Presentation on theme: "OST164 T EXT E DITING A PPLICATIONS Chapter 5 - Comma Pages 104-114 Proofreading for comma errors is important, because missing or misused commas can change."— Presentation transcript:
OST164 T EXT E DITING A PPLICATIONS Chapter 5 - Comma Pages Proofreading for comma errors is important, because missing or misused commas can change the meaning of a sentence or make a sentence unclear. The comma and the period are the two most frequently used punctuation marks, and the comma is the most frequently misused.
R ULES FOR COMMAS WITH LETTER PARTS 1. In the date line, the day and the year are separated by a comma. August 25, In the inside address and the return address, the city and state abbreviation are always separated by a comma. Denver, CO In the complimentary closing, a comma is used at the end of the line when the standard punctuation style if being used. (No comma is used with the open punctuation style.) Sincerely yours, 4. In the writer’s identification line, a comma is used to separate the writer’s name and title when on the same line. No comma is used when they are on separate lines. Ruth Plemmons, President Ruth Plemmons President
R EVISION SYMBOLS FOR CORRECTING COMMAS Insert a comma We live in Madison Wisconsin. Delete a comma Julia, and Tim are the managers. Change a period to a comma After you draft the report. We’ll review the findings. ^,, ^
C HECKUP 5-1 Writer’s Name and Title on Two Lines James R. Reid, Vice President Writer’s Name and Title on the Same Line Kimberly Lanier, Manager Return Address and Date Line 1934 North Marion DriveNovember 19, 2005 Covington, KY Inside Address Complimentary Closing (Standard Punctuation ) Mr. Raymond Porter Moseley 5213 Braxton CourtVery truly yours, High Point, NC
R ULES FOR COMMAS THAT SET OFF 5. Within a sentence, use two commas to set off the year when it follows the month and date. On July 12, 2003, we expanded our operations. No comma is used to set off just the month and year. The conference will be in June 2011 in Georgia. ( no commas inserted ) 6. Within a sentence, use two commas to set off the name of a state when it follows the name of a city. Also use the commas to set off the name of a province or country from the name of a city. Joe changed plans in Chicago, Illinois, on his trip.
#7 C OMMAS USED TO SET OFF NAMES USED IN DIRECT ADDRESS Do you agree, Christina, that we should ship the packages? I would appreciate your feedback, Eric. Sally, what do you think about the decision?
#8 C OMMAS ARE USED TO SET OFF WORDS OR PHRASES IN APPOSITION Ms. Thompkins, our receptionist, is on vacation. Mrs. Reid, our district manager, recommended Cody for the job. Our first fund-raiser, a silent auction, was very successful. Please your decision by Monday, the last day of the year.
#9 C OMMAS ARE USED TO SET OFF PARENTHETICAL, OR NONESSENTIAL, ELEMENTS FROM THE REST OF THE SENTENCE We should, in my opinion, purchase the apartment complex. George Braswell, who is the head of the city council, will present the awards. Ross Davis decided, unfortunately, to cancel his insurance. HINT: To determine whether an element is nonessential or essential, read the sentence without the word or words that are set off. If the sentence is clear without the words, the words are nonessential and commas should be used.
C ONTINUED … Look at the different in these sentences: Essential: There is, no doubt, more than one applicant. Nonessential: There is no doubt about the accuracy of this statement. Essential: After a ll, we have been through a lot. Nonessential: After all we have been through, the project was canceled.
C HECKUP 5-2 #1 Tom Phillips, as you probably know. Graduates from Harvard next spring. Tom Phillips, as you probably know, graduates from Harvard next spring. #2 Recent high temperatures which have been in the high 90s have increased the demand for electricity. Recent high temperatures, which have been in the high 90s, have increased the demand for electricity. #3 Jack Hatchel our vice president is also the director of our volunteer program. Jack Hatchel, our vice president, is also the director of our volunteer program.
C HECKUP 5-2 #4 Dr. Grace Statin moved to Jacksonville Florida after she was married. Dr. Grace Statin moved to Jacksonville, Florida, after she was married. #5 Kathleen Hensley my friend since elementary school is now a registered nurse. Kathleen Hensley, my friend since elementary school, is now a registered nurse. #6 We have in fact postponed our cruise indefinitely. We have, in fact, postponed our cruise indefinitely.
C HECKUP 5-2 #7 Are you sure that the company is based in Bristol Tennessee and not Bristol Virginia? Are you sure that the company is based in Bristol, Tennessee, and not Bristol, Virginia ? #8 Did you change planes in Atlanta Barbara? Did you change planes in Atlanta, Barbara ? #9 By November 21, 2020 we will have paid half of what we owe on our home mortgage. By November 21, 2020, we will have paid half of what we owe on our home mortgage.
C HECKUP 5-2 #10 Your father’s estate Donald is valued at over $3 million. Your father’s estate, Donald, is valued at over $3 million. #11 I moved to Chicago on August 22, 1998 after getting my master’s degree in business. I moved to Chicago on August 22, 1998, after getting my master’s degree in business. #12 Victor is in Austin Texas until December 30. Victor is in Austin, Texas, until December 30.
C HECKUP 5-2 #13 On Monday August 14 we will begin staying open 24 hours a day. On Monday, August 14, we will begin staying open 24 hours a day. #14 We should in my opinion close the outlet store by May 15. We should, in my opinion, close the outlet store by May 15. #15 Rob, a hard-working associate came in two hours early this morning because of the crisis. Rob, a hard-working associate, came in two hours early this morning because of the crisis.
