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Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness and the Public Education System: McKinney-Vento 101 Washington State Coalition for the Homeless Conference.

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Presentation on theme: "Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness and the Public Education System: McKinney-Vento 101 Washington State Coalition for the Homeless Conference."— Presentation transcript:

1 Children and Youth Experiencing Homelessness and the Public Education System: McKinney-Vento 101 Washington State Coalition for the Homeless Conference May 11, 2011

2 The face of homelessness in Washington…

3 How many children and youth experience homelessness? 1.35 million children (nationally) 1.35 million children (nationally) 10% of all children living in poverty 10% of all children living in poverty 733, million youths 733, million youths Over 40% of all children who are homeless are under the age of 5 Over 40% of all children who are homeless are under the age of 5 In Washington: 21,826 in (K-12) In Washington: 21,826 in (K-12)

4 Causes of Homelessness Lack of affordable housing Lack of affordable housing Deep poverty Deep poverty Health problems Health problems Domestic violence Domestic violence Natural and other disasters Natural and other disasters Abuse/neglect (unaccompanied youth) Abuse/neglect (unaccompanied youth)

5 Washington State Data Trends : 8, : 12, : 13, : 16, : 18, : 20, : 21,826

6 Washington State Data, cont. Between and Districts reported an increase in homeless students 103 Districts reported a decrease in homeless students 53 Districts reported no change In , 50 districts reported “zero” homeless students; a decrease from , when 56 districts reported “zero” homeless students

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8 Research on School Mobility Students who switch schools frequently score lower on standardized tests; study found mobile students scored 20 points lower than non-mobile students Students who switch schools frequently score lower on standardized tests; study found mobile students scored 20 points lower than non-mobile students Mobility also hurts non-mobile students; study found average test scores for non-mobile students were significantly lower in high schools with high student mobility rates Mobility also hurts non-mobile students; study found average test scores for non-mobile students were significantly lower in high schools with high student mobility rates It takes children an average of 4-6 It takes children an average of 4-6 months to recover academically after changing schools

9 Students suffer psychologically, socially, and academically from mobility; mobile students are less likely to participate in extracurricular activities and more likely to act out or get into trouble Students suffer psychologically, socially, and academically from mobility; mobile students are less likely to participate in extracurricular activities and more likely to act out or get into trouble Mobility during high school greatly diminishes the likelihood of graduation; study found students who changed high schools even once were less than half as likely as stable students to graduate, even controlling for other factors Mobility during high school greatly diminishes the likelihood of graduation; study found students who changed high schools even once were less than half as likely as stable students to graduate, even controlling for other factors Research on School Mobility (cont.)

10 Barriers to Education for Homeless Children and Youth Enrollment requirements (school records, immunizations, proof of residence and guardianship) Enrollment requirements (school records, immunizations, proof of residence and guardianship) High mobility resulting in lack of school stability and educational continuity High mobility resulting in lack of school stability and educational continuity Lack of access to programs Lack of access to programs Lack of transportation Lack of transportation Lack of school supplies, clothing, etc. Lack of school supplies, clothing, etc. Poor health, fatigue, hunger Poor health, fatigue, hunger Prejudice and misunderstanding Prejudice and misunderstanding

11 Who is homeless? The McKinney-Vento Act defines homeless children and youths as… Individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence, and includes: – Children and youths who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason;

12 Who is homeless, cont. – are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate accommodations; – are living in emergency or transitional shelters; – are abandoned in hospitals; or are – awaiting foster care placement ;

13 Who is homeless, cont. – Children and youths who have a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings – Children and youths who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings; and

14 Who is homeless, cont. – Migratory children who qualify as homeless for the purposes of this subtitle because the children are living in circumstances described (above.)

15 Who uses the McKinney-Vento definition of “homeless”? Elementary and Secondary Education (ED) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (ED) Higher Education Act (ED) Head Start Act (HHS) Child Nutrition Act (USDA) Violence Against Women Act (DOJ)

16 The McKinney-Vento Act The federal McKinney-Vento Act ensures that children and youth experiencing homelessness are able to enroll, attend and succeed in school. Homeless students must be able to attend and participate fully in all school activities, including after-school athletics, co- curricular activities and other school- sponsored events.

17 School Districts are Required to… Identify homeless students Immediately enroll homeless students, even if they lack records Maintain enrollment in the school of origin, whenever feasible and in the best interest of the child

18 School District Requirements, cont. Transfer records immediately when a student moves Provide transportation to/from school of origin Resolve disputes related to enrollment and provision of service

19 District requirements, cont. Provide comparable services Coordinate and collaborate with other agencies/entities providing services to homeless children, youth and their families Coordinate with state and local housing agencies Provide training to district staff Provide special services, including Special Education, early childhood, preschool, etc. Set aside Title I funds to serve homeless students in schools

