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Bio & E/E Warm-Up: 8/26/10 FACT: Biology is the study of life. FACT: Earth science is the study of Earth’s processes. ?: Where did you go to middle school?

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Presentation on theme: "Bio & E/E Warm-Up: 8/26/10 FACT: Biology is the study of life. FACT: Earth science is the study of Earth’s processes. ?: Where did you go to middle school?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bio & E/E Warm-Up: 8/26/10 FACT: Biology is the study of life. FACT: Earth science is the study of Earth’s processes. ?: Where did you go to middle school? What was the name of your science teacher last year?

2 Bio Warm-Up: 8/27/10 FACT: The cytoskeleton in a cell is like a human’s skeleton—it provides strength and structure. ?: What are the six steps of the scientific method? (PROBLEM, HYPOTHESIS, PROCEDURE, EXPERIMENT, RECORD DATA/OBSERVATIONS, RESULTS/CONCLUSION)

3 E/E Warm-Up: 8/27/10 FACT: The two most common gases in Earth’s atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. ?: Which of the following terms are scientific (SI) ² 耀 its of measurement? –METER, GALLON, LITER, MILE, KILOGRAM, POUND

4 Bio Warm-Up: 8/30/10 FACT: An enzyme is a protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction and is involved in nearly all metabolic processes. ?: What is the difference between a qualitative observation and a quantitative observation? (QUAL. OB. = DESCRIBES APPEARANCE AND PROPERTIES…QUAN. OB. = DESCRIBES HOW MUCH, MEASUREMENTS)

5 E/E Warm-Up: 8/30/10 FACT: The earth’s hydrosphere includes all of the water on the planet. ?: If I wanted to find the mass of an apple, what SI unit would I use? (GRAM) ?: If I wanted to find the weight of an apple, what SI unit would I use? (NEWTON)

6 Bio Warm-Up: 8/31/10 FACT: Viruses can reproduce only when they are inside a host cell. ?: In an experiment, what is a control? What is an independent variable?

7 E/E Warm-Up #1: 8/31/10 FACT: Earth’s layers (from the inside out) include the inner core, outer core, mantle, & crust. ?: In an experiment, what is a control? What is an independent variable?

8 E/E Warm-Up #2: 8/31/10 FACT: Topographic maps display elevation changes on Earth’s surface. ?: A wooden block has a mass of 10g and a volume of 5cm 3. What is the density?

9 Bio Warm-Up: 9/1/10 FACT: A mutation is a change in a DNA strand. A mutation is caused by a mutagen. ?: What is a biotic factor within an ecosystem? (SOMETHING ALIVE OR FORMERLY ALIVE…ANIMAL) An abiotic factor? (NOT ALIVE & NEVER WAS) Give examples of each. (POLLUTANTS, ROCK, AIR, WATER, WEATHER)

10 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/1/10 FACT: Cartographers use Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to create accurate maps. ?: A map scale displays 1cm:30km. If Winston-Salem and Durham are 3cm apart on a N.C. map, how far apart are they in reality? (90km)

11 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/1/10 FACT: Time zones must exist because the Earth spins once every 24 hours. Seasons exist because the Earth sits upon a tilted axis. ?: What is the westernmost city in NC on the map? (ASHEVILLE) Southernmost? (WILMINGTON) Easternmost? (KITTY HAWK)

12 Bio Warm-Up: 9/2/10 FACT: The major stages of plant reprod- uction include pollination, fertilization, dormancy, dispersal, & germination. ?: What SI UNITS would be used to measure each of the following: –1) the mass of an apple –2) the length of your desk –3) the temperature of this classroom –4) the volume of a bottle of lotion

13 E/E Warm-Up: 9/2/10 FACT: Molten rock beneath Earth’s surface is called magma. Above Earth’s surface, it is called lava. ?: 1) What would be the latitude-longitude coordinates of an island that was located EXACTLY where the equator and the prime meridian crossed each other? 2) What does the word “hemisphere” mean?

14 E/E Notebook Check #1: 9/2/10 8/26, 8/27, 8/30, 8/31 #1, 8/31 #2, 9/1 #1, 9/1 #2, 9/2 (8 total entries)

15 Bio Warm-Up: 9/7/10 FACT: mRNA molecules that are built in the cell’s nucleus carry the DNA message from the nucleus to the ribosomes. ?: Define competition. (TWO ORGANISMS GOING AGAINST EACH OTHER FOR RESOURCES) What are 3 major reasons that animals compete? (FOOD/WATER, TERRITORY, MATES)

16 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/7/10 FACT: Atlantic Ocean hurricanes usually form near west Africa as a result of heavy water evaporation, which forms huge clouds. ?: List 3 major interstates on which you can travel in North Carolina. (I-40, I-85, I- 95, I-77)

17 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/7/10 FACT: A biotic factor is a living thing, such as an oak tree. An abiotic factor is non-living, such as air or water. ?: Would a topographic map of Winston-Salem have a GREATER NUMBER or a LESSER NUMBER of contour lines than a topographic map of Boone? WHY? (BOONE IS MORE MOUNTAINOUS THAN W-S)

18 Bio Warm-Up: 9/8/10  FACT: The mitochondria are referred to as a “cell’s powerhouse.”  ?: According to the climatogram (precipitation are bars and temperature is the line), is there a “rainy season” and a “dry season” in this biome? Is there a “warm season” and a “cold season”?

19 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/8/10 FACT: The San Andreas Fault is a crack in the Earth’s crust in California. Movement of the crust along this fault causes earthquakes. ?: How do you represent a depression, hole, or lake on a topographic map?

20 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/8/10 FACT: Caves usually form within limestone rock because limestone is very soft and can be “eaten away” quickly by water. ?: What are the elevations of A, B, C, & D?

21 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/9/10 FACT: The Earth’s solar system is located in the Milky Way Galaxy. ?: What are the 6 major steps of the scientific method? (review) (QUESTION, HYPOTHESIS, EXPERIMENT, OBSERVATIONS, RESULTS, CONCLUSION)

22 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/9/10 FACT: All regular atoms have an overall neutral charge…the number of electrons (- ) is equal to the number of protons (+). ?: Name 3 common elements (atoms) that make up items on Earth. (HYDROGEN, BORON, SODIUM, ALUMINUM)

23 Bio Warm-Up: 9/13/10 FACT: If pesticide were to be sprayed on plants, it would eventually negatively affect large animals more than small animals due to biological magnification since they’re eating more of the pesticide over time. ?: Why can there NOT be a sustainable ecosystem containing 250 individual organisms of each trophic level in the food web (250 corn plants, 250 squirrels, and 250 hawks)? If there are 250 corn plants, about how many squirrels can be sustained? (25) How many hawks? (2-3)

24 E/E Warm-Up: 9/13/10 FACT: Wood is a renewable resource. If used responsibly, trees can be grown and harvested without ever running out of supply. ?: AtomAtomic #Mass # # p + # n# e - Na Sodium 1123111211 X1737182017

25 Bio Warm-Up: 9/14/10 FACT: Humans have 46 chromosomes per cell, arranged in 23 pairs. Pairs #1-22 are called autosomes, while pair #23 are the sex chromosomes. ?: List the 3 major symbiotic relationships that occur in nature. –Give an example of each.

26 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/14/10 FACT: At one time in Earth’s history, all 7 continents were joined into a giant supercontinent, called Pangaea. ?: Book—p. 74 #1, 2, 6 Copy down each question and write the answer!

27 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/14/10 FACT: Erosion is the movement of materials from one place to another by means of wind, water, ice, and gravity. ?: Provide one example of a… –Mixture, Element, Solution, Compound

28 Bio Warm-Up: 9/15/10 FACT: DNA copies itself in the cell’s nucleus during a process called replication. ?: What is a niche? What is the niche of a tree frog in a typical North Carolina forest ecosystem?

29 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/15/10 FACT: Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old. We know this because scientists have dated the oldest rocks on Earth to be this old. ?: What types of foods do you eat that are acidic? (SODA, ORANGES, LEMONS, TOMATOES, VINEGAR, MILK) What type of health complication is caused by too much acid in the digestive system? (HEARTBURN / ACID REFLUX)

30 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/15/10 FACT: Hurricane strength is measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale. Category 5 hurricanes have the strongest winds. ?: What are the 4 states of matter? Which state of matter rarely exists on Earth?

31 Bio Warm-Up: 9/16/10 FACT: Mitosis is the division of a cell nucleus. Cytokinesis is the division of the cell itself. ?: What is photosynthesis? What is cellular respiration? How are they related to one another? Briefly define each.

32 E/E Warm-Up: 9/16/10 FACT: Groundwater resides in underground areas known as zones of saturation. ?: List 5 specific kinds or names of rocks.

33 Bio Warm-Up: 9/20/10 FACT: DNA is a double-stranded, twisted molecule called a double helix. (It looks like a spiral staircase.) ?: Name at least 2 species of organisms on earth that can experience exponential population growth (never-ending, fast growth). (NOTHING)

34 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/20/10 FACT: Igneous rocks are formed in and around volcanoes from cooled magma and lava. ?: Which mineral is harder: chalk or gold? (GOLD) HOW CAN YOU TELL? (RUB THEM TOGETHER…SEE WHICH ONE SCRATCHES THE OTHER)

35 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/20/10 FACT: The bottom of the ocean is usually very deep and very flat. It is called the abyssal plain. ?: What is the difference between the COLOR and the STREAK of a mineral? (COLOR = COLOR OF SURFACE OF MINERAL…STREAK = COLOR OF MINERAL WHEN SCRATCHED ONTO HARD SURFACE)

36 Bio Warm-Up: 9/21/10 FACT: In DNA, the nitrogen base Adenine always pairs with Thymine, while Cytosine always pairs with Guanine (A-T & C-G). ?: In the U.S., the death rate is currently higher than the birth rate. Why, then, is the U.S. population still increasing? (THE IMMIGRATION RATE IS HIGHER THAN THE EMIGRATION RATE)

37 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/21/10 FACT: Salinity is the measure of the amount of salt dissolved in water. ?: Why can’t dinosaur fossils be found in igneous rock? THINK ABOUT IT!!! (IGNEOUS ROCKS ARE FORMED FROM MAGMA, WHICH WOULD DESTROY ANY FOSSILS) ?: Are there any active volcanoes in the U.S. today? If so, where are they? (YES, MT. ST. HELENS IN WASHINGTON, YELLOWSTONE CALDERA, HAWAII, ALASKA)

38 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/21/10 FACT: A drought is an extended period of below-average precipitation. Winston- Salem is in danger of falling into a drought in the coming weeks. ?: Sediment (like sand) is fused into a sedimentary rock (like sandstone) during a process called LITHIFICATION.

