Presentation on theme: "CBR 107: How to do a Literature Review. Welcome & Introductions Name & affiliation Experience with CBR & Literature Reviews What you specifically want."— Presentation transcript:
Welcome & Introductions Name & affiliation Experience with CBR & Literature Reviews What you specifically want to learn today
Workshop Objectives Upon completion of this workshop you will be able to: Explain the value and purpose of a literature review Describe the steps involved in doing a Literature Review Identify the sources of CBR “literature” Use various techniques to conduct an efficient & concise search Synthesize your findings to produce a report / literature review
Agenda Opening / Intro / Administrivia Value and purpose of a Literature Review Steps involved in a Literature Review Qualities of a Good Literature Review Where to Get Help Simulation Summary / Wrap-Up
Things We Will Not Cover Types of Literature Review Non-Internet based searches Pros and Cons of Internet Search engines Reliability, Credibility, Trustworthiness of data Peer review
What is a Literature Review? A Literature Review is a way to: Compare studies and know “what’s out there” on a specific topic Analytically examine existing body of research Identify an article that documents a particular fact Bring order to an abundance of information spread across too many places
Why do a Literature Review for CBR? Support and justify grant proposals, new programs, interventions, evaluations, presentations, staff development Give your work credibility Put your work in context and know what work others have done Discover ‘best practices’ & ‘worst nightmares’ Fulfill intellectual and personal curiosities
Steps in a Literature Review 1.Establish research focus 2.Identify where to search 3.Select appropriate search terms 4.Use ‘operators’ and ‘wildcards’ 5.Organize research history 6.Determine relevant literature 7.Analyze, Synthesize and Summarize evidence into a report
Step 1: Establish Research Focus What do you need or want to know? How will this data help your CBR project? IMPORTANT …. Keep your topic specific and focused Be prepared to revise it along the way based on what you discover in the literature
Exercise 1 Working in small groups, discuss the research topics below and answer the following questions for each topic: 1. Would you revise this topic? 2. Why or why not? If yes, how? Research Topics Homeless youth Treatment for youth in short-term care facilities in Ottawa Homeless adolescent girls in Canada Emotional distress and mental health service use among urban homeless adolescents.
Step 2a: Identify Where to Search Academic Literature Books, scholarly journal articles Dissertations Government documents Policy reports Grey Literature Papers published by professional societies Internet search engines: Google.ca or Yahoo.ca Online databases: PsychInfo, Social Service Abstracts, Medline, ERIC, etc.
Step 2b: Identify Relevant Search Engines Why? To save time and stay focused. Sample sources: For medical topics, try MedLine For social service topics, try Social Service Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, PsychInfo, or ProQuest For education topics, try (ERIC)
Step 2c: Secure Database Access Certain publications are not readily accessible to the public To secure access to databases you need: 1.To establish a partnership with a university that has access to the database OR 2.Pay a database search fee
Step 3: Select Appropriate Search Terms A search term is a term used to find information on your topic Search terms can include: Key words Example: For a literature review on “ Adolescent Female Body Image” possible key words may include: teenage, media, media effects, bulimia, anorexia, self esteem …… others??? Author Title Journal or publication Other descriptors
Where to Find Key Words Reference Books Abstracts Scientific journals Government reports Electronic databases
Focusing Your Key Words Be specific.… expect numerous results! Example: refugee mental health (189,000 items) refugee mental health reports (138,000 items) refugee mental health reports Canada (55,000 items) refugee mental health research reports Canada (43,000 items) refugee mental health research reports Canada 2003 (19,500 items) refugee mental health research reports Toronto 2003 (6,440 items)
Exercise 2: Key Words You have been asked to design a health and counselling program for people who present symptoms of obesity. Your search question is: “What are the determinants and treatments for children and adults who are obese?” What Search Engines and / or databases would you use? Working individually, list 10 key words to search information on the “determinants and treatments” for children and adults who are obese. Share your answers with your group.
Step 4: Using ‘Operators’ & ‘Wildcards’ ‘Wildcards’ are symbols that expand the scope of your search e.g. (*) patent* -- retrieves patent, patents, patentable, patented ‘Operators’ define the relationships between words or groups of words Note: Operators and wildcards vary by search engine to check each database’s Help section
Examples of ‘Operators’ Sample operators: Use AND to narrow search and retrieve records containing all of the words it separates. Use OR to broaden search and retrieve records containing any of the words it separates. Use NOT to narrow search and retrieve records that do not contain the term following it. Use ( ) to select a phrase or groups of words Phrase - (participatory action research) Groups of words – (housing or homelessness) AND (budget or funding)
Exercise 3: Operators & Wildcards Working in your groups come up with a total of 6 operators and 2 wildcards using the search terms you came up with for the topic of “ children and adults with obesity ”
Step 5: Organizing Your Research Document your search process: Keep record of all materials examined Keep a record of all Web searches Set a bookmark of the Universal Resource Locator(URL) for commonly used web sites Record key words used for electronic searches Print home pages of the web sites Photocopy journal articles, book chapters and other materials Organize information using a “Review Matrix”
Example of a Review Matrix Author, Title, Journal Year of Publication PurposeType of Study Design Journal article2004Drug counselling for youth Experimental study Journal article2006Long-term care for the elderly Cross-sectional survey What other categories could be included in a Review Matrix?
