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Theories of Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 2 Seventh Edition

2 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 What Theories Do A developmental theory provides a framework for understanding human development; it also guides research.  Example: The idea that early experiences impact later development is a theory.

3 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Testing the Theory Researchers use the scientific method to test theories.  Generate question  Create hypothesis  Test hypothesis  Analyze data; draw conclusion  Publish results

4 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Grand Theories The “Grand Theories” were the first, comprehensive theories in psychology. They focus on development as it applies to ALL individuals.

5 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 The 3 Grand Theories Psychoanalysis (Freud) Behaviorism (Watson, Skinner, Pavlov) Cognitive (Piaget)

6 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Psychoanalytic Theory Key terms:  id, ego, superego  repression  psychosexual stages  unconscious mind AKG/PHOTO RESEARCHERS, INC.

7 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Psychoanalytic Theory (cont.) Each psychosexual stage (oral, anal, etc.) includes potential conflicts—how a person resolves the conflicts determines their personality and behavior. Example: Too strict toilet training may create an “anal retentive” personality.

8 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Erik Erikson (1902–1994) Erik Erikson created a theory of psychosocial development. CORBIS

9 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Erik Erikson (cont.) Erikson’s theory has 3 psychosocial stages, in which people face “crises,” or tasks, at different ages. His theory focuses on the impact of relationships in shaping personality.

10 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Our experiences shape who we are. John Watson (“psychology should be about things we can observe” ) Behaviorism includes classical and operant conditioning, social learning Behaviorism

11 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Operant Conditioning (B. F. Skinner) Behaviors are learned through reinforcements and punishments. Example: A child gets sent to room for hitting his brother. (Hopefully) The punishment will decrease the likelihood of him hitting his brother in the future.

12 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Quiz: Name That Behaviorist! ARCHIVES OF THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY, THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON SOVFOTO © SAM FALK / MONKMEYER

13 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Social Learning Behavior is learned through observation and imitation of others (modeling). We model people who we admire. Examples: Children learn aggression from TV, gender roles from peers and adults.

14 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Cognitive Theory Jean Piaget’s 4 Stages  sensorimotor  pre-operational  concrete operational  formal operational YVES DEBRAINE / BLACK STAR

15 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Cognitive Theory (cont.) Cognitive equilibrium—state of mental balance. If threatened, how do we achieve equilibrium again?  Assimilation: incorporate new events into existing schemas  Accommodation: change schema

16 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Cognitive Theory (cont.) Example: A 10 month old learns that a red ball bounces. If given a blue ball, he will bounce it too (assimilation). If given a red tomato (which looks like a red ball), he may try to bounce it. He needs to accommodate his schema of round, red things.

17 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Summary of Grand Theories

18 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Limitations of Grand Theories In testing grand theories, it turned out that people are much more complex than the grand theories allowed for.  Example: Not all children react to a reinforcement in the same way. The theories ignored culture and genes.

19 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Mini-Theories Mini-theories focus on a specific area of development. Example: a study of the development of motor skills in premature infants

20 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Emergent theories arise from several accumulated minitheories and may be the new systematic and comprehensive theories of the future. Example: Results of many studies on motor skills in premies may lead to a new theory of motor skill development. Emergent Theories

21 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Sociocultural Theory Sociocultural theory states that development results from the dynamic interaction between person and social and cultural forces. Research often includes comparisons among children of various nations and ethnic groups.

22 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Lev Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky was a pioneer of sociocultural theory. COURTESY OF DR. MICHAEL COLE, LABORATORY OF COMPARATIVE HUMAN COGNITION, UC, SAN DIEGO

23 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Guided participation—tutor engages learner in joint activities, providing instruction and direct involvement in learning Zone of proximal development—range of skills learner can perform with assistance but not independently Vygotsky (cont.)

24 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2

25 Epigenetic Theory Emphasizes the interaction between genes and the environment—the newest developmental theory. Genetic-environmental Interactions  genes never function alone

26 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2

27 Genetic-environmental Interactions  Each human has a genetic foundation that is unique.  But, all humans have powerful instincts and abilities that arose from our biological heritage, through selective adaptation. Epigenetic Theory (cont.)

28 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Selective adaptation: genes for the traits that are most useful will become more frequent, thus making survival of species more likely.  Example: Humans have genes that foster language–those may have helped us avoid lethal diseases. Genetic Adaptation

29 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 With, On, and Around the Genes Epi = with, around, before, after, on, or near = surrounding factors  epigenetic—surrounding factors that affect expression of genetic instructions  Example: Height is affected by genes and nutrition.

30 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Contributions of Each Theory Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of importance of early childhood experiences. Behaviorism has shown effect of immediate environment on learning. Cognitive theory shows how intellectual process and thinking affect actions.

31 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Contributions (cont.) Sociocultural theory has reminded us of the importance of culture in learning. Epigenetic theory reminds us of the power of genes in interaction with the environment.

32 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 So which theory is “right”? No one theory explains all human development. Eclectic perspective  Approach taken by most developmentalists in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories rather than staying with just one.

33 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Nature-Nurture Nature: the influence of biology, genes. Nurture: the influence of environment.  Example: Are you smart because of your genes, or your upbringing? The real question is HOW MUCH influence each has, and how they interact.

34 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether a behavior is simply a “difference” or a “deficit” for a child.  Examples: When is a child “too thin”? Are only children “emotionally distressed”? Is unmarried motherhood a problem? Difference or Deficit?

35 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 2 Quiz Yourself: Theories Which phrases regarding early development go with which theory? “intimate maternal care is crucial” “encourage infants to explore!” “malnutrition may alter height” “what will you reinforce and model?” “co-sleeping is part of our culture”


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