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SHELLHOUSE Technology Engineering Design Project 15 instructional days at 45 minute class periods

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Goal of Seminar Goal of this seminar for instructors is to understand how to integrate STEM into the classroom with a lesson plan and student activities that address state standards in STEM. Home for the Homeless, LLC is an excellent activity that includes design, marketing, community service, construction, and manufacturing.

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Overview Inhabitable collapsible structure made of cardboard becomes a shelter able to provide an address to a defined group of unsheltered homeless persons, by means of radio devices, proposing a way to make them visible. Having an address is how we exist on society, how we become citizens, where we can be located, where we receive our mail, where our family and friends can contact us.

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Overview A house is where we validate this existence in the physical space. A shelter that gives us protection, our intimate space.

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Construction of Shelters

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7 Million Dome Homes for the Homeless! Watch a 3 minute video of a model dome being built by the students at Western Carolina University. Click the PLAY button. Click the PLAY button. Construction of Shelters

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Cheap Geodesic Domes For fun we made a Cheap Geodesic Dome for under $50 to be used as a jungle gym. We did a time elapse to music for fun as well, the video and music took twice as long as making the dome itself. protection was added on the joins to the kids don't get hurt Watch a 3 minute video of a model dome being built by the students at Western Carolina University. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-9b1usybzEo Construction of Shelters

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STEP 1 – THE CARDBOARD PLATE Grabb cardboard from the streets or what you have at home. Complete a plate of 7,4 x 5,5f. If you put different sizes boxes, be sure to put the stripes along the same direction. Complete the size however you can, putting them together with strong tape.

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STEP 1 – THE CARDBOARD PLATE

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STEP 2 – Measure of the Fold Mark where you will fold. Each fold has to be of 5,5 width. Mark lines of this length across the plate, following the stripes of the cardboard. Try to use the folds that come with the box, remember to follow the stripes of the cardboard, after marking, folding will be in that direction always (accordion).

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STEP 2 – Measure of the Fold

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STEP 3 – Measure of the Center Cups Divide the cardboard plate in 2 half's, by making a line in the middle, opposite to the lines you marked. Then, from that line, mark 6" to each side. You will have three lines: center and 1 line in each side of it. Use a sharp pen or pencil to mark the cardboard, this will make easier its folding. Once this, mark crosses across the middle line with the pen. The intersection point of the crosses will be done in the point where the crease goes up, the diagonals will go from line to line.

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STEP 3 – Measure of the Center Cups

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STEP 4 – Fold as an Accordion Fold the lines you marked.

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STEP 5 – Cut crosses in the middle Open the cardboard plate: you have the accordion shape and a fold in the middle, now is time to make half cuts in the crosses across the middle line. Use a blade and a metallic ruler.

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STEP 5 – Cut crosses in the middle

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STEP 6 – Folding the Crosses Folding the crosses to make concavities or cups will be as follows: try to get someone to help you to keep one side tight keeping the shape of the accordion, while the other keeps on folding the other half. Remember to make the accordion shape and while you go through it, the crosses will become cups, folded to the interior of the shape.

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STEP 6 – Folding the Crosses

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STEP 7 – Re-fold the whole shape You can put weights on top to keep the accordion shape, while you cut stripes of 5,5f by 5,5". This stripes will help the structure to remain stand-up. Take the shape and glue the stripes in each extreme. The stripe will go from one side to the other. Use strong tape to glue them.

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STEP 7 – Re-fold the whole shape

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STEP 8 – Embed Radio Device Please go http://www.shellhouse.org/radio.html to get the step by step of how to set up the radio module.http://www.shellhouse.org/radio.html

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STEP 8 – Embed Radio Device

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STEP 9 – Give shelter to homeless You had built the shelter, the radio device is ready. You spent $35 in the whole experience, learned how to make something from used materials, got something to share about electronics?

