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Gantt Chart   Graph or bar chart with a bar for each project activity that shows passage of time  Provides visual display of project schedule   Slack.

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Presentation on theme: "Gantt Chart   Graph or bar chart with a bar for each project activity that shows passage of time  Provides visual display of project schedule   Slack."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gantt Chart   Graph or bar chart with a bar for each project activity that shows passage of time  Provides visual display of project schedule   Slack amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project

2 |||||||||| Activity Design house and obtain financing Lay foundation Order and receive materials Build house Select paint Select carpet Finish work 0246810 MonthMonth 13579135791357913579 Example of Gantt Chart

3 The Project Network  Use of nodes and arrows Arrows  An arrow leads from tail to head directionally Arrows  An arrow leads from tail to head directionally Indicate ACTIVITY, a time consuming effort that is required to perform a part of the work. Indicate ACTIVITY, a time consuming effort that is required to perform a part of the work. Nodes A node is represented by a circle Nodes A node is represented by a circle - Indicate EVENT, a point in time where one or more activities start and/or finish.

4 CPM/PERT  Critical Path Method (CPM) DuPont & Remington-Rand (1956) DuPont & Remington-Rand (1956) Deterministic task times Deterministic task times Activity-on-node network construction Activity-on-node network construction  Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) US Navy, Booz, Allen & Hamilton US Navy, Booz, Allen & Hamilton Multiple task time estimates Multiple task time estimates Activity-on-arrow network construction Activity-on-arrow network construction

5 Project Network   Activity-on-node (AON) nodes represent activities, and arrows show precedence relationships   Activity-on-arrow (AOA) arrows represent activities and nodes are events for points in time   Event completion or beginning of an activity in a project 1 3 2 Branch/Activity Node

6 AON Network for House Building Project 1 3 2 2 4 3 3 1 5 1 6 1 7 1Start Design house and obtain financing Order and receive materials Select paint Select carpet Lay foundations Build house Finish work

7 1 3 2 2 4 3 3 1 5 1 6 1 7 1Start Critical Path  Critical path Longest path through a network Longest path through a network Minimum project completion time Minimum project completion time A:1-2-4-7 3 + 2 + 3 + 1 = 9 months B:1-2-5-6-7 3 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 8 months C:1-3-4-7 3 + 1 + 3 + 1 = 8 months D:1-3-5-6-7 3 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 7 months

8 Activity Start Times 1 3 2 2 4 3 3 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 Start Start at 3 months Start at 6 months Start at 5 months Finish at 9 months Finish

9 Calculation of Required Time (Te) t 0 + 4 t m + t p  Te= 6 t e=weighted arithmetic average time t o= Optimistic Time t m= most likely time t p= pessimistic time

10 Networking 1 2 3 4 5 13 12 15 8 2 2

11 Activityoptimistic Most likely Pessimist ic Average Time (Te) A 1-2 9122113 B 1-3 6121812 C 2-4 11.552 D 3-4 48.5108 E 2-5 10142415 F 4-5 1232 Calculation of Required Time (Te)

12 Activity Slack Each event has two important times associated with it : -Earliest time, Te, which is a calendar time when a event can occur when all the predecessor events completed at the earliest possible times -Latest time, TL, which is the latest time the event can occur with out delaying the subsequent events and completion of project.  Difference between the latest time and the earliest time of an event is the slack time for that event Slack=LF-EF, LS-ES Positive slack : Slack is the amount of time an event can be delayed without delaying the project completion

13 Mode Configuration 103 303 Activity number Activity duration Earliest start Latest start Earliest finish Latest finish

14 Forward Pass   Start at the beginning of CPM/PERT network to determine the earliest activity times   Earliest Start Time (ES) earliest time an activity can start ES = maximum EF of immediate predecessors   Earliest finish time (EF) earliest time an activity can finish earliest start time plus activity time EF= ES + t

15 Earliest Activity Start and Finish Times 103 3 235 2 334 1 556 1 458 3 667 1 789 1 Start Design house and obtain financing Select paint Lay foundations Select carpet Build house Finish work Order and receive materials

16 Earliest Activity Start and Finish Times 103 3 235 2 334 1 556 1 458 3 667 1 789 1 Start Design house and obtain financing Select paint Lay foundations Select carpet Build house Finish work Order and receive materials 0+3 3+1 * For forward pass maximum EF time would be taken in calculating ES time *

17 Backward Pass   Determines latest activity times by starting at the end of CPM/PERT network and working forward   Latest Start Time (LS) Latest time an activity can start without delaying critical path time LS= LF - t   Latest finish time (LF) latest time an activity can be completed without delaying critical path time LS = minimum LS of immediate predecessors

18 Latest Activity Start and Finish Times 103 303 235 235 334 145 556 167 458 358 667 178 789 189 Start Design house and obtain financing Select pain Lay foundations Select carpet Build house Finish work Order and receive materials

19 * Critical Path 00 99998888 *7*7 11 77886677 66 11 66775566 55 00 88885555 *4*4 114455334433 00 55553333 *2*2 00 33330000 *1*1 Slack S EF LF ES LS Activity Activity Slack


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