Presentation on theme: " Provide some background on use of Individual Growth and Development Indicators for Continuous Progress Monitoring Show an example of one IGDI: Early."— Presentation transcript:
Provide some background on use of Individual Growth and Development Indicators for Continuous Progress Monitoring Show an example of one IGDI: Early Communication Indicator Show how the data can be used for making intervention decisions
University of Kansas: Charles Greenwood, Dale Walker, Jay Buzhardt, Kathleen Baggett, Judith Carta—IGDIs for children birth to 3 years University of Minnesota: Scott McConnell—IGDIs for 3-5 year olds University of Oregon & Dynamic Measurement Group: Ruth Kaminski & Roland Good-DIBELS— Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills
The best investment we can make today educating our children is early intervention! E.g., Heckman, others Public and private preschool programs are scaling up and becoming part of the USA’s K-12 system Federal and state policies are requiring that programs and services produce child outcomes Early Head Start and Head Start Office of Special Education Programs Programs are required to use evidence-based practice Practices for which research indicates that children are more likely to benefit compared to other practices
Because PMM is an evidence-based practice Use of PMM leads to Greater teacher understanding of what each children can do and needs to learn Earlier identification of children not making progress Increased teacher planning and changes in children’s intervention/instruction designed to meet their needs http://www.ncpm.org http://www.ncpm.org
More Dynamic More Data-Driven More Responsive In this approach, children receive services sooner and more frequently when needed
Increased expectations for accountability Need to identify children who need early intervention Programs and individual staff members need to know when they are making a difference in moving children toward outcomes
To check on individual children’s growth To inform parents about child growth To ramp up individual children’s program if necessary To get a check on how well our programs are doing To focus our professional development efforts in our programs
How can we learn more quickly that a child is falling behind in development? How can we use that information to guide what we do in our programs? How do we know if what we are doing is improving a child’s trajectory?
Conventional forms of early childhood assessment not linked to individual rates of growth toward outcomes Child data not used in making ongoing program decisions Not repeatable enough Not accessible enough for program staff Not sensitive to intervention or program effects or growth over time Difficult for parents and practitioners to understand
Measures that provide helpful information about children's growth toward socially valued outcomes and that guide intervention decision making Measures that focus on key skills indicators rather than wide-band comprehensive skills
Individual Growth and Development Indicator
Quick measure Gives instant information Tells a lot about an important general outcome: health Can repeat it frequently
The most well known IGDIs are Pediatric Growth Charts Widely used by pediatricians and parents
Quick and easy to do Relatively inexpensive Repeatable Can indicate potential problem and effectiveness of an intervention
Features of IGDIs Reflect progress toward a socially valid general outcome Strategic (a leading indicator) not comprehensive measurement Chart an individual’s progress Brief and quick to administer Repeatable (rate of growth, slope) Trend line compares expected vs. actual rates of learning
Child uses gestures, sounds, words, or sentences to express wants and needs. Child engages in a range of basic self ‑ help skills, including but not limited to skills in dressing, eating, toileting/hygiene and safety/identification. Child interacts with peers and adults, maintaining social interactions and participating socially in home, school, and community settings. Child manipulates toys, materials, and objects in a fluent and coordinated manner to play and participate in home, school, and community settings. Child meets behavioral expectations (such as following directions, rules, and routines) in home, school, and community settings. -Priest et al, 2001
Early Communication Indicator (ECI) for Infants and Toddlers The General Outcome “The child uses gestures, sounds, words, or sentences to convey wants and needs or to express meaning to others." In a national survey of parents and practitioners, expressive communication was a highly rated outcome of early childhood ▪ Priest et al., 2001
Key Skill Elements Gestures Vocalization Single Words/Signs Multiple Words/Signs Combine to form Total Communication Indicator
Vocalizations Multi-Word Utterances Single Words Total Communication Gestures What does the IGDI Measure?
