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ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 7: Stratification,

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Presentation on theme: "ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 7: Stratification,"— Presentation transcript:

1 ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 7: Stratification, Class, and Inequality 1

2 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Social stratification Social stratification is structured inequality between groups. This inequality may be based on economics, gender, race, religion, age, or another factor What is at play is power. 2

3 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Characteristics of stratification systems Systems of inequality are organized around groups with a shared characteristic. The social location of a group is significant in terms of the life chances of members. Rankings of groups change only very slowly. 3

4 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Three basic models Slavery—ownership of certain people Caste—status for life Class—positions based on economics 4

5 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Class systems In modern societies, class systems dominate. While class systems do allow for social mobility, opportunities are not evenly distributed across social groups. Class has a significant impact on many aspects of life, including education, occupation, place of residence, marriage partner, and more. 5

6 Figure 7.1 The Kuznets Curve Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

7 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. How do stratification systems look today? In modern, industrialized societies, there is little overt support for rigid systems of inequality. Remaining caste systems appear to be transitioning into class systems. From the time of World War II to the 1970s, class boundaries appeared to soften, but they have been hardening since the 1970s. 7

8 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Marx and class conflict Karl Marx was very interested in class relations in capitalist societies. Class was determined solely by one’s relation to the means of production. –Proletariat and bourgeoisie –Group membership utterly determined life chances. Ultimately the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie, ending the reign of capitalism. 8

9 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Weber: Class and status For Max Weber, position in a stratification system was not based on economics alone: social status was also significant. Weber’s multidimensional approach is attractive to those who believe that social prestige and power can be independent of economics. 9

10 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Functionalist approaches Functionalist theorists attempt to understand what role inequality plays in keeping society at equilibrium. Davis and Moore (1945) argued that stratification benefited society by ensuring that the most important roles would be filled by the most talented and worthy people. 10

11 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. What is social class? Social class is some mixture of: –Wealth –Income –Education –Occupation 11

12 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Race and wealth Though race is not an actual component of class, there is a clear intersection. Research shows that non-whites generally have less wealth and education than other social groups. Non-whites are also much more likely to experience discrimination when buying homes. 12

13 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Median net worth of American families based on various social factors SOURCE: U.S. Federal Reserve Board 2009. EDUCATION No high school High school Some college College degree AGE 0 35 45 55 65 75 RACE OR ETHNICITY Nonwhite or Hispanic White, non-Hispanic HOME OWNERSHIP Renter Owner $300,000 $225,000 $150,000 $75,000 $0$0 13 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Social Inequality in the U.S.

14 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Median net worth by percentile $2m $1m $0 0%25%50%75%90%100% PERCENTILE OF NET WORTH 14 SOURCE: U.S. Federal Reserve Board 2009. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Social Inequality in the U.S.

15 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Occupational prestige Occupation Rank (1 = most prestigious; 16 = least prestigious) Accountant _________________________________ Cab driver _________________________________ Carpenter _________________________________ Classical musician _________________________________ Electrical engineer _________________________________ Garbage collector _________________________________ Journalist _________________________________ Physician _________________________________ Police officer _________________________________ Real estate agent _________________________________ Registered nurse _________________________________ Secretary _________________________________ Shoe shiner _________________________________ Social worker _________________________________ Sociologist _________________________________ Waiter or waitress _________________________________ 15

16 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. The rankings 1.Physician 2.Electrical engineer 3.Sociologist 4.Accountant 5.Registered nurse 6.Classical musician 7.Police officer 8.Journalist 9.Social worker 10.Secretary 11.Real estate agent 12.Carpenter 13.Cab driver 14.Waiter or waitress 15.Garbage collector 16.Shoe shiner 16

17 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. The American middle class The United States understands itself as a middle-class society. This fits with strongly held ideologies, including classlessness, meritocracy, and the work ethic. Middle-class ideologies tend to promote the reproduction of inequality. 17

18 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Social mobility Social mobility is the movement of people up or down the stratification system. Class systems allow for more movement than slave or caste systems. Even so, it remains quite difficult to achieve upward, intergenerational social mobility. 18

19 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Poverty Despite the wealth of resources and opportunities in the United States, poverty remains a significant social problem. Sociologists discuss two general types of poverty: absolute poverty and relative poverty. 19

20 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Poverty in the United States A full 12.5 percent of the population in 2007 was in poverty (more than 37 million people); this is the highest rate among the major industrialized nations. One-third of these people is working. Poverty is calculated using a formula from the 1960s, whereby the poverty line is based on an income three times the cost of monthly groceries. 20

21 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Why are the poor poor? Poverty is not simply the result of not working hard. Explanations for poverty are diverse. What we know is that low earnings (often based on a low minimum wage) make it very hard to “get ahead.” Also, the poor have less educational attainment, less health insurance, and more broadly, diminished life chances. 21