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STEP 9 – Give shelter to homeless Now please mail it to: St. Francis of Assisi Church 135 West 31st Street New York, NY 10001 Where the circuit you made, will be programmed and set to talk to hand held receiver

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STEP 9 – Give shelter to homeless

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Equipment / Tools Calculators Utility knives Hot glue guns Tape measures Protractors

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Supplies 1 solderless breadboard, you can buy from Jameco Electronics.Jameco Electronics. 1 - 9 volts battery and its adaptor

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Supplies 1 XBee™ ZigBee OEM RF Module, buy from Maxtream.Maxtream. Breakout Board for XBee Module, buy in Spark Fun.Spark Fun

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Supplies Female socket and Headers (for sodering zigbee to the break out board), buy in Spark Fun.Spark Fun 3.3 voltage regulator, buy it on Sparkfun. (from left to right, like it appears on the picture) Ground- Output-Input. Sparkfun.

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Supplies # 10µf capacitors buy in Radio Shack # 1µf capacitors buy in Radio ShackRadio Shack LEDs, Switch, hook up wire buy from Radio Shack Radio Shack

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Supplies At the end it will look like this. LEDs and switch are not neccessary, since you will turn it on/off, you won't program the radio so LEDs won't blink.

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Procedure I Solder the XBee RF Module to the PCB breakout board as shown. The white letters should face down, away from the XBee Module. Be sure to leave enough space so that the headers do not touch the back of the module.breakout board (radio -female socket- breakout board- headers)

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Procedure 2 Set up the breadboards with the xbee radio module, the 9V to power the XBee radio, add the 3.3 Volt regulator with the capacitors. Be sure to test the in and out voltage with a multimeter (optional, very useful, buy from Radio Shack), Remember the incoming voltage has to be 5V and 3.3V out. Radio Shack

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Procedure 2 This simple setup will allow you to get started with Xbee radio modules. This should help familiarize you with how the radios communicate, even though you won't program it yet. There's PLENTY more features on the XBee including broadcast modes, data enveloping and mesh networking. Learn more about xbees on Rob Faludi's blog - ITPblog

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Assessment Students should conduct anonymous peer to peer evaluations for everyone within their team Students should conduct a self evaluation for themselves Also have the students evaluate their own project Teachers should assign a group grade and base individual grades upon the peer to peer evaluations

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Assessment Teachers should also grade the finished project A low wattage light bulb and thermometer inside a model could test the projects ability to retain warmth Testing a full scale unit would ideally be tested by sleeping in it over night during the winter (probably not an option)

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Rubric (Peer to Peer and Group Evaluation) Peer to Peer grading ideas – Willingness to work – Works well in team – Leads or follows – Exhibits constructive criticism – Effort of work – Motivation level – Safety – Contribution to group – Rank peers from most productive to least productive Teacher to group grading ideas – Safety – All members contributing – Organization / Planning – Compromising or Demanding (for unsettled issues) – Did group need constant assistance from teacher or were they able to determine issues for themselves?

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Rubric (Constraints, Finished Project) The following should be considered as graded constraints: – Rigidity (sound construction) – Portability (folding, ease of transport) – Venting / Lighting – Resistance to moisture and cold – Size (recommended to house 2 adults and 2 children) – Budget (how much to produce a single unit - $500 maximum cost)

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Interdisciplinary Connectedness Social Studies – poverty, humanitarian aid Mathematics – geometry, algebra, trigonometry Science – Physics, Earth Science, Energy Health – Human needs, hypothermia Engineering – Design, Innovation, Invention and Inquiry

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Mathematics Connections – 7th 0706.2.7 – Write number sentences to solve contextual problems involving ration and percent. 0706.4.1 – Understand the application of proportionality with similar triangles. 0706.4.2 – Use similar triangles and proportionality to find the lengths of unknown line segments in a triangle.

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Mathematics Connections – 7th 0706.4.3 - Understand and use scale factor to describe the relationships between length, area, and volume. 0706.4.4 – Compare angles, side lengthen, perimeters and areas of similar shapes. 0706.5.2 – Interpret and solve problems using information presented in various visual forms. 0706.5.5 - Evaluate the design of an experiment.

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Mathematics Connections – 8th 0806.1.8 – Use a variety of methods to solve real world problems involving multi-step linear equations (e.g., technology, pencil and paper). 0806.1.3 – Calculate rates involving cost per unit to determine the best buy. 0806.3.5 – Use slope to analyze situations and solve problems. 0806.3.6 – Compare and contrast linear and nonlinear functions.