39 Bio Warm-Up: 9/22/10 (Period 1 Only) FACT: The three major shapes of bacteria cells are cocci (sphere), bacilli (rod), & spirilli (spiral) ?: Draw and label a brief diagram of the carbon cycle. Include the following: –Pine tree & wolf –CO 2 (carbon dioxide) –C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose sugar)

40 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/22/10 FACT: A floodplain is a flat area that extends from a riverbank. This area usually floods during times of high precipitation. ?: How could an igneous rock (such as granite) turn into a sedimentary rock?

41 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/22/10 FACT: Stalactites are mineral deposits that hang from the ceiling of a cave. Stalagmites are mineral deposits that rise from a cave floor. ?: Scientists have found fossils of tropical plants buried in the ice in Antarctica (the South Pole). Explain how these fossils may have appeared here!!!

42 Bio Warm-Up: 9/27/10 (Periods 2, 5, & 6 Only) FACT: The three major shapes of bacteria cells are cocci (sphere), bacilli (rod), & spirilli (spiral) ?: Draw and label a brief diagram of the carbon cycle. Include the following: –Pine tree & wolf –CO 2 (carbon dioxide) –C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose sugar)

43 E/E Warm-Up: 9/27/10 FACT: Barrier islands are long ridges of sand or sediment that are separated from the mainland. The Outer Banks of N.C. are barrier islands. ?: If sandstone is squeezed and heated, a(n) ______________ rock will likely form. If the sandstone is heated so much that it melts, a(n) _______________ rock will likely form.

44 Bio Warm-Up: 9/28/10 FACT: The major function of plant leaves is to trap sunlight for photosynthesis. ?: What is biodiversity? (MANY DIFFERENT ORGANISMS IN AN ECOSYSTEM)

45 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/28/10 FACT: All of the land area whose water drains into a single stream is called the stream’s watershed. ?: Mount Everest is constantly getting TALLER. The distance between Africa and North America is constantly GETTING WIDER. This is all due to CONTINENTAL DRIFT.

46 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/28/10 FACT: The Mesozoic Era is referred to as the “age of the dinosaurs.” ?: How can a volcano in Japan affect people living in Winston-Salem? Be complete! (ASH FROM THE VOLCANO CAN BLOCK OUT THE SUN, CAUSING WEATHER CHANGES)

47 Bio Warm-Up: 9/29/10 FACT: Taxonomy is the study of grouping and naming organisms based on their shared characteristics. ?: A dam breaks upstream of Salem Lake and the ferns that grow on the banks of the lake are wiped out. What type of limiting factor comes into play in this scenario? (DENSITY- INDEPENDENT…FLOODING/HUMAN ACTIVITY)

48 E/E Warm-Up #1: 9/29/10 FACT: Soil is the loose covering of weathered rock and organic matter on Earth’s surface. ?: What causes continental drift? (SEAFLOOR SPREADING)

49 E/E Warm-Up #2: 9/29/10 FACT: Desertification is the process where useful farmland turns into desert, usually due to a drought. ?: To CONVERGE means “to come together.” To DIVERGE means “to move apart.”

50 Bio Warm-Up: 9/30/10 FACT: A vacuole is a “storage tank” in a cell, usually for food or water. Plant cells usually have larger vacuoles than animal cells. ?: List one invasive species that affects an ecosystem in the U.S. Briefly describe how this species was introduced and how this species impacts the ecosystem.

51 E/E Warm-Up: 9/30/10 FACT: Weather describes day-to-day events in the atmosphere. Climate describes long-range patterns involving temperature, precipitation, etc. ?: What type of plate boundary is most likely to cause earthquakes? Orogeny? Seafloor spreading?

52 Bio Warm-Up: 10/4/10 FACT: Sex cells are commonly referred to as gametes. ?: Write a scientifically-accurate sentence relating invasive species to biodiversity. (INVASIVE SPECIES DECREASE THE BIODIVERSITY OF AN ECOSYSTEM.)

53 E/E Warm-Up #1: 10/4/10 FACT: A wetland is an area that is covered with water for a large part of the year. Swamps, bogs, and marshes are all types of wetlands. ?: Which material has a higher viscosity…pancake syrup or water? Is high- viscosity lava or low-viscosity lava more dangerous to humans? (LOW-VISCOSITY LAVA IS MORE DANGEROUS B/C IT MOVES MORE QUICKLY.) WHY?

54 E/E Warm-Up #2: 10/4/10 FACT: An equinox occurs when the lengths of day and night are both equal…12 hours each. ?: The “RING of FIRE” is the area surrounding the Pacific Ocean where volcanoes and earthquakes commonly occur.

55 Bio Warm-Up: 10/5/10 FACT: Mimicry is a structural adaptation that allows one species to resemble another species. ?: (review) Why do populations almost always initially grow exponentially, but then experience much slower growth after a period of time? (RESOURCES ARE HIGH AT FIRST, BUT THEN DECLINE)

56 E/E Warm-Up #1: 10/5/10 FACT: The longest number of hours of daylight in N.C. occurs on the summer solstice, while the longest number of hours of darkness in N.C. occurs on the winter solstice. ?: WHERE in the United States are earthquakes most common? (CALIFORNIA & ALASKA) WHY???? (EARTHQUAKES OCCUR ALONG PLATE BOUNDARIES) Do earthquakes commonly occur in North Carolina? (NO, B/C N.C. IS NOT LOCATED NEAR A PLATE BOUNDARY)

57 E/E Warm-Up #2: 10/5/10 FACT: A theory is an explanation based on many observations during repeated experiments. ?: What other natural disasters can be CAUSED by earthquakes? (TSUNAMI, VOLCANO, LANDSLIDE, AVALANCHE)

58 Bio Warm-Up: 10/6/10 FACT: Camouflage is a structural adaptation that allows an organism to blend in to the surrounding environment. ?: What does a triangular-shaped age structure diagram tell you about the future population growth of a country or area? (FUTURE POP. GROWTH WILL BE SIGNIFICANT…LOTS OF YOUNG PPL)

59 E/E Warm-Up #1: 10/6/10 FACT: Cumulonimbus clouds are very tall clouds that are usually rich in moisture and can cause severe thunderstorms. ?: What type of fault is the San Andreas fault, which is responsible for the many severe earthquakes that occur in California? (STRIKE-SLIP)

60 E/E Warm-Up #2: 10/6/10 FACT: Desalination is a process of removing salt from ocean water in order to make it drinkable. ?: Why are earthquakes usually deadlier in places like Haiti or Turkey (as compared to places like the U.S. or Japan?) (POOR COUNTRIES CANNOT AFFORD TO BUILD BUILDING WITH QUALITY MATERIALS)

61 Bio Notebook Check #2: 10/7/10 9/13, 9/14, 9/15, 9/16, 9/20, 9/21, 9/27, 9/28, 9/29, 9/30, 10/4, 10/5, 10/6 (13 total entries)

62 E/E Warm-Up: 10/7/10 FACT: A storm surge occurs when hurricane-force winds drive a mound of ocean water toward coastal areas, causing floods. ?: What happens to rock when it experiences forces (stress) that exceeds the stress limit of the rock? (BREAK)

63 Bio Warm-Up: 10/11/10 FACT: A pedigree is a family tree displaying the genetic information for a family. ?: What are the three most common chemical elements found in living things? (CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN)

64 E/E Warm-Up #1: 10/11/10 FACT: Wind is caused by the mixing of warm air with cold air in the atmosphere. ?: How old is the Earth? (4.6 billion years =4600 million years) How long have human beings been in existence on Earth? (2 million years)

65 E/E Warm-Up #2: 10/11/10 FACT: The sun is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. ?: What is the center of a cell called? (NUCLEUS) (It looked like a small dot in the middle of the cell when you looked at it under the microscope.)

66 Bio Warm-Up: 10/12/10 FACT: The plasma membrane of a cell is made of a phospholipid bilayer. ?: What type(s) of organic molecules include nitrogen? (PROTEINS & NUCLEIC ACIDS) Are insoluble in water? (LIPIDS) Are made up of amino acids? (PROTEINS)

67 E/E Warm-Up #1: 10/12/10 FACT: Abiotic factors are items that are non-living that affect an ecosystem…soil type, amount of precipitation, & temperature. ?: What is the Principle of Superposition? (OLDEST ROCKS ARE AT THE BOTTOM, YOUNGEST ROCKS ARE AT THE TOP)

68 E/E Warm-Up #2: 10/12/10 FACT: Biotic factors are items that are living that affect an ecosystem…plants, animals, & bacteria. ?: Which geologic time division is the longest? (EON) The shortest? (EPOCH) (Period, Epoch, Era, Eon)

69 E/E Warm-Up: 10/13/10 FACT: Seamounts are underwater volcanoes that are more than 1 kilometer high. They rise up from the ocean floor. ?: The principle of CROSS-CUTTING RELATIONSHIPS states that magma or faults that have affected a rock formation are YOUNGER than the rocks that are affected.