Administration Procedures Administration Procedures Toy-play setting with familiar adult as play partner 6-minute testing sessions Play partner’s role is to facilitate play and follow child’s lead Set-up/clean-up/put away Alternate Toy Forms Observational Recording ProceduresRecording Procedures Toy Form A: House Toy Form B: Barn
36 Mos Expectation Child’s Observed Trajectory Normative Trajectory
GOMs not only show that children are acquiring skills, but they capture information about the rate of growth Rate of growth can be compared to normative rates as well as to child’s own rate before or during an intervention or different phases or variations of intervention This makes GOMs a sensitive way of looking at effectiveness of interventions
Shows whether child’s current rate of growth is adequate for reaching the outcome. Can easily communicate progress with family members, other professionals Can indicate whether change in intervention is needed Even when trajectory is far from typical, a positive trendline deflection in response to an intervention can convey when changes are “closing the gap”
IGDIs Currently Available For Infants and Toddlers (http://www.igdi.ku.edu)http://www.igdi.ku.edu Early Communication (Language) Early Problem Solving (Cognition) Early Movement (Motor) Early Social (Social/Emotional) For Preschoolers (Early Literacy) (http://ggg.umn.edu/)http://ggg.umn.edu/ Picture naming (Spoken Vocabulary) Alliteration Rhyming
Individual Child Level Progress findings Intervention decision making Individual Program Level Child Results Implementation Quality and Staff Management Project Level (e.g., State-wide) Child Results Implementation Quality and Staff Management
Scores Data Table Total Communication Growth Chart
Child’s Data Summary Child’s Data Table Individual Child Report
Child’s Scores Benchmark Trajectory Slightly Below Benchmark Below Benchmark Child’s Trajectory Intervention or condition Line
Average Growth Trajectory Individual Children of Concern Distribution of Proficiency
The psychometric standards (AERA, 1999): Reliability Validity (Criterion and predictive) Progress monitoring standards (NCPM, 2007): Alternate forms Sensitivity to student improvement (slope) Annual yearly progress (AYP) benchmarks (level at end point) Rates of improvement are specified (typical growth rates) Improvement in teacher planning and/or student learning
Literature Review and Synthesis Draft General Outcome Definition Identify Key Skills Identification, Selection, and Definitions Methods National Survey Socially Validate the General Outcome Definition Pilot Testing Identify and Select Toy Forms Pilot Testing Establish Administration Feasibility through User Testing Cross Sectional Design Phase 1 Validation Study Establish Sensitivity to Differences in Age; Reliability) Longitudinal Design Phase 2 Validation Study Demonstrate Sensitivity to Short-term Growth over Time; Reliability Scale-up Application Website Tools and Resources
Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Walker, D., Hughes, K., & Weathers, M. (2006). Preliminary investigations of the application of the Early Communication Indicator (ECI) for infants and toddlers. Journal of Early Intervention, 28(3), 178-196.
GOM approach does offer reliable and valid tools for progress monitoring in early childhood. They can be used for many purposes in intervention decision-making. Their ease of use and illustration of growth make them excellent tools for communication about children’s progress. Their sensitivity to growth allow for more frequent refinements and more effective interventions for individual children.
Advantages Universal screening (all children) Focus on short-term growth and development Linked to response to intervention and prevention strategies Supports staff planning and decisions regarding changing intervention Designed for use by early interventionists and parents Web-based support provides instant individual or group reports Limitations Requires a systematic effort to implement with fidelity Requires administrative support to use at scale
For infants and toddlers Communication, Movement, Problem Solving, Social, and Parent/Child Interaction http://www.igdi.ku.edu http://www.igdi.ku.edu For preschoolers Early Literacy: Vocabulary, Alliteration, and Rhyming http://ggg.umn.edu http://ggg.umn.edu For kindergarten to grade 3 Early Literacy: Reading http://dibels.org http://dibels.org
Public Pages: Information, access, training, and materials Private Pages (Requires UserID and Password): Data services (collection, entry, management, and reporting) ▪ $1 per child or ▪ Participation in research/demonstration activities
New progress monitoring work in development at the Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood (CRTIEC) Oral Vocabulary Phonemic Awareness Book Knowledge Comprehension Online at http://www.crtiec.orghttp://www.crtiec.org
Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., & Walker, D. (2005). Individual growth and development indicators (IGDIs): Tools for assessing intervention results for infants and toddlers. In B. Heward & et al. (Eds.), Focus on Behavior Analysis in Education: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities (Chapter 6) (pp. 103-124). Columbus, OH: Pearson/Prentice-Hall. Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Baggett, K., Buzhardt, J., Walker, D., & Terry, B. (2008). Best practices in integrating progress monitoring and response-to- intervention concepts into early childhood systems. In A. Thomas, J. Grimes & J. Gruba (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp. 535-548). Washington DC: National Association of School Psychology. McConnell, S. R., McEvoy, M. A., & Priest, J. S. (2002). Growing measures for monitoring progress in early childhood education: A research and development process for Individual Growth and Development Indicators. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 27(4), 3-14. Walker, D., Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C., & Buzhardt, J. (2008). The use of Individual Growth and Development Indicators for progress monitoring and intervention decision making in early education. Exceptionality, 16(1), 33-47.
Carta, J. J., Greenwood, C. R., Walker, D., Kaminski, R., Good, R., McConnell, S. R., & McEvoy, M. (2005). Individual growth and development indicators (IGDIs): Assessment that guides intervention for young children. Young Exceptional Children, 4, 15-27. Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., & Walker, D. (2004). Individual growth and development indicators (IGDIs): Tools for assessing intervention results for infants and toddlers. In B. Heward et al., (Eds.), Focus on Behavior Analysis in Education: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities (Chapter 6, pp. 103-124). Pearson/Prentice-Hall: Columbus, OH. Greenwood, C. R., Carta, Walker, D., Carta, J. J., & Hughes, K. (2006). Preliminary investigators of the application of the Early Communication Indicator (ECI) for infants and toddlers. Journal of Early Intervention, 28, 178-196. Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., Baggett, K., Buzhardt, J., Walker, D., & Terry, B. (2008). Best practices integrating progress monitoring and response to intervention concepts into early childhood systems for infants and toddlers. In A. Thomas, J. Grimes & J. Gruba (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V. Washington DC: National Association of School Psychology, Washington, DC.
If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will get you there. ---- Lewis Carroll But trajectories can illustrate whether child is on a path toward achieving important outcomes or is closing the gap.