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Chaucer’s, The Romaunt of The Rose is a partial translation of the French allegory the Roman de la rose which was written by a young poet, Guillaume de.

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Presentation on theme: "Chaucer’s, The Romaunt of The Rose is a partial translation of the French allegory the Roman de la rose which was written by a young poet, Guillaume de."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chaucer’s, The Romaunt of The Rose is a partial translation of the French allegory the Roman de la rose which was written by a young poet, Guillaume de Lorris. There are three fragments of the translation but is believed to be the work of three different authors. Fragment A is what most scholars argue to be the most Chaucerian in style. Chaucer’s other works are also heavily influenced by this poem such as The Book of the Duchess, The Parliament of the Fowls, The prologue to The Legend of Good Women, and even the famous opening sentence of the General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales. This allegory provides a psychological analysis of the experience of love from the lover’s and from the lady’s points of view. The rose is commonly know to be the perfect symbol of love and beauty. It has also been known to represent a woman’s virginity and or a female’s genitalia. The story begins with the narrator describing his dream. His dream takes place in the month of May which is in Spring.

3 He dreams that he is walking along a river and comes to a garden that is enclosed by high walls. There are ten different portraits of women that he describes in full to be unfavorable in sight. He then comes to a door that is answered by a beautiful woman. This beautiful woman allows him to enter this garden in which he refers to as the paradys erthly. He describes it to be beautiful and seems to be most dazzled or roused by the singing birds (ll. 720). While inside he meets Sir Mirth, beautiful damsels, bachelors, and the God of love. One of the bachelors named swete lokyng carried ten different arrows. During his exploit he is shot by one the arrows. He runs through the garden by many different trees followed by the God of love and then finally comes to a stop by a well in which there was a stone nearby that read “ Here starf the fayre Narcissus.” Although the dreamer is aware of the story of Narcissus he still looks into the well which is like a mirror and shows him his reflection. This well was knows as the Well of Love. Not realizing the strength of the mirror/well, it trapped him as it did Narcissus. In the well he saw an enclosed rosebush. The roses smelled so sweet that it lured him to want to pull one. ( To be continued…)

4 The original was written in octosyllabic couplets but when Chaucer translated it, he changed the form. Chaucer decided to use a couplet of 8 syllables with four beats, which was the most common in Middle English. It is not written in prose because the poem has meter and a rhyme scheme.

5 This version of The Romaunt of the Rose first printed in William Thynne’s 1532 edition and credited to Chaucer. There’s no proof that this work is Chaucer’s. Scholar’s accept Fragment A as Chaucer’s because it is written in Chaucerian style and language. Fragment B is definately not Chaucer’s. Fragment C is written in Chaucerian language and manner but is rejected by most scholar’s. It is likely that Chaucer would have translated this work because in 1237 Guillame de Lorris began The Roman. He was a great poet and lover which highly influenced Chaucer. This translation was produced in a time where “the love vision” became the dominant genre of courtly verse narrative. In Chaucer’s time there was also a great critical debate over meaning and value of the work raged in Parisian literary circles.

6  Two men responsible for existing translation into Middle English  200 MSS of the original French Poem composed by Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun in the 13 th century and is later cataloged by Ernest Langlios.  Langlios groups them into 3 groups I, II, and III and the into sub groups by capital letters and other individual MSS are grouped with the family letter plus a lower case letter. Ex. Ab, He, Ha,  Argues that Brusendorff’s Hypothesis that the Middle English Romaunt is composed by one man and is translated by a particular single MS of a French original, and that the this translation of the French version to the Middle English was ruined.  He goes on to say that translations were mixed up and were translated from entirely different families and from different groups (below are a list of examples)  A ME 115 f. corresponds to Langlois 109 f. (H and other MSS of I); ME 149 corresponds to Langlois 141 (Ha of I, Ri of II); ME 366 corre- sponds to Langlois 356 (L MSS of ii); ME corresponds to Langlois (H MSS of I).  B ME 1753 f. corresponds to Langlois 1719 f. (L MSS of n); ME corresponds to Langlois (K, L, M, N of II); ME 3060 ff. corresponds to Langlois (K, L, M, N of II); ME 4546 corresponds to Langlois 4154 (K, L, M, N of II); ME corresponds to Langlois (K MSS of ii); ME 4627 f. gives lines added after Langlois 4228 (B MSS of I)-S; ME gives lines added after Langlois 4304 (C & B MSS of I)-S; ME 4849 f. gives lines added after Langlois 4406 (Ba & Ba of I)-S.  C ME 6361 ff. corresponds to Langlois ff. (K MSS of II)-S; ME corresponds to Langlois (Bu & Bu of I)-S; ME gives lines added after Langlois (B MSS of I)-S; ME gives lines added after Langlois (B MSS of I)-S; ME gives lines added after Langlois (B MSS of I)-S; ME  He focuses on couplets because the ME line in context correlates to the two French lines however the ME version instead of linking to group I is parallel to MS in Group II

