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Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences Thesis Defense Seminar Soil Drainage Class Influences on Soil Organic Carbon in a New England Forested.

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Presentation on theme: "Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences Thesis Defense Seminar Soil Drainage Class Influences on Soil Organic Carbon in a New England Forested."— Presentation transcript:

1 Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences Thesis Defense Seminar Soil Drainage Class Influences on Soil Organic Carbon in a New England Forested Watershed Jay Raymond M.S. Student

2 Acknowledgements Committee: Dr. Ivan J. Fernandez, Professor of Soil Science, Advisor Dr. Tsutomu Ohno, Professor of Soil Chemistry Dr. Kevin Simon, Associate Professor of Biological Sciences Funding: Maine Agricultural & Forest Experiment StationPlant, Soil, Environmental Sciences

3 Seminar Overview Introduction -Why? -Terrestrial C Cycle -Soil Drainage Classes -Wetland Soils -Forest Types Hypotheses Methods & Results -Site Location & Description -%C & C Content -C Fractions (Active, Stable, Passive) -Soil Respiration (R S ) Conclusions

4 Lal, Kimble, and Follett, 1997 The Pedosphere Focus

5 Why Study Carbon?

6 Sinks Sources C Emissions Sources Sinks

7 Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) Kern, 1994; Johnson and Kern 2003; Amichev, 2003 NRCS

8 Soil Drainage Classes – NRCS (8); Soil Survey Manual Ch. 3, MAPSS 2010 Excessively Drained (ED) Somewhat excessively drained (SWED) Well drained (WD) Moderately well drained (MWD) Somewhat poorly drained (SWPD) Poorly drained (PD) Very poorly drained (VPD) Subaqueous (?) INCREASING WETNESSINCREASING WETNESS

9 Moderately Well 25% Well 20% Excessively 3% Somewhat Excessively 3% Very Poorly 10% Poorly 20% Somewhat Poorly 19% Maine Soil Drainage Classes Source: NRCS

10 Wetland (Hydric) Soils - Histosol - > 40 cm (16”) O.M. - VPD - Histic epipedon - Mineral histic - VPD – PD - Mineral - PD

11 Hypotheses soil wetness increases, SOC increases (decreasing drainage) %C, C content - PD > SWPD > MWD - CF > BLD C Fractions -Passive: MWD > SWPD > PD -Passive: BLD > CF R S - MWD > SWPD > PD start of season - SWPD > PD > MWD end of season - SWPD > MWD entire season

12 Site Location Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM)

13 Adapted from : NRCS, Franklin County, ME Soil Survey Brayton Colonel Dixfield Marlow Tunbridge Lyman Marlow Tunbridge Abram Rock Outcrop Lyman Dixfield Tunbridge Lyman Gneiss, Schist, Granite and/or Phyllite Bedrock Dense Glacial Till Gneiss, Schist, Granite and/or Phyllite Bedrock Dense Glacial Till Berkshire Loose Glacial Till Peacham Site Description SWPDPDMWD CF BLD Soil Drainage Forest Types Colonel : loamy, isotic, frigid, shallow Aquic Haplorthods Parent Material: non-calcareous compact Wisconsinan age basal till dominated by mica schist, phyllite, granite and gneiss Elevations: 165 - 470 m Aspect: Southeasterly Slopes: Higher: steeps/benches, 31% avg. Lower: gentler, 15%. avg. Tunbridge: coarse-loamy, isotic, frigid, Typic Haplorthods Dixfield: coarse-loamy, isotic, frigid, Aquic Haplorthods red spruce balsam fir American beech sugar maple paper birch sugar maple paper birch yellow birch eastern hemlock northern white cedar red spruce eastern hemlock northern white cedar yellow birch red maple sugar maple Brayton: loamy, mixed, active, nonacid, frigid, shallow Aeric Endoaquepts Tunbridge Lyman Abram

14 Soil Drainage Classes (3) MWD (6)SWPD (6) PD (6) BLDCFBLDCF BLD Experimental Design Soil Drainage & Forest Type

15 Plot Design 15 m 71 cm R S,T AIR, T SOIL, G SM - Monthly, May-Nov. HWEC: O horizon, 0-5 cm (late May, July, late October 15 m 71 cm

