Presentation on theme: "INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL."— Presentation transcript:
INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN
KUALITAS AIR It’s a simple fact - we can’t live without water. People use it every day for drinking, washing and cooking, as well as for irrigating crops and generating electricity. Water is also essential for maintaining the health of natural systems, which in turn support us. There are many actions to take to use water wisely at home and in the garden to help secure water for our future. Sumber: http://www.livinggreener.gov.au/water)
KUALITAS AIR Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012 Kualitas air mencerminkan karakteristik kimia, fisika dan biologis air. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact and drinking water. The parameters for water quality are determined by the intended use. Work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water that is treated for human consumption, industrial use, or in the environment.
KUALITAS AIR AMBIENT Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012 Environmental water quality, also called ambient water quality, relates to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and oceans. Water quality standards for surface waters vary significantly due to different environmental conditions, ecosystems, and intended human uses. Toxic substances and high populations of certain micro- organisms can present a health hazard for non-drinking purposes such as irrigation, swimming, fishing, rafting, boating, and industrial uses. These conditions may also affect wildlife, which use the water for drinking or as a habitat. Modern water quality laws generally specify protection of fisheries and recreational use and require, as a minimum, retention of current quality standards.
Parameter kualitas lingkungan air tawar Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freshwater_environmental_quality_parameters ……………… 28/11/2012 Freshwater environmental quality parameters are the natural and man-made chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics of rivers, lakes and ground- waters, the ways they are measured and the ways that they change. The values or concentrations attributed to such parameters can be used to describe the pollution status of an environment, its biotic status or to predict the likelihood or otherwise of a particular organisms being present. Monitoring of environmental quality parameters is a key activity in managing the environment, restoring polluted environments and anticipating the effects of man-made changes on the environment.
KONSUMSI MANUSIA Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012 Contaminants that may be in untreated water include microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria; inorganic contaminants such as salts and metals; organic chemical contaminants from industrial processes and petroleum use; pesticides and herbicides; and radioactive contaminants. Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse (which may lower the level of the water). In urbanized areas throughout the world, water purification technology is used in municipal water systems to remove contaminants from the source water (surface water or groundwater) before it is distributed to homes, businesses, schools and other users. Water drawn directly from a stream, lake, or aquifer and that has no treatment will be of uncertain quality.
PENGGUNAAN AIR: DOMESTIK DAN INDUSTRI Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012 Dissolved minerals may affect suitability of water for a range of industrial and domestic purposes. The most familiar of these is probably the presence of ions of calcium and magnesium which interfere with the cleaning action of soap, and can form hard sulfate and soft carbonate deposits in water heaters or boilers. Hard water may be softened to remove these ions. The softening process often substitutes sodium cations. Hard water may be preferable to soft water for human consumption, since health problems have been associated with excess sodium and with calcium and magnesium deficiencies. Softening may sacrifice nutrition for cleaning effectiveness
Water Quality Indicators We will now take a look at the water quality indicators. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
ALKALINITY Alkalinity refers to the water’s ability to neutralize acids. Alkalinity is produced by minerals such as limestone. Limestone is a type of ocean sediment composed of calcium carbonate. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Limestone bedrock areas often have caves and sinkholes, known as Karst. Water with low alkalinity is usually acidic. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Ammonia Ammonia is produced by the decay of organic matter and animal waste. Ammonia is toxic to most aquatic life, especially at high pH. Bacteria readily convert ammonia to nitrate. (a plant nutrient) Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Ammonia Ammonia is a form of nitrogen and part of the Nitrogen Cycle. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
BACTERIA Most bacteria are important in nutrient and other organic cycles. Excess nutrients cause algal blooms. As algae die and decay, the high bacterial load rapidly consumes dissolved oxygen. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Certain types of bacteria indicate animal and human waste pollution. Escherichia coli are coliform bacteria found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. Most strains are harmless but one E. coli strain can cause severe diarrhea and kidney damage. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Oksigen Terlarut Dissolved oxygen is a product of photosynthesis and diffusion. The warmer the water, the less oxygen it can hold. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Most organisms need at least 5 or 6 ppm of oxygen in order to survive. Even cold water rarely contains more than 15 ppm. Summer is often a time of oxygen stress for aquatic organisms. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt Oksigen Terlarut
