# GRADING ON THE NEW CURVE: 21 ST CENTURY INSTRUCTION & ASSESSMENT Presented by: Kathleen R. (Kate) Wiles, Ph.D. Stark State College North Canton, Ohio

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GRADING ON THE NEW CURVE: 21 ST CENTURY INSTRUCTION & ASSESSMENT Presented by: Kathleen R. (Kate) Wiles, Ph.D. Stark State College North Canton, Ohio kwiles@starkstate.edu

HAVEN’T WE BEEN HERE BEFORE? “A NATION AT RISK” (1983) “ GOALS 2000” “NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND” (2002) SUBJECT AREA STANDARDS: MATH – 1980 AAHPERD - 1995 ENGLISH & SCIENCE – 1996 SOCIAL STUDIES - 1997

A BRIEF HISTORY OF MATH EDUCATION Teaching Math in 1950: - (traditional math) A logger sells a truckload of lumber for \$100. His cost of production is 4/5 of the price. What is his profit? Teaching Math in 1960: A logger sells a truckload of lumber for \$100. His cost of production is 4/5 of the price, or \$80. What is his profit? Teaching Math in 1970: - (new math) A logger exchanges a set "L" of lumber for a set "M" of money. The cardinality of set "M" is 100. Each element is worth one dollar. Make 100 dots representing the elements of the set "M." The set "C", the cost of production contains 20 fewer points than set "M." Represent the set "C" as a subset of set "M" and answer the following question: What is the cardinality of the set "P" of profits?

Teaching Math in 1980: (Competency-Based) A logger sells a truckload of lumber for \$100. His cost of production is \$80 and his profit is \$20. Your assignment: Underline the number 20. Teaching Math in 1990: - (Outcome-Based) By cutting down beautiful forest trees, the logger makes \$20. What do you think of this way of making a living? Topic for class participation after answering the question: How did the forest birds and squirrels feel as the logger cut down the trees? There are no wrong answers.

Teaching Math in 2000: A logger sells a truckload of lumber for \$100. His cost of production is \$120. How does Lehman Brothers, Inc. determine that his profit margin is \$60? AND TODAY: El hachero vende un camion de carga por \$100. El costo de production es........

NOW, THE “COMMON CORE” STANDARDS Common Core Standards English Language Arts Standards Mathematics Standards

21 ST CENTURY SKILLS Summed up in one word: HOTS! (Higher Order Thinking Skills) Partnership for 21 st Century Skills: http://www.p21.org

Curriculum Development: A Work in Progress

A PROPOSED NEW PARADIGM FOR TEACHING, LEARNING, & ASSESSMENT Learners who are: Engaged Thinking Deciding At Risk Using Tools Where’s the teacher?

QUITE A DIFFERENT MODEL

GETTING FROM HERE TO THERE... Conversation Starter #1: Authentic data derives from standards-based assessments.

EXAMPLE # 1 Grade 7 WRITING Standard: Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

DATA COLLECTED Short Research Project RubricName: Sam K. PointsPoints Achieved Title Page2 2 Intro Paragraph54 3 “Body” Paragraphs1512 Concluding Paragraph53 MUGS109 Reference Page33 Submission Timeline (5 points per check)1515 ____ ___ 5548 87% What does this demonstrate about Sam’s mastery of this standard?

EXAMPLE # 2 : MATHEMATICS GRADE 5 “ ADD, SUBTRACT, MULTIPLY, AND DIVIDE DECIMALS TO HUNDREDTHS, USING CONCRETE MODELS OR DRAWINGS AND STRATEGIES BASED ON PLACE VALUE, PROPERTIES OF OPERATIONS, AND/OR THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION; RELATE THE STRATEGY TO A WRITTEN METHOD AND EXPLAIN THE REASONING USED.” Circle the correct answer. 1..48 X.48 = a. 1b. 0 c..23d..96 2. The result of multiplying.48 by.48 will be a. oneb. less than one c. zerod. more than one 3. In your Math Journal, describe (in words and pictures) how to multiply decimals. Include one calculated example. Then answer this question: What can you always predict about your answer when you multiply two decimals, each less than 1?

DESIGNING AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENTS Consider the intent of the target standard. Grade 8 WRITING: “ Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.” 1.Circle the correctly spelled word. a. businessb. bussiness c. businnessd. biusiness 2. Find and correct any misspelled words in this sentence. The family bussiness had operated sucessfully for over fourty years. 3. (Dictated direction) “Write an original sentence using the word ‘business’ correctly.”

MOVING TOWARD AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENTS IN ALL SUBJECT AREAS Grade 8 Physical Science: “Describe how the change in the position (motion) of an object is always judged and described in comparison to a reference point.” INauthentic assessment: Calculate how far a car will roll down a 30 degree ramp if the car weighs 2,300 pounds. More Authentic: After observing a car roll down a ramp, describe (in writing) how the car’s speed and distance can only be correctly judged by using a reference point.

GRADE 7 PHYSICAL EDUCATION AAHPERD Standard: “Utilize self-assessment of physical fitness to identify strengths and weaknesses and use this information to develop a personalized fitness program.” INauthentic assessment: Complete the Presidential Physical Fitness Exercise Challenge. More Authentic: Document your personal strengths and weaknesses (from assessment tests, surveys, and behavior logs) in each of these areas: exercise, nutrition, chemical exposure, and emotional wellness. Then develop a written personal improvement plan (for a 6-week period) to describe what you will do to maintain or improve each of these four areas.