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Mathematics Connections – 8th 0806.4.1 – Derive the Pythagorean theorem and understand its applications. 0806.4.2 – Understand the relationships among the angles formed by parallel lines cut by transversals. 0806.4.3 – Understand the necessary levels of accuracy and precision in measurement. 0806.4.4 - Understand both metric and customary units of measurement.

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Mathematics Connections – 8th 0806.4.5 – Use visualization to describe or identify intersections, cross-sections, and various views of geometric figures. 0806.5.1 – Solve simple problems involving probability and relative frequency.

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Mathematics Connections – 9-12 Algebra 1 - Mathematical Process 3102.1.6 – Use a variety of strategies to estimate and compute solution, including real-world problems. 3102.1.7 – Identify missing or irrelevant information in problems. 3102.1.8 – Recognize and perform multiple steps in problem solving when necessary.

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Mathematics Connections – 9-12 Algebra 1 - Mathematical Process 3102.1.15 – Apply arithmetic concepts in algebraic contexts. 3102.1.16 – Understand and express the meaning of the slope and y-intercept of linear functions in real-world contexts. 3102.1.19 – Recognize and practice appropriate use of technology in representations and in problem solving.

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Mathematics Connections – 9-12 Algebra 1 - Mathematical Process 3102.1.20 – Estimate solutions to evaluate the reasonableness of results and to check technological computation. Number and Operations 3102.2.5 – Perform operations with numbers in scientific notation (multiply, divide, powers). 3102.2.6 – Use appropriate technologies to apply scientific notation to real-world problems.

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Mathematics Connections – 9-12 Algebra 1 - Mathematical Process 3102.3.1 - Recognize and extend arithmetic and geometric sequences. 3102.3.3 – Justify correct results of algebraic procedures using extension of properties of real numbers to algebraic expressions. 3102.3.5 – Add, subtract, and multiply polynomials including squaring a binomial. 3102.3.6 – Find the quotient of a polynomial and a monomial.

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Mathematics Connections – 9-12 Algebra 1 - Mathematical Process 3102.3.8 – Solve and understand solutions of quadratic equations with real roots. 3102.3.9 – Understand and use exponential functions to solve contextual problems. 3102.3.10 – Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and simplify results. 3102.3.21 – Determine the equation of a line using given information including a point and slope, two points, a point and a line parallel or perpendicular, graph, intercepts.

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Mathematics Connections – 9-12 Algebra 1 - Mathematical Process 3102.3.28 – Solve systems of linear equations graphically, algebraically, and with technology. 3102.4.1 – Understand horizontal/vertical distance in a coordinate systems as absolute value of the difference between coordinates; develop the distance formula for a coordinate plane using the Pythagorean Theorem. 3102.4.4 – Develop the midpoint formula for segments on a number line or in the coordinate plane.

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Mathematics Connections – 9-12 Geometry 3108.4.1 – Develop the structures of geometry, such as lines, angles, planes, and planar figures, and explore their properties and relationships. 3108.4.2 – Describe the properties of regular polygons, including comparative classification of them and special points and segments. 3108.4.9 – Develop the role of circles in geometry, including angel measurement, properties as a geometric figure, and aspects relating to the coordinate plane.

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Mathematics Connections – 9-12 Geometry 3108.4.10 – Develop the tools of right triangle trigonometry in the contextual applications, including the Pythagorean Theorem, law of sines and law of Cosines.

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Science Connections – 9-12 Physical Science – Embedded Technology and Engineering CLE 3202.T/E.1 – Explore the impact of technology on social, political, and economic systems. CLE 3202.T/E.2 – Differentiate among elements of the engineering design cycle: design constraints, model building, testing, evaluating, modifying, and retesting.

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Science Connections – 9-12 Physical Science – Embedded Technology and Engineering CLE 3202.T/E.3 – Explain the relationship between the properties of a material and the use of the material in the application of a technology. CLE 3202.T/E.2 – Describe the dynamic interplay among science, technology, and engineering with living, earth-space, and physical systems.

