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Unions and the Underprivileged Class 1. Administrative Reading on this topic should be done already Final Exam Reminder.

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Presentation on theme: "Unions and the Underprivileged Class 1. Administrative Reading on this topic should be done already Final Exam Reminder."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unions and the Underprivileged Class 1

2 Administrative Reading on this topic should be done already Final Exam Reminder

3 Review Employers, Unions and Law Size and Structure of the Trade Union Movement Issues related union structure

4 Today I.Union Membership II.Union Discrimination

5 I. Union Membership Since 1983 the majority of the labor force does not consist of white males 1985 34% of all unionists women 1995 40% 2006 perhaps 44% 15% of unionists African-American 8% of unionists Hispanic

6 II. Union Discrimination Usually reflected local white mores Segregated auxiliary locals Also reflected employer preferences Similarly unions did not accept women

7 Historical – Early Central Organizations National Labor Union –Advocated equal pay for women –Rejected Susan B. Anthony as delegate 1869 Knights of Labor –Advocated Equal Pay –Did not initially admit women –By 1886 9% of members African-American

8 AFL By 1890 AFL asked affiliates to expunge racial exclusions Only Cigar Makers and ITU accepted women IAM denied affiliation by Gompers because of racial exclusion

9 Gompers Objected to segregated unions Cigar Makers became first national union to admit women (1867) and accepted African-Americans at the same time Continued to argue that unions with racial exclusions should be denied affiliation Eventually accepted segregated unions as the only way to have unions in the south

10 AFL 1930s 11 affiliates with racial exclusions 1934 at Randolph’s request, NAACP picketed the AFL convention 1939 AFL announced it would charter no more segregated unions Still existing craft unions frequently continued to exclude women and African- Americans

11 CIO Until Steelworkers and Autoworkers began to organize African-Americans, only the Sleeping Car Porters had many Murray set up Committee to Abolish Racial Discrimination William Townshend first African-American member of CIO Executive Board

12 Craft and Industrial Unions Both negotiated contract provisions detrimental to the disadvantaged Liberal pro-Civil Rights unions had such provisions into the 1960s

13 Contemporary "All workers whatever their race, color, creed, or national origins are entitled to share in the full benefits of trade union organization" Still 1959 AFL-CIO refused to expel racist unions AFL-CIO fought hard for 1964 Civil Rights Act

14 AFL-CIO Very active Civil Rights Department 1973 reversed long-standing opposition to ERA By 1978 95% of collective bargaining agreements had anti-discrimination clauses More recent issues have related to apprenticeship opportunities and the impact of seniority

15 Next Time Public Policy on Union Discrimination Progress of Women and African- Americans in unions

16 Unions and the Underprivileged Class 2

17 Administrative Reading for next time – Labor Political Activity Final Exam Reminder

18 Review Tendency of unions to reflect racism and sexism of the community Still, labor federations including the NLU, the Knights, the AFL, the CIO and the AFL-CIO all relatively advanced on these issues Not advanced enough to satisfy some groups

19 Today I.Public Policy on Union Discrimination II.Minorities and Women in Positions of Union Leadership III.Minority and Women’s Efforts to Overcome Union Discrimination

20 I. Public Policy on Union Discrimination National Labor Relations Act African-Americans lobbied for protection Wagner agreed in principle Eventually Wagner supported the act without this provision

21 Other Areas of Law 1938 Supreme Court ruled African- Americans could organize consumer boycotts of businesses refusing to hire them 1940s courts began to limit rights of locals to discriminate in membership or in bargaining

22 Subsequent Legal Changes Railway Labor Act amendments 1951 allowed union shop but membership must be available to all on equal basis Title 7 forbids labor organizations to discriminate or to cause employers to do so 1964 NLRB refused to certify bargaining agent that refused to represent members equally on basis of race

23 Griggs v. Duke Power (1971) Employment tests must be job related Facially neutral seniority which perpetuates discriminatory status quo to be overturned

24 II. Minorities and Women in Positions of Union Leadership 1972 over 80% trade unions no female officials Only presidents were Stewards and Stewardesses division of ALPA and veterinarians union First in AFL-CIO union was Kathleen Nolan of SAG in late 1970s 1977 UMW first elected woman president of local

25 Race and Gender in Union Leadership Black presidents only in Sleeping Car Porters and Actors Equity 1962 UAW had 75 African-American staff members NEA elected Mary Futrell in 1983. First African-American woman to be union president

26 Contemporary Situation 1995 Linda Chavez-Thompson of AFSCME elected Executive Vice President of AFL-CIO 2000 3 members of AFL-CIO 51 member Executive Board were African-American Most progress made in 5 largest unions, Teamsters, AFSCME, SEIU, UFCW, and UAW

27 III. Minority and Women’s Efforts to Overcome Union Discrimination African-Americans Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters affiliated to AFL in 1936 Randolph and Willard Townshend of United Transport Service Employees first African- Americans on AFL-CIO Executive Board

28 III. African-American Efforts to Overcome Discrimination Late 60s, formation of black caucuses in union plants, beginning in autos with Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement in Hamtramck, Michigan Similar caucuses in ILGWU and USW Coalition of Black Trade Unionists

29 Coalition of Labor Union Women Founded Chicago 1974 Purposes –Organize nonunion women –Promote affirmative action at work –Political action and legislation –Encourage participation of women in their unions

30 CLUW CLUW asked for female representatives on AFL-CIO Executive Council CLUW president Joyce Miller, ACTWU, since 1980 on AFL-CIO Executive - first woman Barbara Hutchinson, Women's Director AFGE, became second woman on Executive 1981

31 Other Unions and Issues National Association of Working Women - SEIU 925 Seems clear that pressure from these groups within unions and Civil Rights groups outside largely responsible for the progress which has been made Union discrimination/employer discrimination

32 Next Time Labor political activities, history and contemporary issues

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