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3–1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 3 Establishing Goals.

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Presentation on theme: "3–1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 3 Establishing Goals."— Presentation transcript:

1 3–1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 3 Establishing Goals

2 3–2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to: 1.Define planning. 2.Define productivity. 3.Explain the potential benefits of planning. 4.Identify potential drawbacks to planning. 5.Distinguish between strategic and tactical plans. 6.Define management by objectives (MBO) and identify its common elements.

3 3–3 Learning Outcomes (cont’d) After reading this chapter, I will be able to: 7.Describe how plans should link from the top to the bottom of an organization 8.Identify what is meant by the terms benchmarking, ISO9000 series, & Six Sigma 9.Describe Gantt Chart 10.Explain the information needed to create a PERT chart 11.Describe the four ingredients common to goal- setting programs

4 3–4 Planning Defined Defining the organization’s objectives or goals Establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals Developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities Planning is concerned with ends (what is to be done) as well as with means (how it is to be done).

5 3–5 Planning Defined cont… Formal Planning “ specific goals are formulated, committed to writing, and made available to organizational members” (p. 67)  Became very popular in the 1960’s Informal Planning “Planned in the head, but not written down” (p.67)  There is little or no sharing of these plans with others. (often used in small businesses)

6 3–6 Reasons for Planning Exhibit 3.1

7 3–7 Criticisms Of Formal Planning Planning may create rigidity. Plans can’t be developed for a dynamic environment. Formal plans can’t replace intuition and creativity. Planning focuses managers’ attention on today’s competition, not on tomorrow’s survival. Formal planning reinforces success, which may lead to failure.

8 3–8 Planning and Performance (productivity) Formal planning generally means higher profits, higher return on assets, and other positive financial results. Planning process quality and implementation probably contribute more to high performance than does the extent of planning. When external environment restrictions allowed managers few viable alternatives, planning did not lead to higher performance.

9 3–9 Productivity Productivity defined  The overall output of goods and services produced divided by the inputs needed to generate that output. Benefits of high productivity  Fosters economic growth and development  Increases individual wages without inflation  Lowers costs and makes firms more competitive

10 3–10 Types of Plans Exhibit 3.2 BREADTH TIME SPECIFICITYFREQUENCY OF USE FRAME OF USE StrategicLong termDirectionalSingle use TacticalShort termSpecificStanding

11 3–11 Planning: Focus and Time Strategic plans  Plans that are organization-wide, establish overall objectives, and position an organization in terms of its environment Tactical plans  Plans that specify the details of how an organization’s overall objectives are to be achieved (Top Mgt) Short-term plans  Plans that cover less than one year (Supervisors) Long-term plans  Plans that extend beyond five years (Top Executives)

12 3–12 Strategic Planning Strategic plans  Apply broadly to the entire organization.  Establish the organization’s overall objectives.  Seek to position the organization in terms of its environment.  Provide direction to drive an organization’s efforts to achieve its goals.  Serve as the basis for the tactical plans.  Cover extended periods of time.  Are less specific in their details.

13 3–13 Tactical Planning Tactical plans (operational plans)  Apply to specific parts of the organization.  Are derived from strategic objectives.  Specify the details of how the overall objectives are to be achieved.  Cover shorter periods of time.  Must be updated continuously to meet current challenges.

14 3–14 How Plans and Organizations are Linked

15 3–15 Continuous Improvement & Planning Benchmarking  The search for the best practices among competitors or noncompetitors that lead to their superior performance. ISO 9000 series  Standards designed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that reflect a process whereby independent auditors attest that a company’s factory, laboratory, or office has met quality management requirements.

16 3–16 Attaining Six Sigma Quality Six Sigma  A philosophy and measurement process developed in the 1980s at Motorola.  To design, measure, analyze, and control the input side of a production process to achieve the goal of no more than 3.4 defects per million parts or procedures.  A philosophy and measurement process that attempts to design in quality as a product is being made.

