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By Dr. Bernadette Garam Today, we are going to ….. Define homelessness Define homelessness Examine what are the primary causes of homelessness Examine.

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Presentation on theme: "By Dr. Bernadette Garam Today, we are going to ….. Define homelessness Define homelessness Examine what are the primary causes of homelessness Examine."— Presentation transcript:

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2 By Dr. Bernadette Garam

3 Today, we are going to ….. Define homelessness Define homelessness Examine what are the primary causes of homelessness Examine what are the primary causes of homelessness What is the impact of poverty and homelessness on children and youth What is the impact of poverty and homelessness on children and youth Examine how many children experience homelessness Examine how many children experience homelessness Examine barriers to education Examine barriers to education

4 We are also going to…review the The Stewart McKinley-Vento Act The Stewart McKinley-Vento Act New Regulations on Homeless Education New Regulations on Homeless Education And we will …. Study Vignettes and discuss solutions Study Vignettes and discuss solutions

5 WHO IS HOMELESS? Who is Homeless? Who is Homeless? The term 'homeless children and youths' The term 'homeless children and youths' (A) means individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence; and (A) means individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence; and

6 Homeless children and youth (B) includes- (B) includes- (i) children and youths who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; (i) children and youths who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason;

7 are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate accommodations ; are living in emergency or transitional shelters; are abandoned in hospitals; or are awaiting foster care placement; are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate accommodations ; are living in emergency or transitional shelters; are abandoned in hospitals; or are awaiting foster care placement;

8 Children and youth who are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate accommod ations; Children and youth who are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate accommod ations; are living in emergency or transitional shelters; are abandoned in hospitals; or are awaiting foster care placement; are living in emergency or transitional shelters; are abandoned in hospitals; or are awaiting foster care placement;

9 Homeless children and youth also include (ii) children and youths who have a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings; (ii) children and youths who have a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings;

10 Homeless children and youth also include (iii) children and youths who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings; and (iii) children and youths who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings; and

11 Homeless children and youth (iv) migratory children who qualify as homeless for the purposes of this subtitle because the children are living in circumstances described in clauses (i) through (iii)…. (iv) migratory children who qualify as homeless for the purposes of this subtitle because the children are living in circumstances described in clauses (i) through (iii)…. [725(2)] [725(2)] Age range: Applies to children and youth who are entitled to public education under state or federal law. Age range: Applies to children and youth who are entitled to public education under state or federal law.

12 Homelessness: A World Problem that You can Help

13 How Can We Help As Teachers? How Can We Help As Teachers? Be Excellent, Caring Teachers and provide* Be Excellent, Caring Teachers and provide*

14 Successful Education for all

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43 Success!

44 No CHILD LEFT BEHIND McKinney-Vento Act 2002: McKinney-Vento Act 2002: A Tool for Academic Success A Tool for Academic Success Source: National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth 111.naehcy.org Source: National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth 111.naehcy.org

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46 The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, Subtitle VII-B, is the federal law that: - entitles children who are homeless to a free, appropriate public education, and - entitles children who are homeless to a free, appropriate public education, and - requires schools to remove barriers to their enrollment, attendance, and success in school. - requires schools to remove barriers to their enrollment, attendance, and success in school.

47 Congress recently reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Act's Education for Homeless Children and Youth program. Congress recently reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Act's Education for Homeless Children and Youth program.