22 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Gender and poverty Sociologists often discuss what is called the feminization of poverty. Because of social changes, including divorce and the increasing normalization of single-parenting, there are more female-headed households today than throughout modern U.S. history. Of these families, 28 percent were poor in 2007. 22

23 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Explanations for poverty Sociologists have many empirical explanations for poverty, but by and large they all fall under one of two themes: –Blaming the victim (culture of poverty arguments) –Blaming the system (social exclusion, structural arguments) 23

24 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Poverty and social problems Social welfare systems Homelessness Lack of basic medical care Educational segregation People turn to non-conventional means to make money. 24

25 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Does inequality affect you? The U.S. economy is changing; that means changing jobs, changing wages, and new competition. Inequality has been on the rise for the past three to four decades. 25

26 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint Presentation for For more learning resources, please visit our online StudySpace at: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/soc/essentials-of-sociology7/ http://www.wwnorton.com/college/soc/essentials-of-sociology7/ 26 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Chapter 7: Stratification, Class, and Inequality

27 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 1. What is social stratification? a. the existence of structured inequalities between individuals and groups in a society b. a system in which success is based on whom you know. c. a system based on the simple fact that some people are lucky and others are unlucky d. a condition that results when people’s social mobility is hindered, such as in caste or slavery systems 27

28 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 2. If someone is poor when compared with the standard of living for most people, he or she experiences a. absolute poverty. b. relative poverty. c. downward mobility. d. structural mobility. 28

29 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 3. What is the basis of Karl Marx’s theory of class? a. Class is a by-product of the Industrial Revolution. b. Modern societies are divided into those who own the means of production and those who sell their labor. c. People with power will always use it to project their material interests. d. Class is a transitory system of stratification between feudal estates and the classlessness of communist society. 29

30 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 4. What term describes the movement of individuals or groups between different social positions? a. social mobility b. social exclusion c. social structure d. vertical advancement 30

31 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 5. What did Max Weber add to Karl Marx’s theory of class? a. Weber argued that income was more important than property in determining class standing in modern society. b. Weber argued that marketable skills were as important as property in determining class standing and that status was as important as class as a dimension of stratification in modern society. c. Weber argued that society was much too complex for anything remotely resembling Marx’s historical materialism (his theory of history). d. Weber understood the enduring significance of the middle class. 31

32 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 6. Which of the following systems of stratification permit the least amount of mobility? a. caste b. class c. slavery d. clan 32

33 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 7. Since the early 1970s, inequality in the United States has a. increased. b. decreased. c. remained approximately the same d. become more difficult to measure. 33

34 Art Presentation Slides Chapter 7 Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr Stratification, Class, and Inequality

35 Chapter Opener Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

36 How do students derive status from the products they buy and the clothes they wear? Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

37 Women from the Dalit caste (formally known as Untouchables) earn a living as sewage scavengers in the slums of Ranchi, India. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

38 Figure 7.1 The Kuznets Curve Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

39 Figure 7.2 Distribution of Income in the United States, 1967– 2008 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

40 Figure 7.3 Social Inequality In The U.S. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

41 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Median net worth of American families based on various social factors SOURCE: U.S. Federal Reserve Board 2009. EDUCATION No high school High school Some college College degree AGE 0 35 45 55 65 75 RACE OR ETHNICITY Nonwhite or Hispanic White, non-Hispanic HOME OWNERSHIP Renter Owner $300,000 $225,000 $150,000 $75,000 $0$0 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Social Inequality in the U.S.

42 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Median net worth by percentile $2m $1m $0 0%25%50%75%90%100% PERCENTILE OF NET WORTH SOURCE: U.S. Federal Reserve Board 2009. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Social Inequality in the U.S.

43 Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

44 Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

45 Table 7.1 How Has an Increase in Income Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

46 Figure 7.4 Income Inequality in Selected Industrialized Countries: Ratio of Richest 20 Percent to Poorest 20 Percent for 2008 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

47 Figure 7.5 Black and Latino Household Income Compared to Whites’ Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

48 Over the last two decades Tony Barbagallo has collected around $3.6 million in stock options from companies Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

49 The former governor of Florida, Jeb Bush, shares a joke with former president George W. Bush, his brother, and his father, former president George H. W. Bush. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

50 Figure 7.6 Percentage of Americans Living in Poverty, 1959– 2008 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

51 What does Katherine Newman’s research reveal about the working poor? Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

52 Figure 7.7 Median Income and Poverty Rates for Households in 2008, by Race and Ethnicity Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

53 Figure 7.8 Families with Children: Percentage in Poverty, by Race and Ethnicity, Marital Status, and Sex of Householder, 2006 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

54 Figure 7.9 Percentage of the U.S. Population on Welfare since 1960. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

55 The people who are at the greatest risk of becoming homeless are those who work in jobs that have low wages, live in poverty, and also struggle with personal troubles such as mental illness, alcoholism, and family problems. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

56 W.W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned Essentials Of Sociology THIRD EDITION This concludes the Art Presentation Slides Slide Set for Chapter 7 by Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr


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