3American Dream Vs Malaysian Dream = ? DEFINITIONHouse as basic needHousing is a merit goodAmerican Dream Vs Malaysian Dream = ?HomelessSquatters
4POLICY ANALYSIS MODEL - Dunn Policy Relevant Info POLICY PROBLEM POLICY ALTERNATIVEPOLICY ACTIONPOLICY OUTCOMEPOLICY PERFORMANCE- DunnPolicy Relevant Info
5Background of Problem Migrations of the affluent to the suburb areas. UNITED STATESMigrations of the affluent to the suburb areas.- affected the American politics and lower-income workers in the urbanMALAYSIAHigh rate of rural-urban migration.Squatters in urban area- cause by rapid industrialization and urbanization by NEP
6Policy Problem: Causes UNITED STATESHomelessa. Falling incomesb. Reductions in safety net programmesc. Affordability of housing and the homelessd. Individual pathologiesGreatest subsidies placed among the wealthiest- 20% of the populationRising cost of unsubsidized housing lead to increasing housing problemMALAYSIAAffordability of housing price with reference to monthly house hold income – price must be within range whereby the buyers can obtain financing to facilitate purchase.Accessibility of housing to M’sians in terms of demand and supply of unit houses- adequate supply of housing units the purchaser to choose from and by.Quality of housing construction.
7Policy Problem: Market Failure UNITED STATESA major problem; labor markets drive the wages of people below the level- income too low and private housing markets cannot provide affordable house for themMALAYSIAShortage in supply of affordable shelter for low income cause squatter in urban area.Deficiency in supply of housing information cause mismatch of supply and demand mechanism in housing industry.Lack of government research on local housing resources cause rising price of housing and reliance to imported material and technologies.Private companies have no interest in low cost housing project since it is not profitable.
8Policy Problem: Stakeholder and Actors UNITED STATESStakeholders:Government (U.S Housing & Urban Development)housing markets (private sector)housing ownersActors:1) government2) housing marketsMALAYSIAStakeholder:People- PurchaserPrivate Sector (Housing Construction Industries)Actors:Ministry of Housing and Local GovernmentNational Housing DevelopmentPeninsular Malaysia Town & Country Planning DevelopmentNational Landscape DepartmentSewerage Service DepartmentMalaysia Fire and Safety DevelopmentHouses Buyers AssociationReal Estate and Housing Developers’ Association
9Policy Alternatives UNITED STATES MALAYSIA Several policy options ;1. shelter2. education3. substance-abuse counseling4. job-training5. medical treatmentTarget group: low-skilled labors.MALAYSIAPrefabricated system to speed up construction compared to conventional bricks system.Facilitating role by government by giving incentive to private company.Regulatory measures on low cost housing.Buying from private sectorIncreasing the stock of low cost housing
10Policy Actions UNITED STATES MALAYSIA i. tax deduction Goals: U.S HOUSING POLICYGoals : provide every American with “a decent house in a suitable living environment”i. tax deduction- deduction of money from the incomeii. mortgage assistance- subsidy to the middle classiii. low-income assistance- eligibility- public housing- tenant-based vouchers and rental vouchers- project-based assistanceMALAYSIAThrough National Housing Policies programs from First M’sia Plan up to Seventh M’sia PlanGoals:To ensure social-economic stability.To promote national development.To ensure all people regardless of their income to live in decent house.Provision of housing- low income people in urban areas.Eradication of poverty and restructuring of society.
11Policy Outcomes Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 UNITED STATES MALAYSIA An increasing in spending of their incomes on housing without purchasing other necessitiesNumber of renter households increased since 1970The existence of homeless remain.- since : American homeless population are between 444,000 and 842,000 (Dpt.of Housing and Urban Development)- especially among African-American, women, young people are increased in number.MALAYSIATable 1Table 2Table 3
12Policy Actions: Contd.. MALAYSIA Objectives: To provide adequate, affordable and quality housing for all Malaysians, particularly low income groupEvery family to own a houseTable A
13Policy Performance UNITED STATES MALAYSIA The collective effort in overcome the problem of homeless has been challenged as unworkable and unjustified.- due to problem of homeless is remainThe goal of the policy is not achieved – it’s a failure of US housing policy.MALAYSIAIn General, government’s housing policies have not met their goals and objectives. Why?Government regulation failed to protect consumer interest.Lack of coordination between federal and state government.Lack of affordable housing.Deficient housing information.Deficient research and development of building materials and building technology.Defective housing quality
14Recommendations UNITED STATES Public policy effort to deal with homelessness must first identify the homeless population and determine their needs.Serious policies must include job training and opportunities for employment in occupations that pay enough to make housing affordable.Political mobilization of individuals, community action and other committed groups are important in assisting the income distribution at the bottom level.MALAYSIALegislation reviewCooperation implementationLand and housing development rationalizationLicensing qualification