48 WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY CAUSES OF HOMELESSNESS? Lack of Affordable Housing Lack of Affordable Housing Sharp decrease in affordable housing units in 1980s Shortfall for poorest households now stands at3.3 million housing units Between 1997 and 1999, net loss of more than 300,000 housing units

49 Causes of Homelessness Low Incomes Low Incomes A minimum wage worker cannot afford the Fair Market Rent for housing anywhere in US TANF benefits and Food Stamps combined are well below the poverty line in every State Mean income of families who become homeless is 46% of poverty line Mean income of families who become homeless is 46% of poverty line

50 CONTRIBUTING FACTORS Health Problems Health Problems - Over 40 million people don't have insurance Domestic Violence Domestic Violence - Lack of housing options for women with Low-incomes For Unaccompanied Youth: For Unaccompanied Youth: - Physical and sexual abuse by a parent or guardian -Neglect -Family conflict

51 WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF POVERTY AND HOMELESSNESS ON CHILDREN AND YOUTH? - PHYSICAL HEALTH - PHYSICAL HEALTH - Hunger - Hunger - Acute illness - Acute illness - Chronic illness - Chronic illness - MENTAL HEALTH - MENTAL HEALTH - Depression - Depression - Anxiety - Anxiety - PTSD - PTSD - EDUCATION - EDUCATION - School Transfers - School Transfers - Absences - Absences - Falling behind in academic achievement - Falling behind in academic achievement

52 HOW MANY CHILDREN EXPERIENCE HOMELESSNESS? - At least 1.35 million children are homeless during a year's time, representing 39% of the overall homeless population. - At least 1.35 million children are homeless during a year's time, representing 39% of the overall homeless population. - At least 10% of American children living in poverty, and 2% of all American children, will experience homelessness over the course of a year. - At least 10% of American children living in poverty, and 2% of all American children, will experience homelessness over the course of a year. - Over 40% of children who are homeless are under the age of 5. - Over 40% of children who are homeless are under the age of 5.

53 WHERE DO CHILDREN AND YOUTH LIVE WHEN THEY ARE HOMELESS? - Only 35% of children who are homeless are in shelters; the rest are staying temporarily with others, cars, campgrounds, motels, etc. - Only 35% of children who are homeless are in shelters; the rest are staying temporarily with others, cars, campgrounds, motels, etc.

54 WHERE DO CHILDREN AND YOUTH LIVE WHEN THEY ARE HOMELESS? - Requests for emergency shelter by families have increased every year since 1985, with a 22% increase in 2001. - Requests for emergency shelter by families have increased every year since 1985, with a 22% increase in 2001. - 52% of requests for emergency shelter in cities went unmet in 2001 due to lack of shelter capacity. - 52% of requests for emergency shelter in cities went unmet in 2001 due to lack of shelter capacity. - There are very few shelters in rural areas. - There are very few shelters in rural areas.

55 Class Exercise Form into groups of 4- 5 Form into groups of 4- 5 Study the Vignette assigned to your group. Study the Vignette assigned to your group. Discuss the best solutions Discuss the best solutions Report to Class Report to Class

56 BARRIERS TO EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN HOMELESS SITUATIONS - ENROLLMENT REQUIREMENTS - ENROLLMENT REQUIREMENTS - Residency requirements - Residency requirements - School Records - School Records - Immunizations - Immunizations - Legal guardianship requirements - Legal guardianship requirements - HIGH MOBILITY - HIGH MOBILITY - LACK OF TRANSPORTATION - LACK OF TRANSPORTATION - LACK OF SCHOOL SUPPLIES, CLOTHING, ETC. - LACK OF SCHOOL SUPPLIES, CLOTHING, ETC. - POOR HEALTH, FATIGUE, HUNGER - POOR HEALTH, FATIGUE, HUNGER - PREJUDICE/STEREOTYPES - PREJUDICE/STEREOTYPES

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58 SOURCES National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth www.naehcy.org www.naehcy.orgwww.naehcy.org National Center for Homeless Education National Center for Homeless Education www.serve.org/nche www.serve.org/nchewww.serve.org/nche National Coalition for the Homeless National Coalition for the Homeless www.nationalhomeless.org www.nationalhomeless.orgwww.nationalhomeless.org National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty www.nlchp.org www.nlchp.orgwww.nlchp.org National Network for Youth National Network for Youth www.nn4youth.org www.nn4youth.orgwww.nn4youth.org


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