7 (French Poem) ME 115 f. and Langlois 109 f.: Cam doun the streem ful stif and bold, Cleer was the water, and as cold Descendoit l'eve grant e roide. Clere estoit l'eve e ausi froide (Be) Descendoit l'eve clere e roide. Grant estoit l'eve e ausi froide (L) Descendoit grant e roide l'eve. E venoit bruiant clere e bele (ME translation) Semed to been a mynoresse, Sembloit bien estre moveresse; (Ha, Ri) Sembloit bien estre meneresse; He makes a point that “the literal meaning of the standard French text. However, the mains in L causes that MS family to read And both her hands were lost that she had not one, which strikes one as rather suspicious. Indeed, it would seem that mains is a scribal error and that any ancestor of L MSS available to the ME translator contained denz or dentes, reducing the above resemblance to a matter of coincidence” He concludes that fragment A of the ME edition is the only one that Chaucer put his” rare qualities of the great poet's genuine verse.” And that fragment B and C of the existing text cannot as Chaucer’s work.

8 -The first manuscript was begun by Guillaume de Lorris around He died before completing his work, and the rest was edited and completed by Jean de Meun 40 years after de Lorris's death. Jean de Meun finished in the incomplete work with a 18,000 line epilogue. -Approximately 300 variations of the manuscripts exist, and many manuscripts include beautiful illustrations. The Rose manuscripts are kept mainly in European libraries, and most remain in France where they first originated from. -Most of the manuscripts were produced during the 14th century and continued to be produced intermittenly after the 14th century. There are 7 manuscripts dated after The second part of the poem, completed by Jean de Meun, was completed 75 years before Chaucer was born. -The Chaucerian version of the manuscript exists in the Hunterian Muesam in Thynne's printed edition of Thynne's edition includes a number of missing lines, it is considered the most superior edition of the Romaunt manuscript. -Alfrd David's edition of the Romaunt is the first ever to take account that Thynne's changes and editions to his version of the manuscript were purely editorial, rather than suggesting the existence of another authoritarian manuscript.

9  "Geoffrey Chaucer was more deeply influenced by the "Romaunt of the Rose" than by any other French or English work."  Idea of Allegorical Dream Vision: evoked duel interest - the character and objects symbolize abstract qualities and the events recounted convey a coherent message concerning these abstractions.  Courtly Literature - taught about the art of love - describe the attempts of a courtier to woo his beloved - stories of the chivalric adventures of knights and their ladies, often set at the court of King Arthur - Modeled on feudal relationship between knight and his liege (the knight should serve his courtly lady the way he serves his king) - she is in complete control of the relationship will he owes her obedience and submission  The Book of the Dutches  The Parliament of Fowls  Prologue to the Legend of Good Women  General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales  His style - with humor and realism can be contributed to it.  Chaucer may have been led to the Consolation of Philosophy by Jean de Meun's continuation of the Romance of the Rose ALL DEPENDANT ON ROMAUNT OF THE ROSE

