Presentation on theme: "South Africa’s Apartheid Consequences and Cultural Responses."— Presentation transcript:
South Africa’s Apartheid Consequences and Cultural Responses
Outline Apartheid (e.g. Cry Freedom) Response 1: Long Night’s Journey into the Day1 Response 2: the poems about physical sufferings;2 Response 3: about Race Relations and anti- Apartheid movements; the other cultural examples3 Response 4: about Gender Relations;4 Response 5: about tradition and individual vs. society; “The Prophetess”5 Response 6: more indirect styles6 Response 7: music—crossover style7
Apartheid a method of “ divide and rule ” to counteract the so-called "black danger" Afrikaner rulers saw Africans as threatening to overrun or engulf them by their sheer numbers. Brutal racism: imprisonment, police killings and murder
Apartheid Institutionalized racism: examples of the laws -- Population Registration Act; Group Areas Act; The Abolition of Passes and Coordination of Documents Act ( Sharpville Massacre); The Bantu Authorities Act (or Homeland Act) language education ( Soweto uprising, the beginning of the end)Soweto uprising
Soweto Student Uprising "It was a picture that got the world ‘ s attention: A frozen moment in time that showed 13-year-old Hector Peterson dying after being struck down by a policeman's bullet. At his side was his 17-year-old sister. ” (source)source
Cry Freedom Opening – The raid on Crossroads squatter’s camp Opening Ending –Soweto uprising Ending Biko’s ideas – – Black ConsciousnessBlack Consciousness – his speechhis speech – his self defense (naked racism)self defense The visit to a black townshiptownship Afrikaner’s versionversion Last view of landscape Last view of landscape
Response 1: Long Night’s Journey into the Day South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) 1. Amy Biehl-- Amy Biehl, an American student in South Africa working with the ANC, was killed by four Black youths during political unrest in Guguletu township. Why they kill -- "Killing someone like her exposed both our anger and the conditions under which we lived. If we had been living reasonably, we would not have killed her." -- Easy Nofemela on the killing of Amy Biehl
Long Night’s Journey into the Day 2. "Cradock 4." – Eric Taylor, a white person who had worked (and killed) to uphold the apartheid government and who now had a change of heart and was remorseful for his acts. His way of killing: beat the four persons (who were supposed to be movement leaders, but one was actually unknown to them) to death and then burn them. (clips 1 — his belief, 2 – his change ) his belief his change The widows refused to agree with amnesty.
Long Night’s Journey into the Day 3. Robert McBride-- an ANC activist "No one has apologized to me yet for either oppressing me directly or indirectly or happily benefitting from my oppression" -- Robert McBride on apology Is he a terrorist? Clip: MaBride vs. a victim ’ s familyMaBride vs. a victim ’ s family
Long Night’s Journey into the Day 4. Guguletu 7 -- the story of seven young men who were killed in what now appears to have been a set-up designed to make the apartheid police look as if they had killed a group of dangerous terrorists. Mbelo as a black policeman; Mbelo as a black policeman the process of reconciliation the process of reconciliation
Questions to ponder (1) What is justice? “... Restorative justice. And this is the option that we have chosen. But there is justice. the perpetrators don't get off scot free. They have to confess publicly, in the full glare of television lights, that they did those ghastly things. And that's pretty, pretty tough." -- Desmond Tutu on restorative versus retributive justice
Questions to ponder (1) What is justice? An contrast: The Washington Post; June 8, 2000 - "The nation's war on drugs unfairly targets African Americans, who are far more likely to be imprisoned for drug offenses than whites, even though far more whites use illegal drugs than blacks,.... Overall, black men are sent to prisons on drug charges at 13 times the rate of white men.... Overall, one in 20(1/20) black men over the age of 18 is in a state or federal prison compared with one in 180 (1/180) white men."
Questions (2): How to resolve large-scale conflicts TRC: dialogue and collaborative problem solving, arbitration, mediation, law enforcement, & public policy, non-violent demonstrations, contracts, treaties use of force and imposed peace by the victor over the vanquished.