17 3–17 Six Sigma 12-Process Steps Select the critical-to-quality characteristics. Define the required performance standards. Validate measurement system, methods, and procedures. Establish the current processes’ capability. Define upper and lower performance limits. Identify sources of variation. Screen potential causes of variation to identify the vital few variables needing control. Discover variation relationship for the vital variables. Establish operating tolerances on each of the vital variables. Validate the measurement system’s ability to produce repeatable data. Determine the capability of the process to control the vital variables. Implement statistical process control on the vital variables. Exhibit 3.3 Source: Cited in D Harold and F. J. Bartos, “Optimize Existing Processes to Achieve Six Sigma Capability,” reprinted from Control Engineering Practice, © 1998, p. 87, with permission from Elsevier Science.

18 3–18 Key Planning Guides Standing plan  A plan that is ongoing and provides guidance for repeatedly performed actions in an organization  Customer satisfaction policy Single-use plans  A plan that is used to meet the needs of a particular or unique situation  Single-day sales advertisement

19 3–19 Key Planning Guides cont… Standing plan  Policies  broad guidelines for Supervisory action –“We promote from within whenever possible”  Procedures  series of steps a supervisor would utilize in responding to a recurring problem with employees  Rules  an explicit statement that tells employees what he/she ought or out not to do  created when supervisors are confronted with recurring problems  simple to follow & ensures consistency

20 3–20 Key Planning Guides cont… Single-use plans  Programs  Plan designed for a specific activity or time period  Budgets  Numerical plan that expresses anticipated results –Department Expense Budget (Exhibit 3-4)  Schedules  Detailed planning of activities in which the order of each activity is identified and who will be doing each activity –Gantt Chart (Exhibit 3-5) –Pert Chart (Exhibit 3-6)

21 3–21 Popular Scheduling Tools Gantt chart  A planning tool that shows in bar graph form when tasks are supposed to be done and compares that with the actual progress on each task. Pert Chart - (Program evaluation and review technique)  A flowchart-like diagram that depicts the sequence of activities needed to complete a project and the time or costs associated with each activity

22 3–22 A Sample Gantt Chart Exhibit 14.5

23 3–23 PERT Components Events  End points that represent the completion of major activities Activities  Actions that take place Slack time  The time difference between the critical path and all other paths Critical path  The longest or most time-consuming sequence of events and activities required to complete a project in the shortest amount of time

24 3–24 Developing PERT Charts 1.Identify every significant activity that must be achieved for a project to be completed. 2.Determine the order in which these events must be completed 3.Diagram the flow of activities from start to finish, identifying each activity and its relationship to all other activities. 4.Compute a time estimate for completing each activity 5.Using a Pert Chart that contains time estimates for each activity, determine start and finish dates Exhibit 14.7

25 3–25 TIMEPRECEDING EVENTDESCRPTION(WEEKS)ACTIVITY AApprove design and get permits3None BPerform excavation/lot clearing1A CPour footers1B DErect foundation walls2C EFrame house4D FInstall windows0.5E GShingle roof0.5E HInstall brick front and siding4F,G IInstall electrical, plumbing, and heating and A/C rough-ins6E JInstall insulation0.25I KInstall sheetrock2J LFinish and sand sheetrock7K MInstall interior trim2L NPaint house (interior and exterior)2H, M OInstall all cabinets0.5N PInstall flooring1N QFinal touch-up and turn over house to homeowner1O, P Major Activities in Building a Custom Home Exhibit 14.8

26 3–26 A PERT Network for Building a Custom Home Critical Path Exhibit 14.9

27 3–27 Goal Setting Management by Objectives (MBO)  A system in which specific performance objectives are jointly determined by subordinates and their supervisors, progress toward objectives is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocated on the basis of that progress.  Links individual and unit performance objectives at all levels with overall organizational objectives.  Focuses operational efforts on organizationally important results.  Motivates rather than controls.

28 3–28 Elements of MBO Goal specificity Participative decision making Explicit time period for performance Performance feedback

29 3–29 Setting Employee Objectives Identify an employee’s key job tasks. Establish specific and challenging goals for each key task. Allow the employee to actively participate. Prioritize goals. Build in feedback mechanisms to assess goal progress. Link rewards to goal attainment.

30 3–30 GoalDifficulty Is There a Downside to MBO? GoalSpecificity TopManagementParticipation

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