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CH/1 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean Manufacturing Dr Christian Hicks
CH/2 © Dr. Christian Hicks Newcastle upon Tyne and the North East of England
CH/3 © Dr. Christian Hicks Productivity (GVA per job) vs. Participation (jobs per population of working age) - 2003 Regional policy seeks to increase productivity and participation
CH/4 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lower than average manufacturing sector performance NE sectoral performance, sector growth and regional significance UK manufacturing has relatively low GVA growth NE has high reliance on manufacturing Increasing manufacturing productivity is a regional priority
CH/5 © Dr. Christian Hicks North East Economy Previously a strong reliance on traditional industries: Coal mining Ship building Power plant (steam turbines, switchgear etc.) Defence (tank factory) All these sectors have been in long term decline.
CH/6 © Dr. Christian Hicks Nissan Motors UK (Sunderland) The Bluebird was the first UK Nissan car, which was produced in July 1986. At the end of 2004, the plant produced 400,00 cars per year.
CH/7 © Dr. Christian Hicks Henry Ford’s production line was developed in 1913. The idea was inspired by a trip to an abattoir.
CH/8 © Dr. Christian Hicks Any colour you like provided it is Black! - Standardised Vertically integrated – even farmed sheep! Model T Ford 1909. 1909 Model T Ford Any colour you like provided it is black!
CH/9 © Dr. Christian Hicks
CH/10 © Dr. Christian Hicks Scientific Management “Whenever a workman proposes an improvement, it should be the policy of the management to make a careful analysis of the new method, and if necessary conduct a series of experiments to determine accurately the relative merit of the new suggestion and of the old standard. And whenever the new method is found to be markedly superior to the old, it should be adopted as the standard for the whole establishment“, F.W.Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, 1911. Standardisation and best practice deployment
CH/11 © Dr. Christian Hicks Ford Mass Production System Minimised waste, maximised value Workers paid $5 per day, more than double the average Model T cars were cheap for customers, by 1918, half of all American cars were Model Ts. By 1927, 15,007,034 had been produced, a record which stood for the following 45 years.
CH/12 © Dr. Christian Hicks Toyota Production System After World War II, Toyota was almost bankrupt. Post war demand was low and minimising the cost per unit through economies of scale was inappropriate. This led to the development of demand-led pull systems. The Japanese could not afford the expensive mass production facilities of the type used in the USA so they instead focused on reducing waste and low cost automation. Likewise, Toyota could not afford to maintain high inventory levels.
CH/13 © Dr. Christian Hicks Taiichi Ohno (1912 †1990) Shigeo Shingo 1909 †1990 Founders of the Toyota Production System (TPS)
CH/14 © Dr. Christian Hicks Just-in-Time Manufacturing “In the broad sense, an approach to achieving excellence in a manufacturing company based upon the continuing elimination of waste (waste being considered as those things which do not add value to the product). In the narrow sense, JIT refers to the movement of material at the necessary time. The implication is that each operation is closely synchronised with subsequent ones to make that possible” APICS Dictionary 1987. JIT became part of Lean Manufacturing after the publication of Womack’s Machine that Changed the World in 1991
CH/15 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean Manufacturing is a way of thinking Faurecia, Washingtong, Tyne & Wear
CH/16 © Dr. Christian Hicks Waller, D.L.,,1999,”Operations Management: A Supply Chain Approach”, (Thompson, London) Lean Manufacturing goals
CH/17 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean Manufacturing Arose in Toyota Japan as the Toyota Production System Replacing complexity with simplicity A philosophy, a way of thinking A process of continuous improvement Emphasis on minimising inventory Focuses on eliminating waste, that is anything that adds cost without adding value Often a pragmatic choice of techniques is used
CH/18 © Dr. Christian Hicks Toyota Production System Technologies and practices can be copied. Most of the philosophies and techniques are widely disseminated. However, Toyota remains at the forefront, primarily because it is a learning organisation. Problem solving methods are applied routinely and are completely ingrained. The employees are continually engaged in Kaizen (continuous improvement). Many aspects of TPS are based upon embedded tacit knowledge.
CH/19 © Dr. Christian Hicks TPS: How the work is done Every activity is completely specified, then applied routinely and repetitively. Because: All variation from best practice leads to poorer quality, lower productivity and higher costs. It hinders learning and improvement because variations hide the link between the process and the results. It is necessary to make sure that the person performing the activity can perform it correctly and that the correct results are achieved.