20 Key Provisions—School Selection Children and youth experiencing homelessness can stay in their school of origin or enroll in any public school that students living in the same attendance area are eligible to attend, according to their best interest Children and youth experiencing homelessness can stay in their school of origin or enroll in any public school that students living in the same attendance area are eligible to attend, according to their best interest The terms “enroll” and “enrollment” include attending classes and participating fully in school activities The terms “enroll” and “enrollment” include attending classes and participating fully in school activities School of origin—school attended when permanently housed or in which last enrolled School of origin—school attended when permanently housed or in which last enrolled Best interest—keep homeless students in their schools of origin, to the extent feasible, unless this is against the parents’ or guardians’ wishes Best interest—keep homeless students in their schools of origin, to the extent feasible, unless this is against the parents’ or guardians’ wishes

21 Determining Best Interest Continuity of instruction Continuity of instruction Age of the child or youth Age of the child or youth Safety of the child or youth Safety of the child or youth Length of stay at the shelter Length of stay at the shelter Likely area where family will find permanent housing Likely area where family will find permanent housing Student’s need for special instructional programs Student’s need for special instructional programs Impact of commute on education Impact of commute on education School placement of siblings School placement of siblings Time remaining in the school year Time remaining in the school year

22 Key Provisions—Enrollment, cont. Children and youth have the right to enroll in school immediately, even if they do not have required documents, such as school records, medical records, proof of residency, or other documents. If a student does not have immunizations, or immunization or medical records, the liaison must immediately assist in obtaining them, and the student must be enrolled in the interim.

23 Key Provisions—Enrollment, cont. Enrolling schools must obtain school records from the previous school, and students must be enrolled in school while records are obtained. Schools must maintain records for students who are homeless so they are available quickly. States and districts must develop, review, and revise policies to remove barriers to the enrolment and retention of children and youths in homeless situations.

24 Wait a minute… My school district told me… POP QUIZ: True or False 1.I can’t enroll my child without a parent/guardian signature. 2.I can’t enroll my child without immunizations. 3.I can’t enroll my child until he/she has been assessed. 4.If I want free meals, I need to complete the free/reduced meal form. 5.I can’t enroll in their district unless I live within their boundaries. 6.I can’t enroll unless I show proof of my address. 7.If the district has a policy or procedure, I need to follow it, whether I’m homeless or not. 8.Since my district does not receive McKinney-Vento grant funds, they don’t need to comply with the McKinney-Vento Act. 9.The building principal determines when/if a student meets the definition of homeless.

25 What about all those policies? Federal law supercedes state and local laws where there is a conflict. [U.S. Constitution, Article VI]

26 Key Provisions—Local Homeless Education Liaisons Every LEA must designate a liaison for students in homeless situations Every LEA must designate a liaison for students in homeless situations Responsibilities Responsibilities – Ensure that children and youth in homeless situations are identified – Ensure that homeless students enroll in and have full and equal opportunity to succeed in school – Link with educational services, including preschool and health services

27 Key Provisions—Local Homeless Education Liaisons (cont.) Inform parents, guardians, or youth of educational and parent involvement opportunities Inform parents, guardians, or youth of educational and parent involvement opportunities Post public notice of educational rights Post public notice of educational rights Resolve disputes Resolve disputes Inform parents, guardians, or youth of transportation services, including to the school of origin Inform parents, guardians, or youth of transportation services, including to the school of origin

28 Key Provisions—Disputes Every state must establish dispute resolution procedures When a dispute over enrollment arises, the student must be admitted immediately to the school where enrollment is sought, while the dispute is being resolved Liaisons must ensure unaccompanied youth are enrolled immediately while the dispute is being resolved

29 Key Provisions—Disputes, cont. Whenever a dispute arises, the parent or guardian must be provided with a written explanation of the school’s decision, including the right to appeal The school must refer the child, youth, parent, or guardian to the liaison to carry out the dispute resolution process as expeditiously as possible Documentation should be kept for all local liaison interventions with parents—not just formal disputes (NCLB)

30 Key Provisions— Unaccompanied Homeless Youth Definition: youth who meets the definition of homeless and is not in the physical custody of a parent or guardian Liaisons must help unaccompanied homeless youth choose and enroll in a school, after considering the youth’s wishes, and inform the youth of his or her appeal rights School personnel must be made aware of the specific needs of runaway and homeless youth

31 Key Provisions—Transportation Districts must provide students experiencing homelessness with transportation to and from their school of origin, at a parent’s or guardian’s request (or at the liaisons request for unaccompanied youth.)

32 Key Provisions—Transportation, cont. If the student’s temporary residence and the school of origin are in the same district, that district must provide or arrange transportation; if the student is living outside of the school of origin’s district, the district where the student is living and the school of origin’s district must determine how to divide the responsibility and share the cost, or they must share the cost equally.

33 Key Provisions—Transportation, cont. In addition to providing transportation to the school of origin, districts must provide students in homeless situations with transportation services comparable to those provided to other students. School districts must eliminate barriers to the school enrollment and retention of students experiencing homelessness (including transportation barriers.)