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Science Connections – 9-12 Physical Science – Embedded Technology and Engineering CLE 3202.T/E.3 – Explain the relationship between the properties of a material and the use of the material in the application of a technology. CLE 3202.T/E.2 – Describe the dynamic interplay among science, technology, and engineering with living, earth-space, and physical systems.

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Science Connections – 9-12 Scientific Research 3295.T/E.1 – Distinguish among tools and procedures best suited to conduct a specified scientific inquiry. 3295.T/E.2 – Apply the engineering design process to construct a prototype that meets developmentally appropriate specifications.

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Science Connections – 9-12 Scientific Research 3295.T/E.3 – Evaluate a protocol to determine the degree to which an engineering design process was successfully applied. 3295.T/E.4 – Explore how the unintended consequences of new technologies can impact human and non-human communities. 3295.T/E.5 – Evaluate the overall benefit to cost ration of a new technology.

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Science Connections – 9-12 Scientific Research 3295.T/E.6 – Present research on current technologies that advance health and contribute to improvement in our daily lives. 3295.T/E.7 – Design a series of multi-view drawings that can be used by other students to construct an adaptive design and test its effectiveness.

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Science Connections – 9-12 Physics 3231.5.2 – Solve problems of resistance using Ohm’s law {(E = IR (of V=IR)} 3231.5.4 – Draw and explain series and parallel circuits. 3231.5.5 – Solve problems related to voltage, amperage, and resistance. 3231.5.6 – Build series and parallel circuits and explain how they function.

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Science Connections – 9-12 Physics 3231.5.8 – Design an experiment to demonstrate the flow of charged particles and an electric current. 3231.5.12 – Identify components of series and parallel circuits and solve problems related to voltage, amperage, and resistance.

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How Technology Works Technology Engineering – The students will be able to: – Describe the relationship between human needs and technology. – Identify the seven resources upon which all technologies depend. – Describe and give examples of manufacturing, construction, transportation, communication, and bi-related technologies.

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Design and Problem Solving Technology Engineering – The students will be able to: – Pass a general safety and hand tool test – Properly measure, layout and cut materials to appropriate sizes – Define design. – Explain how problem solving is part of designing.

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Design and Problem Solving Technology Engineering – The students will be able to: – Explain the steps of the design process. – Describe a variety of modeling techniques. – Use the design process to solve this shelter problem. – Sketch and design their shelter using correct drafting procedures – Understand layout techniques

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Electricity and Electronics Technology Engineering – The students will be able to: – Identify electrical components – Assemble electrical components using a bread board – Pass a test on electrical applications – Describe the relationships among voltage, current, and resistance.

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Electricity and Electronics Technology Engineering – The students will be able to: – Explain the basic organization of a series and a parallel circuit. – Describe the operation and uses of diodes and transistors. – Explain the operation of an electronic device in terms of input, process, and output.

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Structures Technology Engineering – The students will be able to: – Identify the four parts of a system. – Describe the loads and forces that act on structures. – Explain the difference between a static load and a dynamic load.

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Manufacturing Technology Engineering – The students will be able to: – Describe the difference between natural and synthetic materials. – List the basic steps in the manufacturing system. – Identify five items or tools they used on this project.

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Vocabulary Absorption - The taking in or incorporation of something, such as a gas, a liquid, light, or heat Absorption Battery – a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Brainstorming – A process in which group members suggest ideas as they think of them. BTU – British Thermal Unit - a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at one atmosphere pressure BTU Circuit – In electricity, known as the pathway through which electrons travel.

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Vocabulary Current – The flow of electrons in a wire or other conductor. Design – A plan for making something. Design brief – A statement of the problem that is to be solved. Design process – A process that uses problem solving to arrive at the best solution, or design.. Drafting – The process of representing three- dimensional objects in two dimensions. Electricity – The flow of electrons through a pathway that conducts electricity.

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Vocabulary Ergonomics – the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements, and its thinking patterns. Feedback – Information about the output of a system. It is used to monitor how a system is working. Force – A push or pull that transfers energy to an object. Forces on a structure can be external or internal. Foundation – The part of the structure in contact with the ground. Homeless - Someone with no housing.