CH/20 © Dr. Christian Hicks 7 Forms of Waste ‘Muda’ Overproduction – most serious waste because it discourages the smooth flow of material and inhibits productivity and quality. Waiting – wastes time and money. Transport Inappropriate processing – e.g. use of complex processes rather than simple ones. Over complexity encourages over production to try and recover the investment in over complex machines. Unnecessary inventory – increases lead-times and costs. Unnecessary motion – relates to poor ergonomics where operators have to stretch, strain etc. This makes them tired. Defects – physical waste. Regarded as an opportunity to improve. Defects are caused by poor processes.
CH/21 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean Manufacturing Philosophy Techniques – usually applied very pragmatically.
CH/22 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean Techniques Manufacturing techniques Production and material control Inter-company Lean Organisation for change
CH/23 © Dr. Christian Hicks Manufacturing Techniques Gemba Kanri Cellular manufacturing Set-up time reduction Smallest machine concept Fool proofing (Pokayoke) Pull scheduling Line stopping (Jikoda) I,U,W shaped material flow Housekeeping
CH/24 © Dr. Christian Hicks System by which standards for running the day-to-day business are established, maintained controlled and improved. Includes a number of methods: 5Ss Standard operations Skill control, including the assessment of individuals capabilities, the identification of job requirements, the development of a comparison matrix and the identification of training needs; Kaizen is a cost cutting approach that continuously makes small improvements to processes (Wikipedia, 2005); Visual management, the provision of notice boards for control information, stock, materials movement, health and safety and work methods. ‘Genba Kanri’ – Workplace Management
CH/25 © Dr. Christian Hicks 5Ss Waller, D.L.,,1999,”Operations Management: A Supply Chain Approach”, (Thompson, London)
Functional layout Cellular layout Askin G.G & Standridge C.R. (1993) Modelling and Analysis of Manufacturing Systems, John Wiley ISBN 0-471-57369-8
CH/27 © Dr. Christian Hicks © Siemens Power Generation Systems Functional layout
CH/28 © Dr. Christian Hicks Manufacturing cells © Siemens Power Generation Systems
CH/29 © Dr. Christian Hicks Multifunction double gantry mill © Siemens Power Generation Systems A single machine acting as a cell
CH/30 © Dr. Christian Hicks Group Technology / Cellular Manufacturing Improved material flow Reduced queuing time Reduced inventory Improved use of space Improved team work Reduced waste Increased flexibility
CH/31 © Dr. Christian Hicks Set-up Time Reduction Single minute exchange of dies (SMED) - all changeovers < 10 mins. 1.Separate internal set-up from external set-up. Internal set-up must have machine turned off. 2.Convert as many tasks as possible from being internal to external 3.Eliminate adjustment processes within set-up 4.Abolish set-up where feasible Shingo, S. (1985),”A Revolution in Manufacturing: the SMED System”, The Productivity Press, USA.
CH/32 © Dr. Christian Hicks Set-up Analysis Video whole set-up operation. Use camera’s time and date functions Ask operators to describe tasks. As group to share opinions about the operation.
CH/33 © Dr. Christian Hicks Three Stages of SMED 1.Separating internal and external set-up doing obvious things like preparation and transport while the machine is running can save 30-50%. 2.Converting internal set-up to external set-up 3.Streamlining all aspects of the set-up operation
CH/34 © Dr. Christian Hicks Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) Waller, D.L., 2003,”Operations Management: a Supply Chain Perspective 2 nd Edition”, Thompson, London Increases flexibility Makes it easier to reduce batch size Reduces waste
CH/35 © Dr. Christian Hicks Overall Equipment Effectiveness Open time – total time an operator available to work on a machine e.g. 8 hours per day Operator pause – coffee breaks, chatting, toilet breaks etc. Machine breakdowns Unplanned interruptions e.g. having to make modifications Machine set-up Low performance – throughput less than design. Scrap products
CH/36 © Dr. Christian Hicks Waller, D.L.,,1999,”Operations Management: A Supply Chain Approach”, (Thompson, London) Overall Equipment Effectiveness
CH/37 © Dr. Christian Hicks Using several small machines rather than one large one allows simultaneous processing, is more robust and is more flexible Slack, N. Chambers, S. and Johnson, R, 2004,”Operations Management, 4 th Edition”, Prentice Hall Small Machine Concept
CH/38 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean Material Control Pull scheduling Line balancing Schedule balance and smoothing (Heijunka) Under capacity scheduling Visible control Point of use delivery Small lot & batch sizes