34 Preschool-Aged Children Liaisons must ensure that families and children have access to Head Start, Even Start, and other public preschool programs administered by the district Liaisons must ensure that families and children have access to Head Start, Even Start, and other public preschool programs administered by the district State plans must describe procedures that ensure that homeless children have access to public preschool programs State plans must describe procedures that ensure that homeless children have access to public preschool programs U.S. HHS issued a memo in 1992 describing how Head Start grantees should collaborate and adjust their programs to serve homeless children; this memo remains in effect U.S. HHS issued a memo in 1992 describing how Head Start grantees should collaborate and adjust their programs to serve homeless children; this memo remains in effect Pending changes to the Head Start Act Pending changes to the Head Start Act

35 Preschool—Strategies Keep slots open for homeless students Provide awareness training for preschool providers Collaborate with preschools not operated by the district or state (including Head Start) Ask parents about preschool-aged children when they enroll their school-aged children in school Coordinate with IDEA Child Find

36 Access to Services Students who experience homelessness must have access to educational services for which they are eligible, including special education, programs for English learners, gifted and talented programs, voc./tech. programs, and school nutrition programs Students who experience homelessness must have access to educational services for which they are eligible, including special education, programs for English learners, gifted and talented programs, voc./tech. programs, and school nutrition programs Undocumented children and youth have the same right to attend public school as U.S. citizens and are covered by the McKinney-Vento Act to the same extent as other children and youth (Plyler v. Doe) Undocumented children and youth have the same right to attend public school as U.S. citizens and are covered by the McKinney-Vento Act to the same extent as other children and youth (Plyler v. Doe)

37 Access to Services (cont.) USDA policy permits liaisons and shelter directors to obtain free school meals for students by providing a list of names of students experiencing homelessness with effective dates USDA policy permits liaisons and shelter directors to obtain free school meals for students by providing a list of names of students experiencing homelessness with effective dates The 2004 reauthorization of IDEA includes amendments that reinforce timely assessment, inclusion, and continuity of services for homeless children and youth who have disabilities The 2004 reauthorization of IDEA includes amendments that reinforce timely assessment, inclusion, and continuity of services for homeless children and youth who have disabilities

38 Segregation States are prohibited from segregating homeless students in separate schools, separate programs within schools, or separate settings within schools States are prohibited from segregating homeless students in separate schools, separate programs within schools, or separate settings within schools States and districts must adopt policies and practices to ensure that homeless children and youth are not segregated or stigmatized on the basis of their status as homeless States and districts must adopt policies and practices to ensure that homeless children and youth are not segregated or stigmatized on the basis of their status as homeless Services provided with McKinney-Vento funds must not replace the regular academic program and must be designed to expand upon or improve services provided as part of the school’s regular academic program Services provided with McKinney-Vento funds must not replace the regular academic program and must be designed to expand upon or improve services provided as part of the school’s regular academic program

39 Key Provisions—Title I and Homelessness A child or youth who is homeless and is attending any school in the district is automatically eligible for Title IA services A child or youth who is homeless and is attending any school in the district is automatically eligible for Title IA services District must reserve (or set aside) funds as are necessary to provide services comparable to those provided to children in Title IA schools to serve homeless children who do not attend participating schools, including providing educational support services to children in shelters and other locations where homeless children may live District must reserve (or set aside) funds as are necessary to provide services comparable to those provided to children in Title IA schools to serve homeless children who do not attend participating schools, including providing educational support services to children in shelters and other locations where homeless children may live

40 Strategies for Determining the Title I Set-Aside Amount Review needs and costs involved in serving homeless students in the current year and project for the following year Review needs and costs involved in serving homeless students in the current year and project for the following year Multiply the number of homeless students by the Title IA per pupil allocation Multiply the number of homeless students by the Title IA per pupil allocation For districts with subgrants, reserve an amount greater than or equal to the McKinney-Vento subgrant funding request For districts with subgrants, reserve an amount greater than or equal to the McKinney-Vento subgrant funding request Reserve a percentage based on the district’s poverty level or total Title IA allocation Reserve a percentage based on the district’s poverty level or total Title IA allocation

41 Title I—Services for Homeless Students Services for homeless students in both Title I and non- Title I schools comparable to those provided to non- homeless students in Title I schools Services for homeless students in both Title I and non- Title I schools comparable to those provided to non- homeless students in Title I schools Services that are not ordinarily provided to other Title I students and that are not available from other sources Services that are not ordinarily provided to other Title I students and that are not available from other sources

42 McKinney-Vento Grants Currently, Washington receives $862,249 Provides competitive grants to 23 sites Of 295 districts, 245 reported homeless students enrolled in districts receive one-time ARRA (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) funds—these are formula dollars for districts that reported 20 or more homeless students

43 Funding is Limited… Collaboration is Essential Continuums of care Shelters Housing Faith community Schools Child welfare and other social services Food and clothing banks Others…

44 Resources Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction: National Center for Homeless Education: National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth: National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty:

45 For more information… Melinda Dyer, Program Supervisor Education of Homeless Children and Youth Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction


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