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Vocabulary Hypothermia - Abnormally low body temperature Input – Something that is put into a system. In some systems, the input is a combination of the seven resources of technology. Innovation – A change created by improving an existing technology. Invention – The process of designing new products Ohm’s Law – Load – An external force on an object. Manufacturing –The changing of materials into usable products.

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Vocabulary Plans – Drawings that show the builder or designer how to construct the structure. Poverty - The state of being poor; lack of the means of providing material needs or comforts Process - That part of a system during which something is done. It is the “action” part of the system. Prototype – A full-size model of an product. It looks and works like the actual product.

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Vocabulary R Value – Resistance Value -A measure of the capacity of a material, such as insulation, to impede heat flow, with increasing values indicating a greater capacity Raw materials – Materials as they occur in nature. Shelter - Something that provides cover or protection, as from the weather Specifications – Written details about materials and other project-related concerns. System – An orderly way of achieving a goal.

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Vocabulary Structure – Something that is constructed, or built. Technology – Using knowledge to develop products and systems that satisfy needs, solve problems, and increase our capabilities.

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Appendix Homeless links – http://www.warmingfamilies.org/homeless_stats.html http://www.warmingfamilies.org/homeless_stats.html – http://www.habitat.org/ http://www.habitat.org/ – http://www.hud.gov/offices/hsg/mfh/nnw/nnwindex.cfm http://www.hud.gov/offices/hsg/mfh/nnw/nnwindex.cfm – http://www.efsp.unitedway.org/ http://www.efsp.unitedway.org/ – http://crisissite.client.fatbeehive.com/pdf/HomelessStat.pdf http://crisissite.client.fatbeehive.com/pdf/HomelessStat.pdf – http://www.ysop.org/statistics.htm http://www.ysop.org/statistics.htm – http://www.solutionsforamerica.org/thrivingneigh/homelessnes s.html http://www.solutionsforamerica.org/thrivingneigh/homelessnes s.html – http://www.misd.net/Homeless/statistics.htm http://www.misd.net/Homeless/statistics.htm – http://www.nchv.org/background.cfm

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Appendix R Value links – http://coloradoenergy.org/procorner/stuff/r- values.htm http://coloradoenergy.org/procorner/stuff/r- values.htm – http://www.houleinsulation.com/r-value.html http://www.houleinsulation.com/r-value.html – http://www.mme.state.va.us/de/hbchap3.html http://www.mme.state.va.us/de/hbchap3.html – http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/AWT/Interactive Calculators/NS/SimCalc.htm http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/AWT/Interactive Calculators/NS/SimCalc.htm – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-value http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-value

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References I.D. Online. (2006). Urban nomad shelter. Retrieved April 12, 2006, from http://www.idonline.com/adr05/concepts.asphttp://www.idonline.com/adr05/concepts.asp Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2005, October). Architecture students design and build homeless shelters. Retrieved April 12, 2006, from http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2005/wampler-1005.html http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2005/wampler-1005.html Morrisville State College. (2003, December). American institute of architecture students. Retrieved April 12, 2006, from http://www.morrisville.edu/Academics/Sci_Tech/ArchStudies/AIAS /Shelter_Photos.htm http://www.morrisville.edu/Academics/Sci_Tech/ArchStudies/AIAS /Shelter_Photos.htm paraSITE Shelters. (2004, December). Inflatable vintage. Retrieved April 13, 2006, from http://www.we-make-money-not- art.com/archives/003936.phphttp://www.we-make-money-not- art.com/archives/003936.php

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References Technology Interactions Teacher’s Resource Guide. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2005 Technology Interactions Teacher’s Textbook Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2005 Morrisville State College. (2003, December). American institute of architecture students. Retrieved April 12, 2006, from http://www.morrisville.edu/Academics/Sci_Tech/ArchStudies/AIAS /Shelter_Photos.htm http://www.morrisville.edu/Academics/Sci_Tech/ArchStudies/AIAS /Shelter_Photos.htm paraSITE Shelters. (2004, December). Inflatable vintage. Retrieved April 13, 2006, from http://www.we-make-money-not- art.com/archives/003936.phphttp://www.we-make-money-not- art.com/archives/003936.php

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