R ULES FOR C OMMAS THAT SEPARATE 10. Use a comma after each part of an address within a sentence. Please write Mr. Porter, 1426 East Mayfield Road, Flushing, New York 11361, to request a copy. 11. Commas are used to separate three of more items in a series. Bill, Steve, and Tom requested vacations in July. Carolyn reviewed the facts, made a decision, and took immediate action. I ordered a hamburger, fries, and a soft drink. Alice opened the door, let the dog out, and then closed the door.
R ULES FOR C OMMAS THAT SEPARATE 12. Use a comma before the conjunction ( and, or, but, yet, nor ) in a compound sentence. The comma, along with the conjunction, separates the two independent clauses. Amanda agreed to assist Joyce, but she was not enthusiastic about the project. Victor wrote the book, and he also drew the illustrations. Sally likes to play ball, yet she wouldn’t come on the field yesterday.
R ULES FOR C OMMAS THAT SEPARATE 13. Use a comma after an introductory word, phrase, or clause. Yes, the property has been rezoned. Incidentally, we have checked all the zoning restrictions. In my opinion, we should purchase the beach house and rent it. Opened in 2002, the museum is located in our historic downtown district. Before the remodeling is begun, you must obtain a permit from the city of Shelby. When Mr. Miller call s, please request his and his fax number.
I NTRODUCTORY DEPENDENT CLAUSES Look for the following words that often begin introductory dependent clauses at the beginning of a sentence. Use a comma to separate the dependent’s clause from the rest of the sentence. afterbeforeunless as soon asifwhen becausethoughwhile 1. If you decide to travel, leave early. 2. Before you begin, read the directions. 3. As soon as you can, please call his mother. 4. Unless I hear from you, I am going to go ahead. 5. While I really like to swim, I don’t want to go. 6. After they leave, please clean the dishes.
#14 C OMMAS USED TO SEPARATE TWO OR MORE CONSECUTIVE ADJECTIVES THAT MODIFY THE SAME NOUN. To determine if a comma is needed to separate two or more consecutive adjectives that modify the same noun, say the word AND between them. If the sentence makes sense, separate the adjectives by a comma. Our medical clinic provides convenient, affordable health services. She is a very sweet, loving person. It was a very well-written, professional report. Harry gave the cold, dirty dog a warm bath.
#1 To enter the contest mail a completed entry form to us by December 30. To enter the contest, mail a completed entry form to us by December 30. #2 Our company owns valuable beachfront property. (Correct as it is - no comma should be here.) #3 Dennis Sue and Roger filed their tax returns early. Dennis, Sue, and Roger filed their tax returns early. #4 Tom’s sales are the highest and he definitely will win the award. Tom’s sales are the highest, and he definitely will win the award. C HECKUP 5-3
#5 After your job transfer, you will live in the beautiful scenic mountains of North Carolina. After your job transfer, you will live in the beautiful, scenic mountains of North Carolina. #6 Shannon Russell sent invitations to all the board members phoned everyone to confirm their reservations and arranged for the hotel accommodations. Shannon Russell sent invitations to all the board members, phoned everyone to confirm their reservations, and arranged for the hotel accommodations. #7 Joseph will work with the customer service department or he will assist the computer technology group. Joseph will work with the customer service department, or he will assist the computer technology group.
C HECKUP 5-3 #8 Most employees would prefer to work in a relaxed less format setting. Most employees would prefer to work in a relaxed, less format setting. #9 Maria, Jorge, and Roberto, have formed a consulting group for people interested in doing business in Mexico. #10 Yes wireless Internet is available in our building. Yes, wireless Internet is available in our building.
C HECKUP 5-3 #11 We produced, edited, and distributed a documentary film on recycling programs in our state. CORRECT #12 My new address is 3128 Kilarney Lane Ocala, Florida, My new address is 3128 Kilarney Lane, Ocala, Florida #13 While attending a conference in London Matt met with several prospective employees. While attending a conference in London, Matt met with several prospective employees.
C HECKUP 5-3 #14 Kathleen Wilson Reid joined our company less than six months ago and she has already achieved recognition as a top sales agent. Kathleen Wilson Reid joined our company less than six months ago, and she has already achieved recognition as a top sales agent. #15 Harry’s new address is 3642 Springs Drive, Peoria, IL, Harry’s new address is 3642 Springs Drive, Peoria, Illinois Spell out the state name and omit the comma after it.
C HECKUP 5-4 P AGE 112 Sentence Number Rule Number
W HEN NOT TO USE COMMAS Do NOT use a comma to separate a subject from a predicate that immediately follows. The predicate is the verb plus any of its modifiers. Incorrect: The flight attendant, assisted the ill passenger. Do NOT use a comma to separate a predicate from an object that immediately follows. Incorrect: Glenn wrote the book, Surfing the Net.
W HEN NOT TO USE COMMAS Do NOT use a comma to separate the parts of a compound subject. A compound subject consists of two or more subjects joined by a conjunction (and, or). Incorrect: Managers, and their sales staff voted for additional insurance coverage. Do NOT use a comma to separate the parts of a compound predicate. Incorrect: Fred just completed the training program, and is currently looking for another job.