Conductivity measures the water’s ability to conduct an electrical current. Pure water is a poor conductor. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt Konduktivitas
The addition of dissolved solids, especially salts, increases the conductivity of water. Electrical current is measured using a conductivity meter. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt Konduktivitas
Hardness refers to the concentration of calcium and magnesium in water. Hard water has high concentrations of these elements. Soft water has low concentrations. Water hardness often originates from limestone. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt Kesadahan
Nitrate is a primary plant nutrient. Nitrate is water soluble and moves easily from surface to groundwater. Excess nitrate causes algal blooms that reduce water quality. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt Nitrat
Under normal conditions, the nitrogen cycle keeps the amount of available nitrogen in balance with the demands. However, excessive use of fertilizers and nutrient rich sewage release have created a surplus of nitrate. The result is eutrophication from excess algae and bacteria with reduced dissolved oxygen. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
These chemicals are very complex. Effects on aquatic organisms – Moderately to highly toxic to mammals, molluscs, aquatic insects, amphibians and fish. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt Pestisida
pH pH is the measure of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration. The pH scale is zero to 14. Seven is neutral, below seven is acidic, and above seven is basic (or alkaline). Most aquatic organisms exist within a pH range of 5.5 to 9.5. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form a weak acid called carbonic acid. pH tolerance for most aquatic life Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Phosphate Phosphate’s concentrations in clean water is generally low; however, phosphorus is used extensively in fertilizer and other chemicals. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Phosphate The primary sources of phosphates to surface water are detergents, fertilizers, and natural mineral deposits. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Phosphate High levels of phosphate can over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. This in turn, will cause high DO consumption and death to fish and many aquatic organisms. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Salinity Salinity refers to the salt concentration in water, mostly sodium chloride. Salinity is historically measured in parts per thousand (ppt) or grams per liter. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Salinity Saltwater can cause problems when it replaces fresh groundwater near the coastal areas. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Sediment Erosion causes loose soil to enter the waterways Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Sediment Suspended sediment blocks sunlight to plants and reduces dissolved oxygen. As sediments settle, they can smother bottom (benthic) organisms. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
TEMPERATURE Most aquatic organisms live within a temperature range of +32º F (+0º C) to 90º F (32º C). Temperature can be measured using field thermometers but digital probes are much more accurate. Temperature is measured in Fahrenheit and Celsius degrees. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Temperature affects the oxygen-carrying capacity of water. Rapid temperature change and temperature extremes can stress aquatic organisms. As the water warms, the amount of dissolved oxygen decreases. 14 Dissolved Oxygen (ppm) 12 10 8 6 4 ____________________________________ WinterSummer Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) TDS is the measure of the material dissolved in water. This measure is related to hardness, salinity and conductivity. Hard water has more TDS than soft water. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS (TSS) TSS is the measure of the sediment suspended in the water. TSS is related to turbidity. Water with high TSS usually has high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) as well. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
TURBIDITY Turbidity refers to water clarity. Sediments suspended in the water increase turbidity. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
A secchi disk is one type of instrument used to measure turbidity. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Senyawa Kimia Toksik Toxic chemicals usually come from industry and energy production. The effects are often not known until years after they have entered the environment. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
Toxic chemicals include heavy metals (lead, mercury), organic compounds (DDT, PCB), inorganic substances (arsenic) and others. Diunduh dari: step.nn.k12.va.us/science/envsci/ppt/Water_Quality_Indicators.ppt
INDIKATOR AIR MINUM Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012 1.An electrical conductivity meter is used to measure total dissolved solids 2.The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category: 3.Alkalinity 4.WARNA AIR 5.pH 6.Taste and odor (geosmin, 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), etc.) 7.Dissolved metals and salts (sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium) 8.Microorganisms such as fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli), Cryptosporidium, and Giardia lamblia 9.Dissolved metals and metalloids (lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.) 10.Dissolved organics: colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 11.Radon 12.LOGAM – LOGAM BERAT 13.Pharmaceuticals 14.Hormone analogs.