16 Quantitative Excavations Digging O horizon 0-5 5-25 25-50 50-C C WeighingSieving Canary et al., 2000

17 Sample Processing Greenhouse drying (1-2 weeks) Sieving, weighing, moisture content Soil physical-chemical analysis %C Total Soil C Content Calculation %C 100 * oven dry fine earth increment mass (kg ha -1 ) = Total C of Increment (kg ha -1 ) 1000 kg ha -1 = 1 Mg ha -1

18 Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis conducted with R Levene Test for homogeneity of variance Shapiro-Wilk normality test Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) - %C, C Content, C Fractions - Tukey HSD multiple comparison of means Repeated measures ANOVA - R s Significant differences reported p < 0.05

19 C Concentration (%C) Soil Drainage Class A A A a b b Forest Type a a A A MWD SWPD PD CF BLD O M O M O M O M O M

20 %C with Depth – Soil Drainage a b b

21 %C with Depth – Forest Type

22 Forest Type C Content a a a a a A AB B A B a a a a ab b a a Soil Drainage Class ?

23 Summary SOC was different -among soil drainage classes, but not as expected -forest types O Horizon: NSD Mineral Soil -MWD > SWPD, PD Entire Soil (O horizon + mineral) -Drainage: MWD > PD -Forest : CF > BLD

24 Why? Greater ecosystem productivity – belowground - roots: MWD > PD - numerical data from QP - qualitative pedon descriptions effective rooting depth

25 C Fractionation Mineral Soil Active labile, or active (< 2 yrs) Stable intermediate (>2 - < 100’s yrs) Passive recalcitrant, extremely resistant C (>100’s yrs) (Stevenson, 1994; Boyer and Groffman, 1996; Zsolnay, 2003) (Leavitt et al., 1996; Paul et al., 2006; D’Angelo et al, 2009) (Martel and Paul, 1974; Sollins et al.,1999; MacLauchlan and Hobbie, 2004)

26 C Fractionation – Sequential Extraction Active C Fraction – HWEC (Ghani et al. 2003; D’Angelo et al. 2009) - Air dry soil in 50 ml tubes: 1:10 for O horizon, 1:2 mineral - Tubes in 80˚C for 16h - 0.4 µm polycarbonate filters - Measure TC w/ Shimadzu TOC 5050 - Oven dry residue overnight Passive Fraction – Acid Hydrolysis (Sollins et al., 1999; D’Angelo) - 1 g soil w/ 6 M HCl. 1:20 organics, 1:10 mineral - Refluxed for 16 hrs in digestion tube at 116 ◦ C - Filtered through Whatman no. 50 - Oven dry residue overnight, send to lab for %C Stable Fraction = (%C Original Sample) - (Passive %C) – (Active %C)

27 C Fractions Proportion of Total C

28 C Fractions - %C a b b a b b a b b

29 C Fractions – C Content a BLD b a b b a b b a a a a a b b a a a

30 Why? Similar aerobic conditions in upper soil horizons Zone of saturation Seasonal HWT AprilMayJuneJuly AugustSeptemberOctoberNovember March Zone of saturation Seasonal HWT Zone of saturation Seasonal HWT

31 Soil Respiration (R s ) Methods Collars installed March-April 2010 (5” PVC pipe) Monthly measurements w/ Li-Cor 6400-09 - May-June until Oct.-Nov. Total 72 collars for this study – 3 days - (4/plot * 3 plots/drainage * 2 forest types) - 3 days of measurement - measurements 8am-1pm Additional variables measured - Gravimetric soil moisture (G SM ) - O & 0-5 cm - Air temp (T AIR ) - Soil temp – top 10 cm (T SOIL ) - Seasonal HWEC

32 Soil Respiration (a) (ab) (b)

33 Conclusions SOC different - soil drainage classes & forest types - MWD > SWPD, PD - CF > BLD - belowground productivity (roots) & coarse fragments - wetland type matters (O vs. mineral) Similar SOC dynamics in aerobic near surface soil - distribution of C in fractions similar drainage/forest Some imperfectly drained soils (SWPD, PD) could be robust to extremes in moisture stress Complexity of forested landscapes - soil drainage, forest types, parent material, wetland type, land use history

34 Acknowledgements Sean Hutchinson Matt Labonty Nick Berry Hope Hopkins Chris, Sara, Morgan, Sarah, Ben Cheryl Spencer Bruce Hoskins, Analytical Lab Mike, Farrah, Andrea, Sarah, Erin Chris Dorion Dr. Ivan Fernandez Anja Whittington

35 ?

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