Etiology 1. Biological Level of Analysis 2. Cognitive Level of Analysis 3. Sociocultural Level of Analysis
Symptoms 1. 1. Reliving the event (alsocalled re-experiencingsymptoms) 2. 2. Avoiding situations thatremind you of the event 3. 3. Negative changes in beliefsand feelings 4. 4. Feeling keyed up (alsocalled hyperarousal)
Prelavance Overall Overall Gender Gender Age Age
Diagnosis Difficulty of Diagnosis Methods of Diagnosis
Nature of Culture Culture is a context of dynamic symbols and meanings that people create and recreate for themselves in the process of social interaction.” – (Geertz 1973; Sapir, 1961) Toward a more expansive view, culture is thought to provide an orientation of a people’s way of feeling, thinking, and being in the world – their unself conscious medium of experience, interpretation, and action.” – (Jenkins & Karno, 1992 )
Culture and Emotion Rosaldo (1984) Rosaldo (1984) Led to studies like Led to studies like Jenkins & Valiente, 1994 Salvadoran Women Salvadoran Women
Culture Validity of PTDS Diagnosis DSM DSM Criterions Criterions Calor and Nervios Calor and Nervios Emotions Emotions
Treatment Hypnosis, Art therapy, and Psychodynamic therapy CBT, Pharmacotherapy, EMDR CBT, Pharmacotherapy, EMDR
Kathleen O. Nader and Others… Method: Method: Participants Participants Tools used Tools used Discussion Discussion
Other Experiments Pynoos et al., 1987 Sniper Rifle Pynoos & Goenjin, 1992 Earthquake in Armenia
Walker-Tessner Model Stressors: War Rape Traumatic Life experience Pynoos et al., 1987 Pynoos & Goenjin, 1992 Jenkins & Valiente, 1994 Inherited Factors: Pre-existing depression Pre-existing anxiety disorder Family history of anxiety Family history of neuroticism Halligan, S, Yehuda, R, 2000 Cornelis, M, et. al. 2010 Neuromaturational Factors: Noradrenaline Amygdala Hippocampus Medial Prefrontal Cortex Grinage, 2003 Constitutional (Biological) Vulnerability Psychiatric Outcome (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) Cognitive Factors: Mental defeat Mental confusion Appraisal of emotions Appraisal of symptoms Perceived negative responses of others Permanent change Dunmore, E, Clark, D.M., & Ehlers, A, 1999
Complex PTSD (Herman, 1992) Complex Post-TraumaticStress Disorders Prolonged, repeated traumathat only occurs where thevictim is in a state of captivity,unable to flee, and under thecontrol of the perpetrator.
GROUP THERAPY FOR SEXUAL- ASSAULT VICTIMS (Roth, S, Dye, E, & Lebowitz, L, 1988) Purpose Purpose Participants Participants Findings Findings
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