INDIKATOR AIR Diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality ……………… 28/11/2012 Indikator Fisika 1.Suhu Air = Water Temperature 2.Specifics Conductance or EC, Electrical Conductance, Conductivity 3.Total suspended solids (TSS) 4.Transparency or Turbidity 5.Total dissolved solids (TDS) 6.Bau air = Odor of Water 7.Warna air = Color of water 8.Rasa air = Taste of Water
Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Biological Indicators/ assessment 1.Ephemeroptera 2.Plecoptera 3.Trichoptera 4.Escherichia Coli or E.Coli or E.coli 5.Coliform Biological monitoring metrics have been developed in many places, and one widely used measure is the presence and abundance of members of the insect orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT). EPT indexes will naturally vary from region to region, but generally, within a region, the greater the number of taxa from these orders, the better the water quality. EPA and other organizations in the United States offer guidance on developing a monitoring program and identifying members of these and other aquatic insect orders. Individuals interested in monitoring water quality who cannot afford or manage lab scale analysis can also use biological indicators to get a general reading of water quality. One example is the IOWATER volunteer water monitoring program, which includes a benthic macroinvertebrate indicator key. INDICATOR OF WATER
WATER QUALITY INDEX Diunduh dari: http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/watershed/wqi_info.html ……………… 28/11/2012 A water quality index provides a single number (like a grade) that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water quality data into information that is understandable and useable by the public. This type of index is similar to the index developed for air quality that shows if it’s a red or blue air quality day. The use of an index to "grade" water quality is a controversial issue among water quality scientists. A single number cannot tell the whole story of water quality; there are many other water quality parameters that are not included in the index. The index presented here is not specifically aimed at human health or aquatic life regulations. However, a water index based on some very important parameters can provide a simple indicator of water quality. It gives the public a general idea the possible problems with the water in the region.
BAKU MUTU AIR & PELAPORANNYA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 1.1. WHO Guideline World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline for Drinking Water Standards. 2. ICMR Standards ICMR Standards for Drinking Water. 3. International standards or ISI Satandards Water quality regulated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is covered in the section of ICS 13.060, ranging from water sampling, drinking water, industrial class water, sewage water, and examination of water for chemical, physical or biological properties. ICS 91.140.60 covers the standards of water supply systems.
KRITERIA KUALITAS AIR Diunduh dari: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012 Section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act requires us to develop criteria for water quality that accurately reflects the latest scientific knowledge. These criteria are based solely on data and scientific judgments on pollutant concentrations and environmental or human health effects. Section 304(a) also provides guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards. Criteria are developed for the protection of aquatic life as well as for human health.
KEHIDUPAN AKUATIK Diunduh dari: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012 1.Aquatic Life criteria lists chemical concentration goals to protect surface water for aquatic life use. 2.Biological criteria are based on the numbers and kinds of organisms present and describe the biological condition of aquatic communities inhabiting surface waters. 3.Nutrients are substances used by living things that promote growth (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). We are developing nutrient criteria to prevent over enrichment in surface waters of the U.S.A.
KESEHATAN MANUSIA Diunduh dari: http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/index.cfm……………… 28/11/2012 1.Human Health includes technical information and guidance on surface water, drinking water and microbials. 2.Microbial (Pathogen) criteria are used to protect the public from exposure to harmful levels of pathogens in ground and surface waters, food sources, and finished drinking water. 3.Recreational Criteria protect people who swim and play in coastal recreational waters from exposure to pathogens. We held an Experts Scientific Workshop to help map our future directions.
INDEKS KUALITAS AIR DAN INDIKATORNYA Diunduh dari: http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/Default.aspx………… …… 28/11/2012 The integrity of an ecosystem is typically assessed through its ability to provide goods and services on a continuous basis. Together with the air we breathe, the provision of clean water is arguably the most fundamental service provided by ecosystems. Yet, human activities have fundamentally altered inland water ecosystems and their catchments. As a consequence species dependant on inland waters are more likely to go extinct, and future extinction rates of freshwater animals could be up to 5 times higher than for terrestrial animals. Water quality refers to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a water body. These characteristics determine how and for what water can be used and the species and ecosystem process it can support.
BAKU MUTU AIR MINUM GLOBAL Diunduh dari: http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/Default.aspx ……………… 28/11/2012 1.Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) all parameters regardless of WHO designation 2.Source Water Quality Index (SWQI) health and microbial criteria only arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluoride, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate, nitrite, faecal coliforms 3.Acceptability Water Quality Index (AWQI) acceptability criteria only ammonia, chloride, iron, pH, sodium, sulphate, zinc 4.4X4 Rule: Each parameter that contributes to the index must be measured at least 4 times per year at stations that have measured a minimum of 4 parameters per year.