Q (3): How do we face (collective) violence & survive trauma? to seek VENGEANCE, RETRIBUTION, or to FORGIVE? To face it through a certain ritual and with a group of people, or to face it alone. Example: the journalist whose father was killed. 1, 212 A related question: what drive them to brutal killings? How do we avoid making errors we are induced to make by historic circumstances?
Q (4): Who can forgive and how? Who should be empowered to grant forgiveness when a person is murdered? Can the family members ever forgive on behalf of the lost loved one, or can they only forgive with regard to their own loss? Is the TRC really engaged in offering forgiveness or only amnesty protection against prosecution? Can we forgive were we in the same boat? Do we dare to confess and apologize? –80% of those who applied for amnesty were black
Responses 2: Poems Related to Physical Suffering Mongane Serote “ Prelude ” Douglas Reid Skinner “ The Body is a Country of Joy and Pain ” Gladys Thomas “ Reflections of an Old Worker ” Mazisi Kunene “ Final Supplication ” Cultural Displacement:
Response 3: Stories re. Anti- Apartheid movements & Race Relations Nadine Gordimer B essie Head Mbulelo Mzamane
Responses 4 : Poems Related to Gender Relations “Love Song...” Antjie Krog
Responses 5: Indirect treatments Njabulo S. Ndebele: Pay more attention to individual psychology and the influences of tradition. e.g. “Prophetess” Mazisi Kunene “The Final Supplication”
Responses 5:. “Prophetess” 1.On what is the boy’s attention focused when he visits the prophetess? Are they signs of her spirituality? dog; darkness, vine, doek (African headscarf, 11); camphor (12); her coughing;
“Prophetess” 2. The people on the bus – How do they relate to each other? And to the prophetess? How are they different from each other? -- the man with a balaclava (Woollen hat); the young man at the back, the young man with immaculate dress; the big woman, the other women
“Prophetess” 3. Compared with the people’s discussion, how does the boy relate to the prophetess? What breaks the spell the prophetess has on him? What does the ending mean?
Response 6 : Indirect treatments J. M. Coetzee Foe: Historical revision or metafiction.
Response 7: Paul Simon’s Graceland acapella group Ladysmith Black Mambazo; Ladysmith Black Mambazo General M.D. Shirinda and The Gaza Sisters; Miriam Mekeba Miriam Mekeba Township Jive: this “very up, very happy music” – a mixture of early rock’n’roll and African Traditional music.
Response 7: Music --"crossover style" Enoch Sontonga's beautiful African hymn "Nkosi Sikilel'i Africa" (God Bless Africa; 1897); an anthem and symbol of struggle to generations of Africans "Nkosi Sikilel'i Africa -- the influence of the missionary school music training + the innovative a cappella vocal harmonies of mbube music, while the song itself would serve as. iscathamiya ("to walk on one's toes lightly"). e.g. Ladysmith Black Mambazo
Ladysmith Black Mambazo ISICATHAMIYA (Is-Cot-A-Me-Ya): born in the mines of South Africa. Black workers were taken by rail to work far away from their homes and their families. Poorly housed and paid worse, they would entertain themselves after a six-day week by singing songs into the wee hours every Sunday morning. Cothoza Mfana they called themselves, "tip toe guys", referring to the dance steps choreographed so as to not disturb the camp security guards. When miners returned to the homelands, the tradition returned with them. (source http://www.mambazo.com/bio.html )http://www.mambazo.com/bio.html Example 1 Example 1
HOMELESS (Paul Simon and Joseph Shabalala) Emaweni webaba Silale maweni... Homeless, homeless Moonlight sleeping on a midnight lake Homeless, homeless Moonlight sleeping on a midnight lake... Strong wind destroy our home Many dead, tonight it could be you Strong wind, strong wind Many dead, tonight it could be you
References LONG NIGHT'S JOURNEY INTO DAY: STUDY GUIDE http://www.newsreel.org/guides/longnight.htm http://www.newsreel.org/guides/longnight.htm LADYSMITH BLACK MAMBAZO LADYSMITH BLACK MAMBAZO “Homeless” lyricslyrics South African Music http://wus.africaonline.com/AfricaOnline/music/ Safrica.html http://wus.africaonline.com/AfricaOnline/music/ Safrica.html