70 E/E Warm-Up #1: 10/14/10 FACT: An acid has a pH of less than 7, a base has a pH of more than 7, and a neutral substance has a pH of exactly 7. ?: Rank the following ecosystems in the order of MOST to LEAST energy available. (TROPICAL FOREST, GRASSLAND, DESERT) –Desert, Tropical Forest, Grassland

71 E/E Warm-Up #2: 10/14/10 FACT: A plateau is a flat region of high- elevation. ?: Where on Earth do most scientists think human civilization originated? (AFRICA)

72 Bio Warm-Up: 10/18/10 FACT: Innate behaviors, such as instincts, are genetic behaviors with which animals are born. They do not have to be learned. ?: How does one calculate the total magnification of a specimen under a microscope? (MULTIPLY THE EYEPIECE MAG. BY THE OBJECTIVE MAG. …10x X 43x = 430x)

73 E/E Warm-Up #1: 10/18/10 FACT: A nebula is a cloud of dust and gas…the beginnings of a star! ?: Which era (Paleozoic, Mesozoic, or Cenozoic) exists at the current time? (CENOZOIC)

74 E/E Warm-Up #2: 10/18/10 FACT: Supercells are the most severe type of thunderstorm. ?: How many miners were rescued last week in Chile? (33) How many days had they been trapped underground? (68)

75 Geologic Time Poster Precambrian (Ch. 22—p. 577-593) –Bryton B., Thomas T., Grant E., Coy P., Raheem H., Sean C. Paleozoic (Ch. 23—p. 601-617) –Shamone L., Deborah B., Monte G-F., Daja G., Laquanda I., Kantrell H. Mesozoic (Ch. 24—p. 625-634) –Paiga J., Chelsea M., Daniela V., Demario W., Dequan W., Nalexia S. Cenozoic (Ch. 24—p. 635-641) –Garren L., Najaila M-J., German L., Juquan K., Thomas M., Jordan P.

76 Bio Warm-Up: 10/19/10 FACT: Quantitative data involves numbers and measurements. Qualitative data uses verbal descriptions. ?: What two organelles are found in plant cells but NOT in animal cells? (CELL WALL & CHLOROPLAST)

77 E/E Warm-Up #1: 10/19/10 FACT: The first step of mapmaking for a cartographer is placing horizontal and vertical grid lines on a piece of paper, which represent latitude and longitude. ?: Most scientists think that the JAW of early humans got smaller, which allowed their BRAIN to get larger and more advanced, thus making them smarter.

78 E/E Warm-Up #2: 10/19/10 FACT: Porosity is the measure of how many empty spaces (called pores) that are found in a rock. ?: “Paleo” means EARLY/OLD. “Meso” means MIDDLE. “Ceno” means RECENT. “Zoic” means LIFE.

79 E/E Warm-Up: 10/20/10 FACT: The U.S. government has preserved natural resources through creation of national parks, national wildlife refuges, and national forests. ?: Discovering RUST (iron oxide) in billion-year-old rocks is important because it confirms the presence of OXYGEN in Earth’s early atmosphere.

80 Poster Work: 10/21/10 3 rd period: Work on posters using books Be sure to have: –Timeline (labeled) –Pictures (with captions) –“Subtopic” Questions/Answers –All other required information on Poster Checklist 4 th period: Print out final pictures, finalize posters –IF DONE, work on your 1 st quarter extra credit!!!

81 Column #1: (Missed) Question Number Column #2: Content Topic –Scientific Method, Measurement Units, Latitude/Longitude, Topographic Maps, Chemistry, Rocks & Minerals, Plate Tectonics/ Volcano/Earthquakes/Mountains (PVEM), Earth History Bottom of sheet: “I did best with _____________.” “I most need to work on ____________.” What is your goal for the final quarter in this class? What are you going to do differently (or continue to do well) in order to reach this goal?

82 E/E Warm-Up #1: 10/28/10 FACT: Decomposers, such as fungi and bacteria, break down organisms after those organisms have died. ?: How does “continental” (LAND) differ from “maritime” (WATER)? How does “polar” (COLD) differ from “tropical” (WARM)?

83 E/E Warm-Up #2: 10/28/10 FACT: Omnivores eat both meat AND plants…they are a combination of carnivores AND herbivores! ?: METEOROLOGY is the study of the atmosphere and weather events.

84 Bio Warm-Up: 11/1/10 FACT: ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the main source of energy for living things. It is created within the mitochondria of cells. ?: What is the purpose of the plasma membrane of a cell? (CONTROLS WHAT GOES IN & COMES OUT OF A CELL) What types of cells have a plasma membrane? (ALL CELLS)

85 E/E Warm-Up: 11/1/10 FACT: Global warming is causing coastal erosion to worsen. Ice is melting, which causes the sea level to rise, which causes more erosion. ?: Which type of weather map displays real-time pictures of clouds? (SATELLITE) Which type displays real- time precipitation activity? (RADAR)

86 Bio: Membrane Lab Design 1) Question –How does a hypertonic solution and a hypotonic solution affect a simulated cell? 2) Hypothesis 3) Procedure (DETAILED & SPECIFIC) –Materials List (Cups, Distilled Water, Mass Balance) –Independent Variable –Controls 4) Observations (for ALL tests) 5) Data Table (1-2), Graph (1-2) 6) Conclusion (in Q&A format…at least 5 ?s and answers)

87 Bio Warm-Up: 11/2/10 FACT: An angiosperm is a flowering plant, like a maple tree. A gymnosperm is a cone-bearing plant, like a longleaf pine tree. ?: In terms of osmosis (use “____-tonic”, etc.,) explain why it is harmful to your cells to drink saltwater. (SALTWATER FORMS A HYPERTONIC SOLUTION AROUND THE CELL…WATER LEAVES TO DISSOLVE THE SALT…CELL SHRINKS)

88 E/E Warm-Up #1: 11/2/10 FACT: Tides are the periodic rise and fall of sea level. In North Carolina, there are usually two high tides and two low tides every day. ?: List the following in order from WEAKEST to STRONGEST… –Category 1 Hurricane (2 ND STRONGEST), Tropical Depression (WEAKEST), Category 5 Hurricane (STRONGEST), Tropical Storm (2 ND WEAKE 뉓 €

89 E/E Warm-Up #2: 11/2/10 FACT: Photovoltaic cells, which are included within solar panels, convert solar energy into electrical energy. ?: In North Carolina, what was the single biggest problem caused by Hurricanes Fran and Floyd? (FLOODING)

90 E/E Warm-Up #1: 11/3/10 FACT: The fastest recorded wind speed on Earth was 316 m.p.h., which was recorded during an F5 tornado in Oklahoma. ?: Why can hail (frozen water) fall during a thunderstorm on a 90-degree summer day? (HAIL FORMS HIGH UP IN THE ATMOSPHERE WHERE IT IS MUCH COLDER)

91 E/E Warm-Up #2: 11/3/10 FACT: The U.S. produces more pollution than any country in the world. China and India, however, may overtake the U.S. soon. ?: What are the 3 stages of a thunderstorm? (CUMULUS, MATURE, DISSIPATION)

92 Bio Warm-Up #1: 11/4/10 FACT: Translation is the process of reading DNA in order to build proteins, one amino acid at a time. This occurs in the ribosomes. ?: What different colors make up visible sunlight? (RED, ORANGE, YELLOW, GREEN, BLUE, INDIGO, VIOLET)

93 Bio Warm-Up #2: 11/4/10 FACT: Chlorophyll absorbs all colors except green. Therefore, green light is reflected from plants. ?: List the three types of passive transport (OSMOSIS, DIFFUSION, FACILITATED DIFFUSION) and the three types of active transport. (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, ENDOCYTOSIS, EXOCYTOSIS)

94 E/E Warm-Up: 11/4/10 FACT: Igneous rocks made up of dark minerals are mafic, while igneous rocks made up of light minerals are felsic. ?: The temperature in downtown Winston- Salem may be warmer than the temperature in Walkertown. This is because cities are HEAT ISLANDS they are warmer than their surroundings.

95 Bio Warm-Up: 11/8/10 FACT: An allele is the version of a gene that you receive from a parent. Most alleles are either recessive or dominant. ?: Write out the photosynthesis chemical equation and the cellular respiration chemical equation. How are they related?

96 E/E Warm-Up: 11/8/10 FACT: Geothermal energy is energy produced by Earth’s naturally occurring steam and hot water. ?: Why is the coast of North Carolina more susceptible to sea level rise than the coast of St. Lucia (or similar Caribbean islands?) (N.C.’s COAST IS FLAT, WHILE ST. LUCIA’S COAST IS MOUNTAINOUS)

97 E/E Warm-Up #1: 11/9/10 FACT: When the forces acting on a rock exceed the elastic limit, the rock breaks, sometimes causing an earthquake. ?: What is a tributary?

98 E/E Warm-Up #2: 11/9/10 FACT: Seneca guns are extremely loud “booms” heard, usually along coastal areas. The cause of these sounds is unexplained. ?: List at least 5 major rivers within N.C.

99 Bio Warm-Up: 11/10/10 FACT: An adaptation is the development of a structure or behavior that allows an organism to better survive in the environment. ?: How is photosynthesis related to ATP? (PHOTOSYNTHESIS USES LIGHT ENERGY TO MAKE FOOD….THEN, FOOD IS USED IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION TO MAKE ATP)

100 E/E Warm-Up: 11/10/10 FACT: An adaptation is the development of a structure or behavior that allows an organism to better survive in the environment. ?: How does a sinkhole form? Why would a sinkhole be more likely to form during a rainstorm?

101 Bio Warm-Up: 11/12/10 FACT: The three major families of arthropods are insects, spiders, and crustaceans. ?: Which specific part of the ATP molecule holds the most energy? (THE CHEMICAL BOND BETWEEN THE 2 ND & 3 RD PHOSPHATE)

102 E/E Warm-Up: 11/12/10 FACT: The Eastern Continental Divide runs along the ridge of the Appalachian Mountains. Rain falling east of the divide flows into the Atlantic Ocean, while rain falling west of the divide flows into the Mississippi River. ?: The Western Continental Divide runs along the ridge of the ROCKY Mountains.

