In fact, it has been said: “Remember, 40 hours is not the same as one week’s work.” Comment on this idea. How does multi-tasking make it difficult to accurately resource level a project?Why is resource management significantly more difficult in a multi- project environment? What are some rules of thumb to help project managers better control resources across several simultaneous projects?