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Progesterones and Breast Cancer Endogenous and Exogenous Synthetic or Natural Bio-identical Progestins, Progestogens or Progestagens “Act like progesterone”

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Presentation on theme: "Progesterones and Breast Cancer Endogenous and Exogenous Synthetic or Natural Bio-identical Progestins, Progestogens or Progestagens “Act like progesterone”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Progesterones and Breast Cancer Endogenous and Exogenous Synthetic or Natural Bio-identical Progestins, Progestogens or Progestagens “Act like progesterone” Dr Ellen C G Grant Dr Ellen C G Grant MBChB, DObst RCOG

2 Contraceptive and Menopausal Progestogens and Oestrogens W H O International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC monograph, 2005)W H O International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC monograph, 2005) “Group 1 Carcinogen”“Group 1 Carcinogen” Highest level (dioxin, mycotoxins) Direct GenotoxinsDirect Genotoxins

3 Collaborative (51), MWS, WHI xs Breast Ca5 yr 10 yrStudyxs Breast Ca 5 yr 10 yr Study Oestrogen HRTCollabOestrogen HRT 2 6 Collab MWS MWS P plus O HRTMWSP plus O HRT 6 19 MWS WHI 6 18 WHI Beral Lancet 2003Beral Lancet 2003 HRT Studies (1.09 – 19) 2 – 8

4 Contraceptive Breast Cancer Risks OESTROGEN + PROGESTOGENOESTROGEN + PROGESTOGEN Combined OCs ( ) By age 50 before FFTP1.52By age 50 - Ever use ≥ 4yrs before FFTP 1.52 Kahlenborn,2006Kahlenborn,2006 Ethinyl oestradiolCombined OCs + Ethinyl oestradiol 35 mcg 2 >35 mcg 4 PROGESTOGENPROGESTOGEN only (UK study, P mostly lactation 1 – 12 months)

5 Breast cancer ↑↑ with P use

6 Progesterone carcinogenesis Progesterone 3-4 x more breast cancersOestrogen?Why does Progesterone cause – 3-4 x more breast cancers than Oestrogen? 4 x more genes up or down regulated4 x more genes up or down regulated All tissues Carcin ogenic MetabolitesAll tissues Carcin ogenic Metabolites + or - Progesterone Receptors+ or - Progesterone Receptors Angiogenesis ↑ ↑ Immune diseases ↑ ↑ (x9)Angiogenesis ↑ ↑ Immune diseases ↑ ↑ (x9)

7 Actions of Progesterone ↑ oestrogen priming↑ oestrogen priming Subnuclear vacuolesSubnuclear vacuoles ESP Alkaline phosphatase ↓↓ESP Alkaline phosphatase ↓↓ Acid phosphatase, SODase, COMT ↑↑Acid phosphatase, SODase, COMT ↑↑ LSPMonoamine oxidase ↑↑LSP Monoamine oxidase ↑↑ Immediate Angiogenesis ↑↑Immediate Angiogenesis ↑↑

8 Normal endometrial cycle 2 days subnuclear vacuoles mid cycle2 days subnuclear vacuoles mid cycle

9 P treated endometrium

10 Normal Late Secretory

11 Progestogenic ++ arterioles ++

12 Dilated sinusoid - thrombosis

13 Thrombosedcerebral vessels – 5 yrs OC Thrombosed cerebral vessels – 5 yrs OC

14 Norgestrel Dose Effects

15 ↑↑ Aggression ↑Vascular

16 Types of Progestogens AndrogenicPregnanes Androgenic Pregnanes EstranesGonanes Estranes Gonanes MPA - depotOCs MPA - depot MPA inHRT 13 5 MPA in USA MPAMAMPA and MA (banned UK 1970s) Breast cancer small or largedosesBreast cancer small or large doses

17 Progestogen Potency ANDROGENICPROGESTOGENIC ANDROGENIC PROGESTOGENIC Estrane Gonane PregnaneEstrane Gonane Pregnane NorethisteroneMPANorethisterone 1 dl-Norgestrel 2.6 MPA 0.3 N AcetateN Acetate 1.2 MA 0.4 Oral ProgesteroneMicronised x 2 potency - Oral Progesterone Levonorgestrel Levonorgestrel 5.3 Norgestimate Norgestimate 1.3 Desogestrel Desogestrel 9 Gestodene Gestodene 12.6

18 Actions of Progesterone Blocks FSH and LH - prevents ovulationBlocks FSH and LH - prevents ovulation Switches immune balance T1 → T2Switches immune balance T1 → T2 Antibody production ↓↓Antibody production ↓↓ Symptoms – increased - decreasedSymptoms – increased - decreased Immune diseases - PMS, SLE

19 Genetics and Epigenetics Epigenetics – changes in gene functionEpigenetics – changes in gene function 12,686 genes implantation windowKoa ,686 genes implantation window I in 25 genes activatedI in 25 genes activated Progesterone 4 x genes cf OestrogenProgesterone 4 x genes cf Oestrogen

20 Progesterone –activated genes 377 up regulated377 up regulated 156 down regulated156 down regulated Striking Regulation of Secretory ProteinsStriking Regulation of Secretory Proteins Water and Ion ChannelsWater and Ion Channels Signalling MoleculesSignalling Molecules Immune ModulatorsImmune Modulators Endometrial DevelopmentEndometrial Development Embryonic Interactions.Embryonic Interactions.