103 Bio Warm-Up: 11/15/10 FACT: DNA must be coiled tightly in order to fit inside a cell’s nucleus. Coiled DNA resides in chromosomes. ?: Why do our muscles burn after a strenuous workout? Be specific! (LACTIC ACID IS PRODUCED WITHIN FERMENTATION)

104 E/E Warm-Up #1: 11/15/10 FACT: A longshore current is a current flowing parallel to shore, commonly occurring in beach areas. ?: What are humans doing on our beaches to increase the problems related to coastal erosion? (WALKING ON THE DUNES, BUILDING ON THE SHORELINE)

105 E/E Warm-Up #2: 11/15/10 FACT: A chemical bond is a force that holds atoms together within a compound. ?: The layer of the ocean in-between the surface layer and the bottom layer is called the THERMOCLINE.

106 Bio Warm-Up: 11/16/10 FACT: A cell that contains two copies of each required chromosome is diploid. A cell that contains only one copy of each required chromosome is haploid. ?: What is the major difference between DNA and RNA? (think about the origin of the name of each molecule)

107 Bio Warm-Up: 11/22/10 FACT: Courtship behavior is the behavior that males and females of a species carry out before mating. ?: Identify the following processes: –DNA  mRNA (TRANSCRIPTION) –DNA  DNA (REPLICATION) –mRNA  Protein (TRANSLATION)

108 Bio Warm-Up: 11/23/10 FACT: Recombinant DNA is made by connecting, or recombining, DNA from different sources. ?: A DNA sequence is: GGGCTAACT CCCGAUUGA What is the mRNA sequence? What is the amino acid sequence? (p. 292) (PROLINE, ASPARTATE, STOP)

109 E/E Warm-Up #1: 11/23/10 FACT: Primates are mammals with opposable thumbs and advanced eyesight. ?: A tornado sweeps through a field of deer, killing them. Is this a density-independent or density-dependent limiting factor? WHY? (D.I., BECAUSE A NATURAL DISASTER AFFECTS ALL AREAS REGARDLESS OF POPULATION DENSITY)

110 E/E Warm-Up #2: 11/23/10 FACT: A cell is the basic unit of life. The nucleus is the center of a cell. DNA is contained within the nucleus. ?: What type of organism can experience exponential (J-shape) growth without ever slowing or stopping? (NOTHING!…B/C EVERY POPULATION REACHES A CARRYING CAPACITY AT SOME POINT)

111 Bio Warm-Up: 11/29/10 FACT: Polygenic characteristics are influenced by multiple genes instead of a single gene. Height and skin color are examples. ?: What amino acid is coded for by the tRNA molecule carrying the anticodon ‘CCC’? (GLYCINE)

112 E/E Warm-Up #1: 11/29/10 FACT: A vacuole is a storage tank within a cell. It usually stores water, and vacuoles are usually bigger in plants than animals. ?: Why do vacuoles have to be bigger in plants than in animals? (ANIMALS CAN MOVE TO GET WATER WHEN THEY’RE THIRSTY, WHILE PLANTS ARE STATIONARY SO THEY MUST STORE MORE WATER)

113 E/E Warm-Up #2: 11/29/10 FACT: The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell…it turns food you eat into energy! ?: What are 3 things that you can do to make more efficient use of energy? (Refer to your notes from Tuesday!) –USE FLUORESCENT LIGHT BULBS –RECYCLE –USE SOLAR PANELS

114 Bio Warm-Up: 11/30/10 FACT: Usually, genes have two alleles. Blood type, however, is determined by multiple alleles (more than two.) These alleles can allow the expression of Type A, Type B, Type AB, or Type O blood! ?: The “steps” of a DNA double helix are made of nitrogen bases. What are the “side rails” of DNA made of? (DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR & PHOSPHATE)

115 E/E Warm-Up #1: 11/30/10 FACT: The cell membrane is the “skin” of a cell. It lets some things in but keeps others out. ?: In a recent year, what happened to nearly 25,000 women in India that refused to submit to their husbands and/or did not produce a baby boy? (ABUSED AND/OR BURNED)

116 E/E Warm-Up #2: 11/30/10 FACT: The chloroplast of a cell converts the sun’s energy into food. Chloroplasts only exist in plant cells. ?: Where in the world are you likely to find a population consisting of many young people and very few middle-aged people? WHY could this be happening to that population? (AFRICA, B/C DISEASE…HIV…IS KILLING MANY PEOPLE)

117 E/E Warm-Up: 12/1/10 FACT: A mutation is a change in the DNA of a living thing. Mutations can cause disease, they can be beneficial, or they can be “silent.” ?: In China, COAL is primarily used to heat homes because it is easily accessible and very inexpensive.

118 Bio November Notebook Check November: 1, 2, 4(#1), 4(#2), 8, 10, 12, 15, 16, 22, 23, 29, 30 (13 entries)

119 Bio Warm-Up: 12/6/10 FACT: Mitosis results in two diploid copies of a diploid cell. Meiosis results in four haploid copies of a diploid cell. ?: (p. 299) Why is sickled hemoglobin a problem for the human body? (PREVENTS PROPER BLOOD FLOW…CAUSES SEVERE PAIN/DEATH) What type of mutation produces sickled hemoglobin? (POINT MUTATION)

120 E/E Warm-Up: 12/6/10 FACT: There are 5 major classification categories of life on Earth: Bacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals. ?: List all planets within our solar system in order from closest to farthest away from the sun. (MERCURY, VENUS, EARTH, MARS, JUPITER, SATURN, URANUS, NEPTUNE, PLUTO)

121 Bio Warm-Up: 12/7/10 FACT: Interphase is the period of rest, cell growth, and DNA/organelle replication that occurs in-between cycles of mitosis. ?: What is the difference between a sister chromatid and a centromere? (SISTER CHROMATIDS ARE 2 EXACT COPIES OF A CHROMOSOME, WHICH ARE ATTACHED TO EACH OTHER BY A CENTROMERE)

122 E/E Warm-Up: 12/7/10 FACT: Mitosis is the division of one cell into two identical “daughter” cells. ?: How can an invasive plant like kudzu decrease the biodiversity of an ecosystem? (KUDZU GROWS OVER AND KILLS ALL OF THE NATIVE PLANTS)

123 Bio Warm-Up: 12/8/10 FACT: Certain genetic diseases are referred to as sex-linked (or X-linked) disorders because they are caused by DNA defects found on the X chromosome. Examples include colorblindness and hemophilia. ?: What two organelles can be “overwhelmed” when a cell becomes too big? (NUCLEUS & PLASMA MEMBRANE)

124 E/E Warm-Up: 12/8/10 FACT: Genetic disorders are caused by mutations within DNA that are passed on from parents to their children. There are no cures for most genetic disorders. –Cystic fibrosis, Hemophilia ?: What is Earth’s moon made of? (SAME MATERIAL AS THE EARTH)

125 Astronomy Project Topic 1 (The Moon) P. 753-767 Bryton B. Sean C. Monte F. Daja G. Raheem H. Topic 2 (Terrestrial Planets) P. 780-785 Deborah B. Demario W. Kantrell H. LaQuanda I. Paiga J.

126 Astronomy Project Topic 3 (Gas Giant Planets) P. 786-792 Juquan K. German L. Shamone L. Chelsea M. Garren L. Topic 4 (Sun & Stars) P. 805-825 Thomas M. Najaila M. Jordan P. Coy P. Nalexia S.

127 Astronomy Project Topic 5 (Galaxies & Universe) P. 833-851 Thomas T. Daniela V. Dequan W. Grant E.

128 Bio Warm-Up: 12/9/10 FACT: The Earth is approximately 4.6 billlion (4600 million) years old. Humans have been in existence on Earth for approximately 1.5 million years. ?: CENTRIOLES are like the “reels” of the cell. SPINDLE FIBERS are like the “fishing line” of the cell.

129 E/E Warm-Up: 12/9/10 FACT: Animals are born with innate behaviors, like instinct. Animals must be taught learned behaviors, like language. ?: What planet within our solar system (other than Earth) has the highest probability of having life? WHY? (MARS; EVIDENCE OF WATER)

130 Index Card: 12/15/10 1) Name 2) Post-graduation plans (college, military, technical school, etc.) 3) If #2 is “college”, list 5 schools to which you’d want to apply right now. 4) 뉌 €t of in-school and out-of-school sports, clubs, community service. 5) Which class are you struggling the most with right now? 6) College major and/or career ideas (at least 3) 7) Where do you see yourself living at age 30?

131 Bio Warm-Up: 1/3/11 FACT: When a plant grows toward light, it is exhibiting phototropism. ?: A source cell in the female ovary undergoes the process of MEIOSIS in order to become HAPLOID instead of diploid. Now, the resulting cells are ready for SEXUAL reproduction.

132 E/E Warm-Up #1: 1/3/11 FACT: When a plant grows toward light, it is displaying phototropism. ?: In DNA, A always matches with T and C always matches with G.

133 E/E Warm-Up #2: 1/3/11 FACT: DNA is coiled into chromosomes, which reside in the nucleus of our cells. Human cells normally each have 46 chromosomes. ?: DNA is made up of two strands bonded together. Therefore, it is commonly called a “DOUBLE helix”.