GRADE 1 SOCIAL STUDIES NCSS Standard: “Describe human adaptations to variations in the physical environment including: food; clothing; shelter; transportation; recreation.” Inauthentic assessment: “Print the letter of the continent where you would find each of the things shown in the pictures.” (Pictures include igloo, pineapple, rickshaw, baseball, sarape, etc.) More authentic: “Look at each picture of a different place in the world. One is very cold, with lots of snow. Another is hot and dry all the time. The third one is mostly mountains, with no roads or airports. Under each picture, draw what you think people eat there. Then draw what their houses might look like. Then draw how they would travel from place to place....”

YOUR TURN ! Using the sample Common Core Standard that you have received, and your GIGO (Give One, Get One) worksheet, describe at least three AUTHENTIC assessment alternatives for this standard, one in each box of the top row of your GIGO. Be sure to consider the student BEHAVIORS assessed, and compare these with the verb(s) in your standard. Also keep in mind the INTENT of the standard. Does the student product or performance match this intent? You will be sharing your ideas with colleagues later in this activity.

CONVERSATION # 1 : CONCLUSIONS & NEXT STEPS Start with the standards Attend especially to verbs & intent Incorporate 21 st Century Skills Alternatives to paper-based “tests” “Less is more” in assessment; that is, fewer items – of higher quality – generate more authentic data Authentic data inform classroom practice with greater reliability/impact

CONVERSATION STARTER # 2 Communicating standards- based data and results will require new tools and training.

REDEFINING WHAT “COUNTS” ON ASSESSMENTS & REPORT CARDS What’s IN?What’s OUT? Aligned performance &־ Attendance points products Differentiated output־ Deadline penalties Student choice/control־ OSFA HOTS־ Easy to grade Teacher-managed ־ Teacher-directed Tools taught & used־ Use of tools graded

A RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENTS & QUESTIONS Can it be answered in one word or by using someone else’s language/ideas? (No) Is the response in the student’s own words or the product original in at least some significant way? (Yes) Does the question or assignment require the transfer of learning to a new problem or situation? (Yes) Does the activity have personal relevance for the student? (Yes) Is the skill or content assessed critical, in terms of the student’s life-long learning? (Yes) GOAL: 4 out of 5 for graded assignments PS- Be careful of publisher claims!

ACTIVITY #2: ANTICIPATION & COLLABORATION Use your “Assessment Audit & Planning Guide” to 1.Consider the elements currently graded in your class/school/district 2.Compare each element to the Common Core Standards 3.Label each element as Keep, Adjust, or Replace (No hedging allowed!) 4.Identify which changed items to tackle first 5.Plan the who/when/how to initiate changes 6.Share your plan with an elbow partner

CONVERSATION STARTER # 3 Current resources and methods will need to be revised or replaced to accommodate new standards and performance- driven teaching and learning.

SIMPLEST APPROACH: MODIFIED OR SELECTIVE USE OF CURRENT MATERIALS Consider this Reading (Literature) standard for the 4 th grade: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

NOW CONSIDER THIS SET OF TEXT QUESTIONS After reading the play, Scene Two by Don Abramson & Robert Kausal, answer these questions: 1. Many people are interested in the history of the town they live in. Why do you think people are interested in events of the past that took place in their town? 2. Why do you think the authors have Jasmine always checking everyone’s facts? 3. What conclusions can you come to about the way history can be told? 4. What do you think the students learned about teamwork? Use evidence from the story to support your answer. 5. Look Back and Write. Look back at page 236. As with all plays, there is a list of characters and information about the setting and time. Why is it important to know these things before you begin reading? What might happen if you didn’t know them? *Excerpted from Reading Street (Student Edition), Grade Four, (Pearson Scott Foresman, 2011), page 248.

NEXT, AN EXAMPLE FROM HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL GEOMETRY The standard: “Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments.” What would you look for/select from your geometry text? Would this work? Amsco's Geometry (online text)Amsco's Geometry (online text) – page 222

NEW MATERIALS: SOURCES TO CONSIDER Be sure to share the “recommended literature” lists with your library/media specialists! These are also good sources of “sample” passages to prepare for state and/or national assessments. Common Core ELA: ELA Common Core StandardsELA Common Core Standards K-5 Page 32 6-12 Page 58

FREE ONLINE RESOURCES For example, ELA “Speaking & Listening” Resources American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank TED (Technology, Entertainment, & Design) Free “Hands-on” Math Manipulatives! National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

CROSS-CURRICULAR RESOURCES Save instructional time More authentic (reality-based) Increase student interest Accommodate diverse learners Example: Digital HistoryDigital History – Explorations Modules

DIGITAL AGE DANGERS So... You’re a 6 th grade student trying to research your assigned famous American: Martin Luther King, Jr. You remember to use valid sources (no Wikipedia). You can also read website “code” –.com;.gov;.edu;.org You also remember that sites showing up first in your search often relate the most directly to your topic. OK – off you go...YahooYahoo

IF YOU AND YOUR COMMUNITY NEED “INFORMATION LITERACY” RESOURCES: “THE” One-Stop Shop (Website): Alan November http://novemberlearning.com Information Literacy Resources: http://novemberlearning.com/resources/information-literacy- resources/

NOTE THE IMPORTANCE OF CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS IN THE DIGITAL AGE

SO, YOUR BAGS ARE PACKED... A solid understanding of the Common Core Standards and their significance in today’s P-16 system of schools Three conversation starters (assessment, reporting, resources/methods) Assessment & reporting alternatives to consider Several starting points for next steps Suggested resources and implementation ideas Even a new paradigm for the work we do!

WHY... Bother? Did You Know? v. 3.0 Now? College & Work Readiness Crisis Me?

Just remember: They can’t do it without you. Sometimes the harness rides up! No two climbers have the same needs. You’re not alone.

WHAT AWAITS OUR STUDENTS AS THEY LEAVE OUR LEARNING COMMUNITIES ?

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