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Trust and Scientific Practice 19 June 20081UD Undergraduate Research Program.

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Presentation on theme: "Trust and Scientific Practice 19 June 20081UD Undergraduate Research Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trust and Scientific Practice 19 June 20081UD Undergraduate Research Program

2 Trust and Scientific Practice Importance of Trust in Science Scientific Misconduct Defined –Fabrication, Falsification, Plagiarism –Conflicts of Interest Case Studies –Avoiding Plagiarism –Response to Plagiarism –Data Handling 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program2

3 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program3 Why is Trust Important to Science? Reliance on existing information. (You can’t repeat every previous experiment and still make “progress.”) Collaboration with other investigators. (Open sharing of results with others.) Reliance of others on your results and conclusions. Public perception of science, (The public supports science.)

4 Paradox of Scientific Skepticism and Trust Scientists are professional skeptics, trusting only observation, experiment, and data for the determination of “truth.” Scientists must trust the integrity (skepticism?) of other scientists in order to advance knowledge and find new “truth” in their fields. 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program4

5 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program5 Federal Policy on Research Misconduct* Research misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results. * US Office of Science and Technology Policy.

6 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program6 Federal Policy on Research Misconduct Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them. Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.

7 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program7 Federal Policy on Research Misconduct Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.

8 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program8 Undermining Trust: Conflicts of Interests A conflict of interest occurs when there is a divergence between an individual's private interests and his or her professional obligations such that professional actions or decisions …might be or might appear to be… influenced by considerations of personal gain, financial or otherwise.

9 Hidden Drug Payments at Harvard (Editorial, NY Times, 10 June 2008) “Three prominent psychiatrists at the Harvard Medical School … have been caught vastly underreporting their income from drug companies whose fortunes could be affected by their studies and their promotional efforts on behalf of aggressive drug treatments. … the Harvard group’s research has helped fuel an explosion in the use of powerful antipsychotic drugs to treat children. …critics complain that the studies (were) too small and loosely designed to provide conclusive results (and) subject to biased interpretation through use of a subjective rating scale.” 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program9

10 Case Study A: Avoiding Plagiarism Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. How do you give proper credit to another person in a research paper? Professor Slymebahl asked his class to write an overnight essay about the unintended effects of institutional policies and procedures on academic honesty. Many of his students referred to the Martinson et al. (2005) paper in Nature, but he was troubled by the different ways that students cited this paper. Can you help him decide whether he should dock points from these student papers based on plagiarism or improper citation. 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program10

11 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program11 Original Text: “Little attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. It is now time for the scientific community to consider what aspects of this environment are most salient to research integrity, which aspects are most amenable to change, and what changes are likely to be the most fruitful in ensuring integrity in science (Martinson, et al., 2005).” From: Martinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson,and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435: Citation AIs this plagiarism and, if so, why? TextLittle attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. Bibliography

12 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program12 Original Text: “Little attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. It is now time for the scientific community to consider what aspects of this environment are most salient to research integrity, which aspects are most amenable to change, and what changes are likely to be the most fruitful in ensuring integrity in science (Martinson, et al., 2005).” From: Martinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson,and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435: Citation BIs this plagiarism and, if so, why? TextLittle attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. BibliographyMartinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson, and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435:

13 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program13 Original Text: “Little attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. It is now time for the scientific community to consider what aspects of this environment are most salient to research integrity, which aspects are most amenable to change, and what changes are likely to be the most fruitful in ensuring integrity in science (Martinson, et al., 2005).” From: Martinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson,and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435: Citation CIs this plagiarism and, if so, why? TextLittle attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity (Martinson et al., 2005). BibliographyMartinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson, and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435:

14 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program14 Original Text: “Little attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. It is now time for the scientific community to consider what aspects of this environment are most salient to research integrity, which aspects are most amenable to change, and what changes are likely to be the most fruitful in ensuring integrity in science (Martinson, et al., 2005).” From: Martinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson,and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435: Citation DIs this plagiarism and, if so, why? Text“Little attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity (Martinson et al, 2005).” BibliographyMartinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson, and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435:

15 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program15 Original Text: “Little attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. It is now time for the scientific community to consider what aspects of this environment are most salient to research integrity, which aspects are most amenable to change, and what changes are likely to be the most fruitful in ensuring integrity in science (Martinson, et al., 2005).” From: Martinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson,and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435: Citation EIs this plagiarism and, if so, why? TextThe scientific community has so far paid little attention to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. BibliographyMartinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson, and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435:

16 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program16 Original Text: “Little attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. It is now time for the scientific community to consider what aspects of this environment are most salient to research integrity, which aspects are most amenable to change, and what changes are likely to be the most fruitful in ensuring integrity in science (Martinson, et al., 2005).” From: Martinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson,and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435: Citation FIs this plagiarism and, if so, why? TextThe scientific community has so far paid little attention to “the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity” (Martinson, et al, 2005). BibliographyMartinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson, and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435:

17 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program17 Original Text: “Little attention has so far been paid to the role of the broader research environment in compromising scientific integrity. It is now time for the scientific community to consider what aspects of this environment are most salient to research integrity, which aspects are most amenable to change, and what changes are likely to be the most fruitful in ensuring integrity in science (Martinson, et al., 2005).” From: Martinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson,and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435: Citation GIs this plagiarism and, if so, why? TextThe scientific community has so far given little attention to the institutional contributions to dishonesty and research misconduct. BibliographyMartinson, B.C., M.S. Anderson, and R. deVries, Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435:

18 Why is it so important to cite references in technical and research papers? Who really cares? 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program18

19 Case Study B: Response to Plagiarism Colleen Hogan, an undergraduate interested in pursuing a graduate degree in Psychology is hired by Professor Simpson, in her college’s Psychology Department, to conduct a literature search for a book that Simpson is writing and to copy edit sections of the book as Simpson completes them. While editing the text, she finds three paragraphs taken verbatim from one of the papers that she had found for Simpson. When she brings this to Simpson’s attention, he tells her to "grow up and understand that this goes on all the time. After all, no one ever gets hurt.“ She is troubled by this response. What should she do next? 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program19

20 Case Study B: Response to Plagiarism Is it really true that “this happens all the time”? Is it really true that “no one ever gets hurt?” Who can she go to for advice or assistance? Hogan thinks that she really needs Simpson’s letter of recommendation in order to get into graduate school. What should she do? 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program20

21 Case Study C: Data Analysis and Reporting Deborah, a graduate student, and Kathleen, a post-doctoral fellow, at Well-Known University make a series of difficult measurements at a national laboratory. During the experiment, they noticed some unexplained fluctuations in the measurements, but until they returned to the their home institution, they did not have the opportunity to look closely at their data. Once they do look at their data, they see that 2 of the 8 measurements that they made are not consistent the their hypotheses and the theory that they were testing. Since these two points were measured at the time that they observed the unexplained fluctuations, Kathleen suggests to Deborah that they just drop these measurements from the graph and any statistical analysis and just say that they did not use the 2 anomalous points due to “machine problems.” Deborah is concerned that this may lead to accusations of data falsification. 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program21

22 Case Study C: Deborah’s and Kathleen’s Results 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program22 Proposed Theory From: On Being a Scientist, National Academy Press

23 Case Study C: Data Analysis and Reporting Should the data be reported and included in all of the statistical tests? If so, why? If not, why not? Is the removal of suspected data “falsification?” Who can Deborah and Kathleen go to for advice? What advice would you give to Deborah and Kathleen? 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program23

24 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program24 Where to go for Advice Who y’gonna call? Advisor and/or Mentor Department Chair Research Integrity Office of Institution Professional Organizations Journal Editors Research Integrity Office of Funding Agency

25 Questions? 19 June 2008UD Undergraduate Research Program25


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