134 Bio Warm-Up: 1/5/11 FACT: Restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA at specific locations. They could be used in the future for “gene transplants.” ?: Complete the table on the following slide…

135 MitosisMeiosis # of cell divisions in 1 cycle12 # of cells at end of process24 Chromosomes (dip or hap?)DIPHAP PurposeBODY CELLS SEX CELLS Phase namesI,P,M,A,T,C I,P1,M1, A1,T1,P 2,M2,A2,T2,C

136 E/E Warm-Up #1: 1/5/11 FACT: From lowest to highest, the layers of Earth’s atmosphere are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, & exosphere. ?: What two cell organelles are ONLY found in plant cells? (CELL WALL AND CHLOROPLAST)

137 E/E Warm-Up #2: 1/5/11 FACT: Extrusive igneous rocks are formed from lava, while intrusive igneous rocks are formed from magma. ?: If a cell under a microscope is square in shape and contains a large “storage tank”, is it a plant cell or an animal cell? (PLANT) >What is the name of the “storage tank”? (VACUOLE)

138 E/E Warm-Up: 1/6/11 FACT: Earthquakes originate at a fault, which is a crack at which movement occurs. This origination point is called the focus. ?: List the 3 major types of rock on Earth and briefly describe how each forms. –IGNEOUS: FROM FROM LAVA & MAGMA –SEDIMENTARY: SEDIMENT UNDERGOES LITHIFICATION –METAMORPHIC: HEAT & PRESSURE

139 Bio Warm-Up: 1/7/11 FACT: Isolation must occur in order for one species to ever evolve into two separate species. Isolation is most commonly geographical. ?: (review) What are the 3 most common chemical elements in the human body? (HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, CARBON)

140 E/E Warm-Up: 1/7/11 FACT: A cold front is represented on a map by a line with blue triangles, while a warm front is represented by a line with red semi- circles. ?: The approximate coordinates for N.C. are 35 o N, 84 o W –Which number is latitude? (35) –Which is longitude? (84) –What important info is missing from this data? (DIRECTIONS)

141 Bio Warm-Up: 1/14/11 FACT: A nucleotide is the building block of DNA & RNA. It is composed of 1 nitrogen base (A, C, G, T/U), 1 sugar, & 1 phosphate. ?: (review) Two plants are placed in two different rooms…one with a fluorescent light and one with complete darkness. What is the independent variable? (THE LIGHT) What is the dependent variable? (PLANT GROWTH)

142

143 Invasive species (kudzu, etc.) Limiting factors (disease, crowding, natural disasters, etc.) Age structure diagrams Bioaccumulation Pop. Vs. Comm. Vs. Ecosystem

144 Bio Midterm Review ?s NC14 #2NC22 #2, 3, 4 NC15 #1, 2, 5NC23 #1 NC16 #3, 4NC24 #1, 4 NC17 #2, 3NC27 #1, 2, 3, 4 NC18 #1, 3, 4, 5NC30 #2, 3 NC19 #1, 3, 4NC31 #2, 4 NC20 #1, 2, 3, 4 NC21 #1, 2, 3

145 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/2/11 FACT: Earth science is the study of Earth’s processes. ?: Where did you go to middle school? (JEFFERSON) What was the name of your science teacher last year?

146 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/2/11 FACT: Geology, Astronomy, Oceanography, and Meteorology are four major categories of Earth Science. ?: What is the web address for Mr. Mercer’s website? www.wsfcs.k12.nc.us/Domain/861 www.wsfcs.k12.nc.us/Domain/861 List 2 items that can be found on the website. (CLASS NOTES, WEB LINKS, WARM-UPS)

147 Bio Warm-Up: 2/1/11 FACT: A genotype describes the genetic characteristics of an organism, while a phenotype describes the physical characteristics. ?: What is a pedigree? (GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF GENETIC INHERITANCE)

148 Bio Warm-Up: 2/2/11 FACT: A person receiving two different alleles from their parents are heterozygous for that gene. ?: A person receiving two of the same alleles from their parents are HOMOZYGOUS for that gene.

149 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/3/11 FACT: The two most common gases in Earth’s atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. ?: Which of the following terms are scientific (SI) units of measurement? –METER, LITER, KILOGRAM

150 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/3/11 FACT: The earth’s hydrosphere includes all of the water on the planet. ?: If I wanted to find the mass of an apple, what SI unit would I use? (KILOGRAMS OR GRAMS) ?: If I wanted to find the weight of an apple, what SI unit would I use? (NEWTON)

151 Bio Warm-Up: 2/3/11 FACT: Gregor Mendel is considered the “father of genetics.” ?: A) HH 1) Phenotype (B) B) Curly Hair 2) Genotype (A, C, D) C) Hh 3) Homozygous (A, D) D) hh 4) Heterozygous (C) (THERE MAY BE MORE THAN ONE CORRECT MATCH PER TERM)

152 Bio Warm-Up: 2/4/11 FACT: Heredity is the passing of characteristics from one generation to the next. ?: When a pure green-seeded plant is crossed with a pure yellow-seeded plant, all of the offspring have yellow seeds. What is the genotypic ratio and the phenotypic ratio of the offspring of two yellow-seeded plants that are both heterozygous for the seed color gene?

153 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/4/11 FACT: Earth’s layers (from the inside out) include the inner core, outer core, mantle, & crust. ?: In an experiment, what is a control? (WHAT STAYS THE SAME IN AN EXPT.) What is an independent variable? (THE ONE THING THAT YOU CHANGE IN AN EXPT.)

154 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/4/11 FACT: Topographic maps display elevation changes on Earth’s surface. ?: A wooden block has a mass of 10g and a volume of 5cm 3. What is the density? (2 g/cm 3 )

155 Bio Warm-Up: 2/7/11 FACT: A chart picturing all chromosome pairs in a human cell is called a karyotype.

156 Bio Warm-Up: 2/7/11 ?: Sickle cell anemia is considered to be a genetic disorder characterized by incomplete dominance. Let’s use the letters NN for someone without sickle-cell, NA for someone heterozygous for sickle- cell, and AA for someone fully affected by sickle-cell. What is the genotypic ratio for the offspring of a person heterozygous for sickle-cell mating with a person that has sickle-cell disease?

157 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/7/11 FACT: Cartographers use Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to create accurate maps. ?: A map scale displays 1cm:30km. If Winston-Salem and Durham are 3cm apart on a N.C. map, how far apart are they in reality? (90km)

158 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/7/11 FACT: Time zones must exist because the Earth spins once every 24 hours. Seasons exist because the Earth sits upon a tilted axis. ?: What is the westernmost city in NC on the map? Southernmost? Easternmost?

159 Bio Warm-Up: 2/8/11 FACT: The environment can have a major effect on the expression of genes. An arctic fox has “white” fur color genes, yet is only white during cold weather. Colorblindness is a sex-linked (a.k.a. X- linked) trait. This means that the defective gene leading to colorblindness is located on the ‘X’ chromosome. Why, then, are MALES usually the gender affected by colorblindness instead of FEMALES, even though the defective gene is located on the X (female) chromosome? (MALES ONLY HAVE ONE X, WHILE FEMALES HAVE A “BACKUP” X)

160 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/8/11 FACT: Molten rock beneath Earth’s surface is called magma. Above Earth’s surface, it is called lava. ?: 1) What would be the latitude-longitude coordinates of an island that was located EXACTLY where the equator and the prime meridian crossed each other? (O o, O o ) 2) What does the word “hemisphere” mean? (HALF OF A CIRCLE)

161 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/8/11 FACT: Atlantic Ocean hurricanes usually form near west Africa as a result of heavy water evaporation, which forms huge clouds. ?: List 3 major interstates on which you can travel in North Carolina. (I-85, I-40, I- 77)

162 E/E Warm-Up: 2/9/11 FACT: A biotic factor is a living thing, such as an oak tree. An abiotic factor is non-living, such as air or water. ?: Would a topographic map of Winston-Salem have a GREATER NUMBER or a LESSER NUMBER of contour lines than a topographic map of Boone? WHY? (BOONE HAS MORE LINES, B/C IT’S IN THE MOUNTAINS)

163 Bio Warm-Up: 2/10/11 FACT: The Human Genome Project mapped the entire DNA sequence on all 46 human chromosomes. (This is very valuable for future genetic research!) ?: Are most genetic diseases dominant or recessive? Why does this make sense? (RECESSIVE, B/C MOST GENETIC DISEASES ARE VERY RARE)

164 E/E Warm-Up: 2/10/11 FACT: The San Andreas Fault is a crack in the Earth’s crust in California. Movement of the crust along this fault causes earthquakes. ?: How do you represent a depression, hole, or lake on a topographic map?

165 Bio Warm-Up: 2/14/11 FACT: Polygenic inheritance occurs when more than one gene controls a trait, such as skin color or height. Phenotypic ratios are usually represented by a bell curve. ?: Yesterday Sarah, who has type O blood, had a child named Brianna. Brianna also has type O blood. Approximately 9 months ago, Sarah was a bit promiscuous and does not know if Austin (type A blood) or Matt (type AB blood) is the father. Using Punnett Squares, complete a paternity test to determine who is Brianna’s father.

166 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/14/11 FACT: Caves usually form in limestone rock because limestone is very soft and can be “eaten away” quickly by water. ?: What are the elevations of A-0, B-10, C-15, & D-20?

167 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/14/11 FACT: The Earth’s solar system is located in the Milky Way Galaxy. ?: What are the 6 major steps of the scientific method? (review) QUESTION, HYPOTHESIS, EXPERIMENT, OBSERVATION, RESULTS, CONCLUSION

168 E/E Warm-Up: 2/15/11 FACT: All regular atoms have an overall neutral charge; the number of electrons (-) is equal to the number of protons (+). ?: Name 3 common elements (atoms) that make up items on Earth. (use p. 917 to remind you!) (OXYGEN, NITROGEN, COPPER, CALCIUM, CARBON)

169 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/16/11 FACT: Wood is a renewable resource. If used responsibly, trees can be grown and harvested without ever running out of supply. ?: AtomAtomic #Mass # # p + # n# e - Na1123111211 X1838182018

170 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/16/11 FACT: Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old. We know this because scientists have dated the oldest rocks on Earth to be this old. ?: What types of foods do you eat that are acidic? (HOT SAUCE, PICKLES, LEMON)What type of health complication is caused by too much acid in the digestive system? (HEARTBURN)

171 Bio Warm-Up: 2/16/11 FACT: Huntington’s Disease is an example of a dominant genetic disorder, while Cystic Fibrosis is an example of a recessive genetic disorder. ?: Johnny has hemophilia. His sister does not have hemophilia. Neither of his parents have hemophilia. Draw a (small) pedigree WITH GENOTYPES labeled for all four family members.