Step 6: Determine Relevant Literature To determine what is relevant literature: Check article abstracts for summaries of research design and findings instead of reading entire article Consider type of measurement and analysis Consider contribution of the article/research to the field Does it help you know what to do or what not to do in your study?
Exercise 4: Review of Abstract Using the sample abstract entitled, “Shelter-based palliative care for the homeless terminally ill”. Review the abstract and answer the questions below: 1. What were the issues discussed by the researchers? 2. What methods did they use? 3. What were the results? 4. Are there any missing or inadequate topics?
Sample Abstract “ Shelter-based palliative care for the homeless terminally ill” Title: Author: Podymow, Tiinaa1; Turnbull, Jeffrey2; Coyle, Doug3 Podymow, TiinaaTurnbull, JeffreyCoyle, Doug Source: Palliative Medicine. Vol. 20(2), Mar 2006, pp. 81-86 Descriptors: *Death and Dying *Health Care Delivery *Homeless *Palliative Care *Terminally Ill Patients Drug Therapy Mortality Rate Patients Abstract Background: The homeless have high rates of mortality, but live in environments not conducive to terminal care. Traditional palliative care hospitals may be reluctant to accept such patients, due to behavior or lifestyle concerns. The Ottawa Inner City Health Project (OICHP) is a pilot study to improve health care delivery to homeless adults. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of terminally ill homeless individuals and the effectiveness of shelter-based palliative care. As proof of principle, a cost comparison was performed. Methods: 28 consecutive homeless terminally ill patients were admitted and died at a shelter-based palliative care hospice. Demographics, diagnoses at admission and course were recorded. Burden of illness was assessed by medical and psychiatric diagnoses, addictions, Karnofsky scale and symptom management. An expert panel was convened to identify alternate care locations. Using standard costing scales, direct versus alternate care costs were compared. Results: 28 patients had a mean age 49 years; average length of stay 120 days. Diagnoses: liver disease 43%, HIV/AIDS 25%, malignancy 25% and other 8%. Addiction to drugs or alcohol and mental illness in 82% of patients. Karnofsky performance score mean 40 ± 16.8. Pain management with continuous opiates in 71%. The majority reunited with family. Compared to alternate care locations, the hospice projected $1.39 million savings for the patients described. Conclusion: The homeless terminally ill have a heavy burden of disease including physical illness, psychiatric conditions and addictions. Shelter- based palliative care can provide effective end-of-life care to terminally ill homeless individuals at potentially substantial cost savings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Step 7: Analyze, Synthesize & Summarize Evidence into a Report Briefly summarize findings Synthesize literature by identifying common themes Differentiate b/w what is “known” and “not known” Identify topics of debate Evaluate and analyze findings Identify relevance of data to your research project Remember: Reference all citations & create a bibliography
Ways to Structure Your Review Chronological Topical or thematic organization Inverted pyramid organization (broad to narrow)
What is a Good Literature Review? A good literature review: Includes a clear research question or purpose Makes an argument for the necessity of your research and/or service, program, etc. Explains methods and theories if review is to be used for a larger study or program Describes search methodology - databases, search terms, etc. Is thorough (include classic studies and a range of literature, not just studies that make your point) Is well-organized, clear and concise
Final Tip! Last but not least… Get help when you need it... Librarians are an excellent & amazing resource: University, hospital and public health librarians Reference librarians at public libraries Large Community Based Organizations (CBOs) often have libraries and resource centres with helpful staff
Exercise 5- Sample Literature Review Working individually read the Sample Lit Review Highlight or take notes on the main points of the assigned ‘ reading ’ sections Take note of the structure of the assigned ‘ skimming ’ sections Read & Highlight Main Points Skim Abstract 1. Introduction 2.Background concerning sibling relationships 3. Methods for literature review 5.3-5.4. Implications of this review of the literature for practice & research 4. Research concerning siblings in foster care and adoption 5-5.2. Implications for child welfare practice, policy, and research Appendix A. Summary of studies of siblings placed in foster care and adoption
Exercise 5- Sample Literature Review Cont’d … Once previous steps are complete, work in small groups to answer the following questions for your ‘assigned section’ *. Be prepared to present your findings to the class. 1.How is your section organized? 2.What are the key points? 3.How does it fit in with the rest of the literature review? 4.Was it clear and understandable? 5.Other thoughts about it? * Facilitator will assign section to each group
Debrief of the Literature Review What did you think of the literature review overall? Any surprises? What are its strengths? What could be improved? In what ways do you think your own literature review would be similar or different from this one?
Review of Workshop Objectives Upon completion of this workshop you will be able to: Explain the value and purpose of a literature review Describe the steps involved in doing a Literature Review Identify the sources of CBR “literature” Use various techniques to conduct an efficient & concise search Synthesize your findings to produce a report / literature review
Workshop Evaluation Your feedback is extremely important. Please complete the workshop evaluation. Thank you!
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