Presentation on theme: "Criminal Justice Sentencing Reform Chief Justice William Ray Price, Jr."— Presentation transcript:
Criminal Justice Sentencing Reform Chief Justice William Ray Price, Jr.
Since the 1980’s, in Missouri and across the nation, we attempted to incarcerate our way out of crime and illegal drug use.
The problem is, it didn’t work. We were tough on crime. Three strikes and your out. Throw away the key. The war on drugs But, we were not smart on crime.
Let’s look at the numbers. United States
Our Criminal Sentencing Problem Total Correctional Population Total Pop. Behind Bars 19822,194, , ,308, ,304,000
Cost of Increased Incarceration State correctional spending increased fourfold: 1988$11.7 billion 2008$47.3 billion
“What we are seeing today is a growing recognition that our approach to dealing with convicted criminals is simply too costly. Not only is the price too high, but the benefits are too low. The states spend an estimated $50 billion on corrections annually, and the growth of these outlays over the past 20 years has outpace nearly all other essential government services.” Joan Petersilia, Stanford Law School
Incarceration and Crime Rates
U.S. Crime Volume Violent Offenses 19821,322, ,382,012 Property Offenses ,652, ,768,000 Drug Offenses , ,841,200
The War on Drugs Drug Arrests ,900 20071,841,200 As Percentage of All Arrests % % Prison Population ,000 20082,304,000 ↓ 1,692,000 more people behind bars
The key measurement of the failure of our incarceration strategy is the recidivism rate. Too many people, keep coming back.
U.S. Recidivism Rates For all offenders (released 1994) : Rearrest within 3 years: 67.5% Reconviction within 3 years: 46.9% For drug offenders (released 1983 vs. released 1994) : Rearrest rate increased 50.4% 66.7% Reconviction rate increased 35.3% 47%
Missouri Correctional Population Total DOC Population27,37658, ,432 Incarcerated 5,95315,402 30, Violent2,9968,124 16, Nonviolent2,9577,278 14,148 From 1982 to 2009: 412% increase in incarcerated offenders 379% increase in nonviolent offenders
Missouri Costs Total DOC Budget 1982$55 million 1985$87 million 1994$219.9 million 2005$500.1 million 2010$665 million
Missouri Costs At a cost of $16,432 per prisoner, Missouri is spending $233 million per year to incarcerate nonviolent offenders.
Increase in MO Drug Sentences New Felony Sentences Per Year 19859,467 ,431 Drug Sentences 19851,409 20089,134 548% increase Non-Drug Sentences 19858,058 ,297 127% increase
Drug Users Fill Missouri’s Prisons Missouri New Prison Admissions (FY2004) 1,23913% Drug Convictions 2,03720% Probation for Drug Offense Revoked 4,04241% Other Crimes But Active ____Substance Abuse 74% of all new admissions are related to illegal drug use 74% of all new admissions are related to illegal drug use
Good News about Drug Courts Numerous studies show that: Drug court participation results in lower recidivism rates Drug courts result in substantial cost savings
Missouri Drug Courts Cost Substantially Less Than Incarceration Costs (per inmate per year) Incarceration$16,832 Drug Court $3, ,000
Drug Courts Provide Savings Over Probation Case Study: St. Louis City Adult Felony Drug Court Initial cost = cost of probation + cost of treatment In two years:$2,615 net savings In four years:$7,707 net savings For every $1 spent $6.32 of savings
MO Recidivism Comparison Recidivism Rates (rearrest within two years) Prison41.6% Drug Court Graduates10% (New JIS Tracking:18-month Graduates4.6% 18-month Terminations15.2%)
A real life example of recidivism was the 35 year old St. Joseph man arrested for drunk driving June 16, 2010, just three hours after he was released from prison.
Adult Felony Drug Court DWI Court Family Drug Court Veterans’ Court Mental Health Court Reintegration Court All combine evidence based treatment with intense supervision
“I believe we can take an approach that is both tough and smart…[T]here are thousands of nonviolent offenders in the system whose future we cannot ignore. Let’s focus more resources on rehabilitating those offenders so we can ultimately spend less money locking them up again.” Gov. Rick Perry, Texas
The Bottom line The quality of justice is not measured by the length of sentence. One size, one strategy, does not fit all offenders. Breaking the cycle of addiction and crime requires scientific evidence based treatment and the development of job skills and intense supervision, not always prison walls. Results matter. Cost matters. For a safer Missouri
High Incarceration % ≠ Lower Crime Rate Rural Counties Crime Rate Crime Rate County (Population) Incarc. % Marion (27,934) % Pettis (39,234) % Butler (40,456) % Callaway (41,158) % Statewide Average Incarceration Percentage = 25.6%
High Incarceration % ≠ Lower Crime Rate Large Urban Areas Crime Rate Crime Rate County (Population) Incarc. % St. Louis City (350,298) % Jackson ( ) % St. Louis (928,117) % Statewide Average Incarceration Percentage = 25.6%
High Incarceration Rate ≠ Lower Crime Rate Small Rural Counties Crime Rate Crime Rate County (Population) Incarc. % Douglas (13,377) 21.3 – 33.0% Macon (13,645) % Wayne (12,294) % Statewide Average Incarceration Percentage = 25.6%