172 E/E Notebook Check: 2/17/11 2/2 #1, 2/2 #2, 2/3 #1, 2/3 #2, 2/4 #1, 2/4 #2, 2/7 #1, 2/7 #2, 2/8 #1, 2/8 #2, 2/9, 2/10, 2/14 #1, 2/14 #2, 2/15, 2/16 #1, 2/16 #2 (17 total entries)

173 Bio Warm-Up: 2/17/11 FACT: Evolution occurs when the allele frequency of a gene changes. (When the frequency of ‘T’ increases and ‘t’ decreases, the population gets taller.) ?: 1) Cystic Fibrosis-C A) Incomplete Dom. 2) Huntington’s-B B) Autosomal Dominant 3) Hemophilia-D C) Autosomal Recessive 4) Sickle Cell-A D) X-linked

174 Bio Warm-Up: 2/18/11 FACT: Reflex action is an innate behavior. Language is a complex learned behavior. ?: Does this pedigree show an x-linked, autosomal dominant, or autosomal recessive trait? How do you know?

175 E/E Warm-Up: 2/18/11 FACT: Igneous rocks are formed in and around volcanoes from cooled magma and lava. ?: Which mineral is harder: chalk or gold? (GOLD) HOW CAN YOU TELL? (RUB THEM TOGETHER…CHALK WILL BE SCRATCHED)

176 Bio Warm-Up: 2/21/11 FACT: Fermentation occurs in an anaerobic environment as an alternative to cellular respiration. ?: What is the difference between a POLYGENIC trait (A TRAIT CONTROLLED BY MORE THAN ONE GENE) and a trait characterized as having MULTIPLE ALLELES (A TRAIT CONTROLLED BY MORE THAN TWO ALLELES)?

177 E/E Warm-Up: 2/21/11 FACT: Hurricane strength is measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale. Category 5 hurricanes have the strongest winds. ?: What are the 4 states of matter? (SOLID, LIQUID, GAS, PLASMA) Which state of matter rarely exists on Earth? (PLASMA)

178 Bio Warm-Up: 2/22/11 FACT: A clone is a genetically-identical copy of an organism or gene. ?: 1) What are some examples of inbreeding being used to benefit human beings? (DOGS, COWS, HORSES, CHICKENS, RACING CAMELS, RABBITS) Why is this harmful to the organisms involved? 2) What are some examples of genetically- altered organisms? (TOMATOES, CORN, SOYBEANS, WHEAT) (at least 3)

179 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/22/11 FACT: The bottom of the ocean is usually very deep and very flat. It is called the abyssal plain. ?: What is the difference between the COLOR and the STREAK of a mineral? (COLOR = OUTSIDE, STREAK = POWDERED FORM)

180 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/22/11 FACT: Groundwater resides in underground areas known as zones of saturation. ?: List 5 specific kinds or names of rocks. (GRANITE, MARBLE, SLATE, LIMESTONE, SANDSTONE)

181 Bio Warm-Up: 2/23/11 FACT: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a method of replicating DNA very quickly so that it can be used for genetic tests. ?: 1) RESTRICTION ENZYMES “cut” DNA at certain, specific locations. 2) TRANSGENIC organisms contain genes from a completely different species of organism.

182 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/23/11 FACT: Salinity is the measure of the amount of salt dissolved in water. ?: Why can’t dinosaur fossils be found in igneous rock? THINK ABOUT IT!!! (IGNEOUS ROCK IS MADE OUT OF LAVA, SO ANY BONES WOULD HAVE BEEN DESTROYED)

183 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/23/11 FACT: A drought is an extended period of below-average precipitation. Winston- Salem is in danger of falling into a drought in the coming weeks. ?: Are there any active volcanoes in the U.S. today? (YES) If so, where are they? (HAWAII, ALASKA, OREGON, WASHINGTON)

184 Bio Notebook Check: 2/24/11 2/1, 2/2, 2/3, 2/4, 2/7, 2/8, 2/10, 2/14, 2/16, 2/17, 2/18, 2/21, 2/22, 2/23 (14 total entries)

185 E/E EOQ-1 Review Choose 1 chapter that we have covered so far…Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5!!! Write on ONE sheet of paper: –List 3 “main ideas” from your chapter. –List and define 5 IMPORTANT vocabulary words from your chapter. –Copy (or create your own) diagram or chart representing your chapter.

186 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/25/11 FACT: A floodplain is a flat area that extends from a riverbank. This area usually floods during times of high precipitation. ?: How could an igneous rock (such as granite) turn into a sedimentary rock? (WEATHERING) ?: Sediment (like sand) is fused into a sedimentary rock (like sandstone) during a process called LITHIFICATION.

187 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/25/11 FACT: Barrier islands are long ridges of sand or sediment that are separated from the mainland. The Outer Banks of N.C. are barrier islands. ?: If sandstone is squeezed and heated, a(n) METAMORPHIC rock will likely form. If the sandstone is heated so much that it melts, a(n) IGNEOUS rock will likely form.

188 E/E Warm-Up #1: 2/28/11 FACT: The Mesozoic Era is referred to as the “age of the dinosaurs.” ?: How can a volcano in Japan affect people living in Winston-Salem? Be complete! (ASH IS RELEASED INTO THE ATMOSPHERE, BLOCKING OUT THE SUN)

189 E/E Warm-Up #2: 2/28/11 FACT: Stalactites are mineral deposits that hang from the ceiling of a cave. Stalagmites are mineral deposits that rise from a cave floor. ?: Scientists have found fossils of tropical plants buried in the ice in Antarctica (the South Pole). Explain how these fossils may have appeared here!!! (ANTARCTICA WAS ONCE NEAR THE EQUATOR WHEN IT WAS PART OF PANGAEA)

190 Bio Warm-Up: 3/1/11 FACT: The endosymbiotic theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were originally independent prokaryotic organisms that established a symbiotic relationship inside a eukaryotic cell, eventually becoming organelles! ?: What is the difference between hybridization and inbreeding? (HYB.=CROSSING OF GENETICALLY-DIFFERENT ORGANISMS…INB.=CROSSING OF GENETICALLY-SIMILAR ORGANISMS)

191 E/E Warm-Up #1: 3/1/11 FACT: Soil is the loose covering of weathered rock and organic matter on Earth’s surface. ?: What causes continental drift? (SEAFLOOR SPREADING)

192 E/E Warm-Up #2: 3/1/11 FACT: Desertification is the process where useful farmland turns into desert, usually due to a drought. ?: To CONVERGE means “to come together.” To DIVERGE means “to move apart.”

193 Ch. 14 Overview (p. 369-385) 1) 5 Types of Fossils 2) Relative Dating vs. Radiometric Dating 3) Geologic Time Scale (sketch/copy) 4) Precambrian Time 5) Paleozoic Era 6) Mesozoic Era 7) Cenozoic Era (2 events each for items #4-7) 8) Spontaneous Generation (Redi & Pasteur experiments) 9) Ideas on the Origin of Life (Miller & Urey) 10) Cell Evolution (First Cells & Photosynthe- sizing Prokaryotes) 11) Endosymbiont Theory

194 Bio Warm-Up: 3/2/11 FACT: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells whose daughter cells may differentiate into different cell types (blood cells, nerve cells, etc.) ?: How old is the Earth? (4.6 BILLION YRS) When did life likely begin on Earth? (2.5-3 BILLION YEARS AGO) What type of life existed first on Earth? (BACTERIA) Where did it likely exist? (OCEAN)

195 E/E Warm-Up #1: 3/2/11 FACT: Weather describes day-to-day events in the atmosphere. Climate describes long-range patterns involving temperature, precipitation, etc. ?: What type of plate boundary is most likely to cause earthquakes? (TRANSFORM) Orogeny? (CONVERGENT) Seafloor spreading? (DIVERGENT)

196 E/E Warm-Up #2: 3/2/11 FACT: Desalination is a process of removing salt from ocean water in order to make it drinkable. ?: Why are earthquakes usually deadlier in places like Haiti or Turkey (as compared to places like the U.S. or Japan?) (U.S. HAS MORE $$$ TO BUILD QUALITY, STURDY BUILDINGS)

197 Bio Warm-Up: 3/7/11 FACT: Redi proved that maggots don’t generate spontaneously on rotten meat…they develop from fly eggs that have been placed on the meat by flies! ?: List the 4 major time periods of Earth’s history in chronological order. Beside each, list an important event that occurred within each time period. PRECAMBRIAN= BACTERIA DOMINATED PALEOZOIC= FIRST FISH MESOZOIC= DINOSAURS DOMINATED; FIRST MAMMALS CENOZOIC= FIRST PRIMATES

198 E/E Warm-Up #1: 3/7/11 FACT: A wetland is an area that is covered with water for a large part of the year. Swamps, bogs, and marshes are all types of wetlands. ?: Which material has a higher viscosity…pancake syrup or water? Is high-viscosity lava or low-viscosity lava more dangerous to humans?

199 E/E Warm-Up #2: 3/7/11 FACT: An equinox occurs when the lengths of day and night are both equal…12 hours each. ?: The _________ is the area surrounding the Pacific Ocean where volcanoes and earthquakes commonly occur.

200 Bio Warm-Up: 3/8/11 FACT: Divergent evolution occurs when two previously-similar species become different b/c they live in different environments. ?: CONVERGENT evolution occurs when two previously-different species become similar b/c they live in similar environments.