21 P upregulated genes cholesterol trafficking and transportcholesterol trafficking and transport apolipoprotein E 100-foldapolipoprotein E 100-fold prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis (PLA2) and action (PGE2 receptor) proteoglycan synthesis (glucuronyltransferase), secretory proteins (glycodelin, mammaglobin, Dickkopf-1 - a Wnt inhibitor), IGF binding protein and TGF-beta superfamilies, signal transduction, extracellular matrix components (osteopontin, laminin) neurotransmitter synthesis -MAO, receptorsneurotransmitter synthesis -MAO, receptors

22 P down regulated genes Intestinal Trefoil Factor (ITF) - 50-foldIntestinal Trefoil Factor (ITF) - 50-fold matrilysin, members of the G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, frizzled-related protein (FrpHE, a Wnt antagonist) Transcription Factors, TGF-beta signaling pathway membersTranscription Factors, TGF-beta signaling pathway members Immune Modulators(major histocompatibility complex class II subunits) and other cellular functions Immune Modulators (major histocompatibility complex class II subunits) and other cellular functions

23 P up regulated genes Numerous Immune ModulatorsNumerous Immune Modulators Detoxification genes MetallothioneinsDetoxification genes Metallothioneins Genes involved in water and ion transport - K(+) ion channelGenes involved in water and ion transport - K(+) ion channel Genes corresponding to IGFBP-1, glycodelin, CPE1-R, Dkk-1, mammaglobin, and ApoDGenes corresponding to IGFBP-1, glycodelin, CPE1-R, Dkk-1, mammaglobin, and ApoD.

24 ↑↑Cu/Zn ratios in sweat (serum and hair) in treated women - parts per billion at Biolab ↑↑ Cu/Zn ratios in sweat (serum and hair) in treated women - parts per billion at Biolab

25 RCGP OC Study Vascular DVTHROMBOSIS /PE DVTHROMBOSIS /PE 5.66 Heart disease 5.2 Deaths Cerebrovascular 4.1 Deaths Vascular Vascular 4.2 non smoker smoker AMI +Toxaemia history 41.0 Cerebrovascular +10 years Cerebrovascular +10 years 2.7

26 RCGP OC Study - Cancers Breast cancer age Breast cancer age Breast + 10 yrs Breast 8-9 yrs later 15.8 Breast cancer deaths1.5Breast cancer deaths yrs later 1.5 Lung cancer 1.6Lung cancer yrs 1.6 Liver cancer 5 5.0Liver cancer 5 5.0

27 RCGP OC Study Cervical cancerDeaths > 10yrs 5.3Cervical cancer Deaths > 10yrs 5.3 Pruritis, vaginitis, 2 Trichomonas, leukorrhoea, cervicitis 1.6Trichomonas, leukorrhoea, cervicitis 1.6 Ex OC Irregular bleeding 1.55Ex OC Irregular bleeding 1.55 Fibroids 2.5Fibroids 2.5 Post Pill amenorrhoea - infertility 3.2Post Pill amenorrhoea - infertility 3.2 Abortions 13.3% → 30.61%Abortions 13.3% → 30.61%

28 RCGP OC STUDY NOT “ALL CLEAR” NOT “ALL CLEAR” Over 60 conditions increased Over 60 conditions increased immune diseases, infections and allergies immune diseases, infections and allergies SERIOUS IMMUNE DYSFUNCTION DYSFUNCTION

29 Walnut Creek OC Study Cervical cancer x12Cervical cancer x12 Ovarian retention cystsOvarian retention cysts Severe acute iron deficiency anaemiaSevere acute iron deficiency anaemia Fibroids (vascular)Fibroids (vascular) Adenomyosis ( endometriosis )Adenomyosis ( endometriosis ) Hysterectomies < age % x2.5Hysterectomies < age % x2.5 All Significantly Increased → HRT “use” ++All Significantly Increased → HRT “use” ++

30 Endocrine-disrupting chemicals Over 70 years of animal researchOver 70 years of animal research Hormones organise the brainHormones organise the brain Peri-natally - critical timingPeri-natally - critical timing Modify sexuality, perception and learning Endogenous - twins - risk taking – aggressionEndogenous - twins - risk taking – aggression Aromatase inhibitors, pesticides, fungicidesAromatase inhibitors, pesticides, fungicides Crews and McLachlan 2006Crews and McLachlan 2006

31 Fertility and pregnancy hormonal “treatments” Genital organ malformations infertility treatmentGenital organ malformations infertility treatment HR 2.32HR 2.32 Zhu JL, Danish national birth cohort. BMJ, 2006 Progesterone /progestogensProgesterone /progestogens 4 weeks before to14 weeks after conception4 weeks before to14 weeks after conception HYPOSPADIAS OR 3.7HYPOSPADIAS OR 3.7 Carmichael 2005

32 Effects of P on development Most pregnancy Progesterone use nowMost pregnancy Progesterone use now ↑ Cancers in children, DES breast, vaginal↑ Cancers in children, DES breast, vaginal Testicular Leukaemia NeuroblastomasTesticular Leukaemia Neuroblastomas Brain Development ↓ Stress coping ↑ Mental illness ↑ Autism x4Brain Development ↓ Stress coping ↑ Mental illness ↑ Autism x4 Sexual Orientation - Organ AbnormalitiesSexual Orientation - Organ Abnormalities Immune Dysfunction ↑ AllergiesImmune Dysfunction ↑ Allergies

33 Progesterone carcinogenesis A Preventable Epidemic ?A Preventable Epidemic ? WHI, MWS and WISDOM HRT trials terminated earlyWHI, MWS and WISDOM HRT trials terminated early but very young OC usebut very young OC use very high doses ECsoff prescription very high doses ECs depot MPA still vigorously promoteddepot MPA still vigorously promoted

34 Ellen Grant on line J Nutr Environ Med June 1998J Nutr Environ Med June 1998 Grant, Ewww.bmj.com Search - Grant, E Articles and Rapid Responses grant ecNCBI - grant ecwww.pubmed.gov


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