10  General Prologue to Canterbury Tales:  Return of Spring  Suggestion of fertility and rebirth leads to "Than yonge folk enten…." In Chaucer's prologue he leads to another kind of love: "Thanne longer folk to goon on pilgrimages (1:12) The narrator encounters not a temple of Venus or Garden of Love but a real Tavern - containing not a serious of Allegorical portraits but what seems a lively assembly of real people  " The portraits of Chaucer's pilgrims nevertheless owe a great deal to medieval traditions of literary portraiture, including the series of allegorical descriptions in the Romaunt of the Rose” Whan that aprill with his shoures soote The droghte of march hath perced to the roote, And bathed every veyne in swich licour Of which vertu engendred is the flour; Whan zephirus eek with his sweete breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth Tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne Hath in the ram his halve cours yronne, And smale foweles maken melodye, That slepen al the nyght with open ye (so priketh hem nature in hir corages); Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes, To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; And specially from every shires ende Of engelond to caunterbury they wende, The hooly blisful martir for to seke, That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke. In May, that it nil shrouded been,55been And it with newe leves wreen. [ ]wreen [ ] These wodes eek recoveren grene, That drye in winter been to sene; And the erthe wexeth proud withalle, [ ]ertheproud [ ] For swote dewes that on it falle,60 And [al] the pore estat forget [ ]forget [ ] In which that winter hadde it set,haddeset And than bicometh the ground so proud That it wol have a newe shroud, And maketh so queynt his robe and fayr65 That it hath hewes an hundred payrhath Of gras and floures, inde and pers, [ ] [ ] And many hewes ful dyvers: That is the robe I mene, y-wis, Imperfect inG. Through which the ground to preisen is.70 The briddes, that han left hir song, Whyl they han suffred cold so strongso In wedres grille, and derk to sighte, [ ]grillesighte [ ] Ben in May, for the sonne brighte,brighte So glade, that they shewe in singing,75 That in hir herte is swich lyking,herte That they mote singen and be light. Than doth the nightingale hir might To make noyse, and singen blythe. Than is blisful, many a sythe,80a The chelaundre and the papingay. [ ]the [ ] Than yonge folk entenden ayyonge For to ben gay and amorous, The tyme is than so savorous.savorous

11 - XX.-STUDIES IN THE INFLUENCE OF THE ROMANCE OF THE ROSE UPON CHAUCER.- By Lisi Cipriani Cipriani states that the Romance of the rose has had a deep effect on Chaucer and many of his works and tries to show it by giving evidence with his work the Troylus ( giving 3 prime examples) 1. There is an indirect influence through Boccaccio, which introduces elements characteristic of the first part of the Romance of the Rose. This shows particularly in the coception of the character of Troylus as a model lover, and in the conception of the friendship between Pandarus and Troylus. The friend must aid by counsel and by deed; by giving the lover a chance to relieve his troubled heart in confidence. 2. The changes in the character of Pandarus all show tendencies which coincide with the satirical attitude of Jean de Meung towards love. The additions of Chaucer to the Filostrato are also primarily in the spirit and with the method and the material used by Jean de Meung. The long passages taken from Boethius expand the Troylus as the same passages expand the Romance of the Rose. The same may be said for the discussion of dreams, etc.; in fact, of all the philosophical and psychological reflections which destroy the more perfect form of the Italian original. 3. But the influence of Jean de Meung on Chaucer is most important in the ethical teaching with which Chaucer ends the love story, making the Troylus a Tendenzroman, in which the folly of love is shown in order to lead the reader to the love of Christ and eternal salvation - The Roman de la Rose and Middle English Poetry- By Stephanie A. Viereck Gibbs Kamath In Kamath’s article she cites that Chaucer’s work on the Romance of the Rose ” response to constructions of love and gendered identities in the Rose persists as a subject of inquiry, frequently matched by a concern with the political and ethical implications of such constructions and accompanied by a growing interest in the French and English poets’ shared strategies of claiming vernacular authority. Kamath cites many examples of different authors who discuss how R.R effect Chaucer’s authority on the text have loosened or strengthened how scholars today view the contents of the poem. One specific example she points out is how D.W Robertson’s Preface to Chaucer and how he argues” that both unequivocally espouse the patristic Christian doctrine of charity, critiquing the sinful foibles of human sexuality.” She also shows how the literary world is spilt because Chaucer’s” French Inheritance’ and ‘Chaucer’s Italian Inheritance’ within the Cambridge Companion seems a tacit acknowledgment that retaining this division is useful at least in some fashion, while the mammoth ‘Chaucer as a European Writer’ essay of the Yale Companion ultimately argues for another form of unification by insisting upon the shared classical heritage of medieval poets Not sure where Chaucer should be considered under the tree of all the translations of R.R and how big of an Impact it made on him and his work Another area of further confusion is Chaucers word study and she brings her piece to an end by introducing Christopher Canon’s 1998 “the Making of Chaucer’s English demonstrates how the Middle English text rewrites linguistic history by presenting the ‘English’ word ‘mermaydens’ as a necessary, customary alternative for the French ‘sereynes’ (682–4). 19 Whereas the borrowed noun ‘siren’ had recorded use in earlier English writing, there is ‘no earlier use of “mere-maiden” ’ than this passage; the word’s components are of Old English origin, but they are ‘joined here to make a word for the first time’ (Cannon 82). Cannon’s study offers a salient reminder that Chaucer’s English cannot be fully understood unless read in relation to the English of his predecessors and contemporaries, and, accordingly, we now turn at last to the scholarship on Middle English Rose reception beyond the realm of Chaucer studies. 19


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