201 E/E Warm-Up: 3/8/11 FACT: The longest number of hours of daylight in N.C. occurs on the summer solstice, while the longest number of hours of darkness in N.C. occurs on the winter solstice. ?: WHERE in the United States are earthquakes most common? (WEST COAST) WHY???? (THERE ARE PLATE BOUNDARIES THERE) Do earthquakes commonly occur in North Carolina? (NO…WE’RE NOT CLOSE TO A PLATE BOUNDARY)

202 E/E Warm-Up: 3/9/11 FACT: A theory is an explanation based on many observations during repeated experiments. ?: What other natural disasters can be CAUSED by earthquakes? (TSUNAMI, LANDSLIDE, AVALANCHE)

203 Bio Warm-Up: 3/10/11 FACT: Adaptive radiation is a type of divergent evolution in which one original species evolves into many different new species in order to fit an array of new habitats. ?: How could a WELL-ADAPTED and “fit” organism go extinct? (NATURAL DISASTER, INVASIVE SPECIES, HUMAN ACTIVITY, QUICK ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, DISEASE) ?: What is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection? (A.S.= HUMAN-CONTROLLED SELECTION…N.S.=NATURE- CONTROLLED SELECTION.)

204 E/E Warm-Up: 3/10/11 FACT: A storm surge occurs when hurricane-force winds drive a mound of ocean water toward coastal areas, causing floods. ?: What happens to rock when it experiences forces (stress) that exceed the stress limit of the rock? (IT BREAKS)

205 Volcano & Earthquake Review p. 492-493 #4, 8, 9, 18, S.T.P. #2 p. 520-521 #5, 26, 27, 28, S.T.P. #1

206 E/E Warm-Up: 3/14/11 FACT: Wind is caused by the mixing of warm air with cold air in the atmosphere. ?: How old is the Earth? (4.6 billion years) ?: How long have human beings been in existence on Earth? (2 million years)

207 Bio Warm-Up: 3/14/11 FACT: Lamarck was a scientist who theorized that if an organism used (or did not use) an anatomical feature during its lifetime, this use (or disuse) would affect the offspring. –Bodybuilder father  Muscular baby –NOT TRUE…but an interesting idea nonetheless ?: List several adaptations that allow human beings to have high fitness within their environment. (BIPEDAL, OPPOSABLE THUMBS, INTELLIGENCE)

208 Bio Warm-Up: 3/15/11 FACT: Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859 in order to explain his theory of evolution and natural selection. ?: What is speciation? (WHEN ONE SPECIES EVOLVES INTO TWO OR MORE DIFFERENT SPECIES) ?: How did speciation occur for the Galapagos Island finches? (ONE SPECIES GROUP OF FINCHES SPLIT INTO MANY GROUPS ON MANY DIFFERENT ISLANDS W/ DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS)

209 E/E Warm-Up #1: 3/15/11 FACT: The sun is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. ?: What is the center of a cell called? (NUCLEUS) (It looked like a small dot in the middle of the cell when you looked at it under the microscope.)

210 E/E Warm-Up #2: 3/15/11 FACT: Abiotic factors are items that are non-living that affect an ecosystem…soil type, amount of precipitation, & temperature. ?: What is the Principle of Superposition? (OLDEST ROCKS ON BOTTOM, YOUNGEST ROCKS ON TOP)

211 Bio Warm-Up: 3/16/11 FACT: Genetic drift occurs when a random occurrence causes change in a population…it has nothing to do with “survival of the fittest” and usually only happens in small populations. ?: Wild pigs are “taking over” some ecosystems in the U.S. and in Europe. Why do wild pigs have such high fitness in their environment? (NOCTURNAL, BIG/STRONG, TUSKS, FEW PREDATORS, LIVE IN PACKS, CAMOUFLAGE, EAT ANYTHING, REPRODUCE QUICKLY, LONG LEGS)

212 E/E Warm-Up: 3/16/11 FACT: A plateau is a flat region of high- elevation. ?: Where on Earth do most scientists think human civilization originated? (AFRICA)

213 P. 560 Dating Quiz 1) Which is the OLDEST rock unit? 2) An UNCONFORMITY exists between which two rock layers? 3) What is responsible for the rock layers on the left side not lining up with the rock layers on the right side of the diagram? 4) Define the “Principle of Superposition.” 5) Using all letters on the diagram, list the features from OLDEST to YOUNGEST.

214 Bio Warm-Up: 3/17/11 FACT: The bottleneck effect is a form of genetic drift that occurs when genetic alleles are lost from a population due to a drastic decrease in numbers of organisms. (ex.  Cheetahs) 1) unrelated organisms evolve to look like each other due to similar environments (B) 2) Galapagos finches are an example of this (C) 3) 2 species of Grand Canyon squirrel evolving from 1 original species (A) A) Divergent evol. B) Convergent evol. C) Adaptive radiation

215 E/E Warm-Up #1: 3/17/11 FACT: Biotic factors are items that are living that affect an ecosystem…plants, animals, & bacteria. ?: List the 4 major divisions of geologic time from LONGEST to SHORTEST. (use: period, epoch, eon, era) EON, ERA, PERIOD, EPOCH

216 Geologic Time Poster Paleozoic (Ch. 23—p. 601-617) –Karla V., Yesika C., Nyesha A., Mike E., Jasmine T. Mesozoic (Ch. 24—p. 625-634) –DaQuan C., Terrance D., Brandon M., Brenton M., Aleasia R., Teryn J., Jaquan G. Cenozoic (Ch. 24—p. 635-641) –Joey B., Jordan B., James T., Jemonta D., Kentisha B., Najah S.

217 E/E Warm-Up #2: 3/17/11 FACT: A nebula is a cloud of dust and gas…the beginnings of a star! ?: Which era (Paleozoic, Mesozoic, or Cenozoic) exists at the current time?

218 E/E Midterm Exam Flashcards 5 cards are required. Up to 5 extra cards can be done for extra credit! Each card covers ONE of the following topics and includes 3 vocabulary definitions and/or facts. –Maps (Ch. 2), Chemistry (atoms, mixtures, etc.) (Ch. 3), Minerals (Ch. 4), Igneous Rocks (Ch. 5), Sedimentary Rocks (Ch. 6), Metamorphic Rocks (Ch. 6), Continental Drift (Ch. 17), Volcanoes (Ch. 18), Earthquakes (Ch. 19), Earth History (Ch. 21)

219 Bio Warm-Up: 3/21/11 FACT: Phylogeny is the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms. ?: There are several different species of fireflies. Females of one species will only respond to the specific light signals emitted by a male firefly of the same species. This example represents BEHAVIORAL isolation.

220 E/E Warm-Up: 3/21/11 FACT: The U.S. government has preserved natural resources through creation of national parks, national wildlife refuges, and national forests. ?: “Paleo” means PAST. “Meso” means MIDDLE. “Ceno” means PRESENT. “Zoic” means LIFE.

221 E/E Warm-Up #1: 3/22/11 FACT: Decomposers, such as fungi and bacteria, break down organisms after those organisms have died. ?: How does “continental” (LAND) differ from “maritime” (WATER)? How does “polar” (ICE/COLD) differ from “tropical” (WARM)?

222 E/E Warm-Up #2: 3/22/11 FACT: Omnivores eat both meat AND plants…they are a combination of carnivores AND herbivores! ?: METEOROLOGY is the study of the atmosphere and weather events.

223 Bio Evolution Quiz Vocab Natural selection, Artificial selection Spontaneous generation, Endosymbiosis Relative dating vs. Absolute dating Darwin’s evidence for evolution (x4) Mimicry, Camouflage, Adaptation, Fitness Divergent Evo., Convergent Evo., Adaptive Radiation Speciation, Reproductive Isolation (x3) Homology, Analogy Allelic frequency, Genetic drift, Bottleneck effect, Founder effect Directional selection, Stabilizing selection, Disruptive selection

224 E/E Warm-Up: 3/23/11 FACT: Global warming is causing coastal erosion to worsen. Ice is melting, which causes the sea level to rise, which causes more erosion. ?: Which type of weather map displays real-time pictures of clouds? (SATELLITE) ?: Which type displays real-time precipitation activity? (RADAR)

225 E/E Warm-Up: 3/24/11 FACT: The fastest recorded wind speed on Earth was 316 m.p.h., which was recorded during an F5 tornado in Oklahoma. ?: Why can hail (frozen water) fall during a thunderstorm on a 90-degree summer day? (B/C IT’S COLD HIGH IN THE SKY) ?: p. 326-327 #3 (cP), 4 (mT), 5 (ceilometer), 10 (anemometer), 12 (C), 13 (B), STP #1 (cT)

226 Biology Quarter 3 Exam ?s Genetics = 11 ?s Evolution = 11 ?s Meiosis/Sexual Reproduction = 7 ?s DNA, Transcription/Translation = 7 ?s Biotechnology = 4 ?s Photosynthesis/Respiration = 3 ?s Organic Molecules = 2 ?s Food Webs = 2 ?s ATP, Cell Membrane, Enzymes, Homeostasis, Organelles, Prokaryote, Eukaryote, Symbiosis = 1 ? EACH

227 E/E Warm-Up #1: 4/4/11 FACT: The U.S. produces more pollution than any country in the world. China and India, however, may overtake the U.S. soon. ?: What are the 3 stages of a thunderstorm? 1-CUMULUS 2-MATURE 3- DISSIPATION

228 E/E Warm-Up: 4/5/11 FACT: Tides are the periodic rise and fall of sea level. In North Carolina, there are usually two high tides and two low tides every day. ?: List the following in order from WEAKEST to STRONGEST… –Category 1 Hurricane, Tropical Depression, Category 5 Hurricane, Tropical Storm –TROP. DEPRESSION, TROP. STORM, CAT 1 HUR., CAT 5 HUR.