INDEKS KUALITAS AIR GLOBAL Diunduh dari: http://www.unep.org/gemswater/AssessmentsandIndicators/WaterQualityIndexandIndicators/tabid/101094/Default.aspx ……………… 28/11/2012
INDEKS KUALITAS AIR Diunduh dari: http://analegeo.ro/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/5.-IONUS-Oana.pdf ……………… 28/11/2012 In most of the cases, this index represents a numerical expression used in the assessment of the flowing water quality, through the framing of the values in five classes on the interval going from 1 to 100; a certain quality state, respectively a usage domain correspond to each class (Adriano et al., 2006). The raw values of each quality parameter must be compared with the standard threshold values that are taken into account for the computation of the index, in the view of the qualitative assessment. In all cases when the index must be determinate, the computation formula is the following: WQI – the Water Quality Index i – the quality parameter qi – the registered value wi – the rank of implication of the parameter in the computation formula The values of the Water Quality Index that were thus obtained are distributed on a number of intervals, which render the quality of the respective water and the usage domain (Table no. 1): 10–25 percent - highly polluted; 26–50 percent - polluted; 51–70 percent - reasonable; 71–90 percent - good; 91–100 percent - very good (House and Ellis, 1987).
Peranan WQI 1.WQI numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value 2.The single value can be used to compare data from several sites 3.It can be used to look at trends over time on a single site Diunduh dari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt
Parameter untuk WQI ParameterUnitsFor a Q value of 90 DO % sat.% sat.>82% [>90% unless spawning, then >95%] pHpH units6.9 or 7.9 [6.5 to 8.5] E. coliCFU/100 mL<4 CFU/100 mL [406 CFU/100 mL for grab sample] Temp °C °C+2.5°C or -4°C [<17.8 deg. C] TurbidityNTU4.0 NTU’s T Phosmg/L P0.05 mg/L P [0.1 mg/L P, Tualatin TMDL] NO 3 mg/L N0.5 mg/L N BOD 5 mg/L0.8 mg/L Diunduh dari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt
Bagian-bagian dari WQI 1.Q-Value - indication of water quality relative to 100 of one parameter 2.Weighting Factor - sets the relative importance of the parameter to overall water quality Diunduh dari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt
Q Value The Q-Value is an indication of how good (or bad) the water quality is relative to one parameter. 100 = Very Good 1 = Very Bad Q = 0Q = 100 Q = 25Q = 75 Q = 50 Very Bad Very Good Medium Diunduh dari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt
Faktor-faktor Pembobot DO0.18 pH0.12 E. coli0.17 Temp0.11 Turbidity0.09 T Phos0.11 NO 3 0.10 BOD0.12 Total1.00 Diunduh dari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt
Interpretasi WQI Kisaran WQIKualitas Air 90-100Excellent 70-89Good 50-69Medium 25-49Bad 0-24Very Bad Diunduh dari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt
Contoh Perhitungan WQI ParameterUnitsResultQ-ValueWeight Factor Parameter Index DO % Sat%95980.1717.67 pHpH units8880.1110.55 E. coliCFU/100 mL1750230.163.94 Temp deg C 01000.1111.00 TurbidityNTU10790.097.07 T Phosmg/L P0.2500.15.50 NO3mg/L N0.4910.19.12 BODmg/L6360.114.34 Total1.0069.2 WQI =69.2 Quality Rating =MEDIUM Diunduh dari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt
Penyesuaian untuk data yang hilang 1.When a parameter is missing, the sum of the weighting factors that have data can be used to adjust the WQI 2.Sum of the Parametric Index Values is divided by the sum of the weighting factors that have data. Diunduh dari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt
Perhitungan dengan parameter yang hilang ParameterUnitsResultQ-ValueWeight Factor Parameter Index DO % Sat%95980.1717.67 pHpH units8880.1110.55 E. coliCFU/100 mL1750230.163.94 Temp deg C 01000.1111.00 TurbidityNTU10790.097.07 T Phosmg/L PNM NO3mg/L N0.4910.19.12 BODmg/L6360.114.34 Total0.8963.7 WQI =71.6 Quality Rating =GOOD Diunduh dari: www.islsohio.org/wp.../07/Water-Quality-Index-overview-Oregon.ppt