CH/39 © Dr. Christian Hicks Waller, D.L., 2003,”Operations Management: a Supply Chain Perspective 2 nd Edition”, Thompson, London
CH/40 © Dr. Christian Hicks Workers operate at their own pace trying to maximise output Push system Waller, D.L., 2003,”Operations Management: a Supply Chain Perspective 2 nd Edition”, Thompson, London
CH/41 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lead timePush system Waller, D.L., 2003,”Operations Management: a Supply Chain Perspective 2 nd Edition”, Thompson, London
CH/42 © Dr. Christian Hicks Pull system synchronised with demand. Lot size = 1 Waller, D.L., 2003,”Operations Management: a Supply Chain Perspective 2 nd Edition”, Thompson, London
CH/43 © Dr. Christian Hicks Pull system Lead time Waller, D.L., 2003,”Operations Management: a Supply Chain Perspective 2 nd Edition”, Thompson, London
CH/44 © Dr. Christian Hicks Flexible workers in Lean combine WP2 & 3 Production after 1 hour: WP1: 180 WP2&3 combined: 180 Increase = 36 per hour Waller, D.L., 2003,”Operations Management: a Supply Chain Perspective 2 nd Edition”, Thompson, London
CH/45 © Dr. Christian Hicks “Pull” Systems Work centres only authorised to produce when it has been signalled that there is a need from a user / downstream department No resources kept busy just to increase utlilisation Requires: Small lot-sizes Low inventory Fast throughput Guaranteed quality
CH/46 © Dr. Christian Hicks Pull Systems Implementations vary Visual / audio signal “Chalk” square One / two card Kanban
CH/47 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean Purchasing Lean purchasing requires predictable (usually synchronised) demand Single sourcing Supplier quality certification Point of use delivery Family of parts sourcing Frequent deliveries of small quantities Propagate Lean down supply chain, suppliers need flexibility Suppliers part of the process vs. adversarial relationships
CH/48 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean Purchasing Controls and reduces inventory Reduces space Reduces material handling Reduces waste Reduces obsolescence
CH/49 © Dr. Christian Hicks Notice placed prominently at the door at Faurecia
CH/50 © Dr. Christian Hicks More detail
CH/51 © Dr. Christian Hicks Organisation for Change Multi-skilled team working Quality Circles, Total Quality Management Philosophy of joint commitment Visible performance measurement –Statistical process control (SPC) –Team targets / performance measurement Enforced problem solving Continuous improvement
CH/52 © Dr. Christian Hicks Total Quality Management (TQM) Focus on the customer and their requirements Right first time Competitive benchmarking Minimisation of cost of quality –Prevention costs –Appraisal costs –Internal / external failure costs –Cost of exceeding customer requirements Founded on the principle that people want to own problems
CH/53 © Dr. Christian Hicks The Deming Cycle Hill, T. 2005, “Operations Management, 2 nd Edition”, Palgrave Macmillan
CH/54 © Dr. Christian Hicks Cause/effect (fishbone) diagram Hill, T. 2005, “Operations Management, 2 nd Edition”, Palgrave Macmillan
CH/55 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean Flexibility Set-up time reduction Small transfer batch sizes Small lot sizes Under capacity scheduling Often labour is the variable resource Smallest machine concept
CH/56 © Dr. Christian Hicks Reducing Uncertainty Total Preventative Maintenance (TPM) / Total Productive Maintenance 100% quality Quality is part of the process - it can’t be inspected in Stable and uniform schedules Supplier quality certification
CH/57 © Dr. Christian Hicks Total Preventative Maintenance (TPM) Strategy to prevent equipment and facility downtime Planned schedule of maintenance checks Routine maintenance performed by the operator Maintenance departments train workers, perform maintenance audits and undertake more complicated work.
CH/58 © Dr. Christian Hicks The problem with inventory Slack, N. Chambers, S. and Johnson, R, 2004,”Operations Management, 4 th Edition”, Prentice Hall
CH/59 © Dr. Christian Hicks Operational prerequisites Level schedules Frozen schedules Fixed routings Frequent set ups Small and fixed order quantities High quality conformance Low process breakdowns Labour utilisation not the key factor Employee involvement
CH/60 © Dr. Christian Hicks Lean in the North East of England Regional Development Agency the North East Productivity Alliance to disseminate Lean expertise. The initiative involves about 150 companies in the region. A pilot of 16 companies resulted in total savings of £4.36m. Several companies would have otherwise have gone out of business. There were dramatic improvements in efficiency, delivery performance and productivity.
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