229 Ch. 17 ?s p. 464-465 # 1, 4-6, 8-11, 14, 18-23

230 Bio Warm-Up: 4/5/11 FACT: In humans, glucose is kept in balance in the bloodstream by insulin. This is an example of homeostasis. ?: Which genetic abnormality can be identified through karyotyping? A. point mutationB. recessive allele C. extra chromosome D. sex-linked allele

231 N.C. River Pamphlet Map “Profile Info” Major tributary rivers (smaller rivers that flow into your river) Plants and/or Animals Environmental threats to river/Pollution and water quality data Tourist activities & use to humans –Historical uses –Present-day uses

232 Bio Warm-Up: 4/6/11 FACT: On a pedigree for hemophilia, carriers can be represented by shading in half of the symbol for that person. –What would the genotype be for a person who is a carrier of hemophilia? (X’X) ?: Which of the following structures do the cells of eukaryotes have that prokaryotes do not have? A. Cell wallsB. Cell membranes C. NucleiD. DNA

233 E/E Warm-Up: 4/6/11 FACT: Igneous rocks made up of dark minerals are mafic, while igneous rocks made up of light minerals are felsic. ?: The temperature in downtown Winston- Salem may be warmer than the temperature in Walkertown. This is because cities are HEAT ISLANDS. They are warmer than their surroundings!

234 E/E Notebook Check: Midterm 3/1, 3/2 #1, 3/2 #2, 3/7 #1, 3/7 #2, 3/8, 3/9, 3/10, 3/14, 3/15 #1, 3/15 #2, 3/16, 3/17 #1, 3/17 #2, 3/21, 3/22 #1, 3/22 #2, 3/23, 3/24, 4/4, 4/5, 4/6 (22 total warm-ups)

235 Column #1: (Missed) Question Number Column #2: Content Topic –Scientific Method, Measurement Units, Latitude/Longitude, Topographic Maps, Chemistry, Rocks & Minerals, Plate Tectonics/ Volcano/Earthquakes/Mountains (PVEM), Earth History Bottom of sheet: “I did best with _____________.” “I most need to work on ____________.” What is your goal for the final quarter in this class? What are you going to do differently (or continue to do well) in order to reach this goal?

236 EOQ-3 Data WSFCS Average: 57% MTHS Average: 66% Mercer Average: 78% (Period 1-Standard): 58% (Period 2-Honors): 82% (Period 5-Honors): 78% (Period 6-Honors): 82%

237 Bio Warm-Up: 4/11/11 FACT: Carolus Linnaeus created the modern classification system of living things. He used a universal Latin-language species naming system called binomial nomenclature. ?: What are the 6 kingdoms of living things? (ARCHAEBACTERIA, EUBACTERIA, PROTISTA, FUNGI, PLANTAE, ANIMALIA)

238 E/E Warm-Up #1: 4/11/11 FACT: A tributary is a small stream that flows into a larger stream, river, or lake. ?: List at least 5 major rivers within N.C. (YADKIN, ROANOKE, SAVANNAH, CHOWAN, NEUSE, CAPE FEAR, FRENCH BROAD)

239 E/E Warm-Up #2: 4/11/11 FACT: An adaptation is the development of a structure or behavior that allows an organism to better survive in the environment. ?: How does a sinkhole form? (A CAVE COLLAPSES) Why would a sinkhole be more likely to form during a rainstorm? (THE WATER MAKES THE CAVE ROOF HEAVIER)

240 Groundwater (Ch. 10) ?s p. 262-263 ?s #1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 14, 18, 21

241 Bio Warm-Up: 4/12/11 FACT: The classification system founded by Linnaeus had the following categories (listed from most broad to most specific): –Domain (EUKARYA) –Kingdom (ANIMALIA) –Phylum (CHORDATA) –Class (MAMMALIA) –Order (PRIMATA) –Family (HOMINIDAE) –Genus (HOMO) –Species (SAPIENS) ?: List the specific D, K, P, C, O, F, G, S for a human being…as many as you can!

242 Book ?s p. 526-527 #8, 10, 11, 13, 15 p. 548-549 #6, 7, 24 p. 554-55 #1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16

243 Bio Warm-Up: 4/18/11 FACT: The FIVE steps in plant reproduction include: –1) Pollination (pollen meets flower) –2) Fertilization (pollen joins with ovule to make a seed) –3) Dispersal (seeds spread) –4) Dormancy (seeds wait for opportunity to grow) –5) Germination (seeds sprout) –?: What are the major differences between a protist and a fungus? List at least 3!!! (PROTIST= AUTOTROPH, LIVE IN WATER, CELL WALL MADE OF CELLULOSE….FUNGI= HETEROTROPH, LIVE ON ORGANIC MATTER, CELL WALL MADE OF CHITIN)

244 E/E Warm-Up #1: 4/18/11 FACT: The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell…it turns food you eat into energy! ?: What are 3 things that you can do to make more efficient use of energy? (TURN OFF LIGHTS WHEN WE’RE NOT USING THEM, USE FLUORESCENT LIGHTBULBS, DRIVE LESS…OR USE FUEL-EFFICIENT CARS, TURN OFF WATER WHEN NOT USING IT, UNPLUG THINGS YOU’RE NOT USING, USE SOLAR PANELS)

245 E/E Warm-Up #2: 4/18/11 FACT: The chloroplast of a cell converts the sun’s energy into food. Chloroplasts only exist in plant cells. ?: Where in the world are you likely to find a population consisting of many young people and very few middle-aged people? WHY could this be happening to that population? (INDIA/CENTRAL AFRICA, B/C OF DISEASE AND LACK OF MEDICAL CARE AND TECHNOLOGY)

246 Ch. 25 Natural resource Nonrenewable resource Renewable resource Sustainable yield Pollutant Desalination Ch. 26 Fossil fuel Peat Biogas Geothermal energy Sustainable energy

247 E/E Warm-Up: 4/19/11 FACT: A chemical bond is a force that holds atoms together within a compound. ?: The layer of the ocean in-between the surface layer and the bottom layer is called the THERMOCLINE.

248 Bio Warm-Up: 4/25/11 FACT: Territoriality is an instinctive behavior that causes an animal to defend their own territory and possessions. ?: For plants, the male gamete is known as POLLEN.

249 E/E Warm-Up: 4/25/11 FACT: A mutation is a change in the DNA of a living thing. Mutations can cause disease, they can be beneficial, or they can be “silent.” ?: In China, _____ is primarily used to heat homes because it is easily accessible and very inexpensive.

250 Bio Warm-Up: 4/26/11 FACT: Sponges and Cnidarians are the least complex animals that exist on Earth. They are both invertebrates. ?: From what kingdom did modern plants likely evolve? (PROTISTA)

251 Bio Warm-Up: 4/27/11 FACT: The most complex invertebrates are arthropods. Arthropods include insects, arachnids (spiders), and crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, crayfish.) ?: What does “arthropod” mean? (Look at both scientific word parts.) (JOINTED FOOT)

252 Plant Book Review: 20 ?s p. 574-575 #7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 19 p. 602-603 #6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 23, 24 p. 630-631 #7, 10, 12 p. 662-663 #7, 11 ANGIOSPERM = ANTHOPHYTA

253 Bio Warm-Up: 4/29/11 FACT: The five classifications of vertebrates are fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. ?: The female part of an angiosperm flower is called a(n) PISTIL. The male part is called a(n) STAMEN.

254 E/E Warm-Up: 4/29/11 FACT: There are 5 major classification categories of life on Earth: Bacteria, Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals. ?: List all planets within our solar system in order from closest to farthest away from the sun. (MERCURY, VENUS, EARTH, MARS, JUPITER, SATURN, URANUS, NEPTUNE, PLUTO)

255 E/E Warm-Up: 5/3/11 FACT: Animals are born with innate behaviors, like instinct. Animals must be taught learned behaviors, like language. ?: What planet within our solar system (other than Earth) has the highest probability of having life? WHY? (MARS, B/C IT HAS ICE CAPS…WATER = POSSIBILITY FOR LIFE)

256 E/E Warm-Up: 5/4/11 FACT: Genetic disorders are caused by mutations within DNA that are passed on from parents to their children. There are no cures for most genetic disorders. –Cystic fibrosis, Hemophilia ?: What is Earth’s moon made of? (THE SAME MATERIAL AS EARTH)

257 Bio Warm-Up: 5/6/11 FACT: Euglena are plant-like protists. They contain chloroplasts and conduct photosynthesis. ?: Amoeba and paramecium are _______-like protists. They are heterotrophs and must eat for energy.

258 Bio Warm-Up: 5/11/11 FACT: External fertilization occurs when the sperm and egg meet outside the body cavity of the organism. ?: ____________ fertilization occurs when the sperm and egg meet inside the body cavity of the organism.

259 E/E Warm-Up: 5/11/11 FACT: When a plant grows toward light, it is displaying phototropism. ?: In DNA, A always matches with T and C always matches with G.

260 Bio Warm-Up: 5/13/11 FACT: A circadian rhythm is an innate “time schedule” that is usually based on a 24-hour cycle. This rhythm is usually reversed in nocturnal organisms. ?: What is a nocturnal organism? AWAKE AT NIGHT; ASLEEP DURING DAY ?: What is an example of a human behavior influenced by circadian rhythm? TIRED AT NIGHT, MORE ALERT DURING DAY ?: What can disrupt a normal circadian rhythm? JET LAG, TIME CHANGES, SLEEPING PILLS

261 E/E Warm-Up: 5/13/11 FACT: Earthquakes originate at a fault, which is a crack at which movement occurs. This origination point is called the focus. ?: List the 3 major types of rock on Earth and briefly describe how each forms. 1) SEDIMENTARY; LITHIFICATION 2) IGNEOUS; COOLING OF MAGMA 3) METAMORPHIC; HEAT & PRESSURE

262 THE END!!! This is the end of board facts/warm-ups for the 2010-2011 school year. The FACT FINAL EXAMS WILL BE ON: –Friday, May 20 th (Earth Science) –Friday, May 27 th (Biology)


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