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LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert.

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Presentation on theme: "LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert."— Presentation transcript:

1 LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick Soil and Plant Nutrition Chapter 37

2 Overview: A Horrifying Discovery Carnivory by pitcher plants is well-documented An extreme example is Nepenthes rajah, a pitcher plant large enough to catch a rat N. Rajah lives in very unproductive soil and uses carnivory to obtain nutrients such as calcium, potassium, and phosphorus © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Figure 37.1

4 Concept 37.1: Soil contains a living, complex ecosystem Plants obtain most of their water and minerals from the upper layers of soil Living organisms play an important role in these soil layers This complex ecosystem is fragile The basic physical properties of soil are  Texture  Composition © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 Soil Texture Soil particles are classified by size; from largest to smallest they are called sand, silt, and clay Soil is stratified into layers called soil horizons Topsoil consists of mineral particles, living organisms, and humus, the decaying organic material © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Figure 37.2 A horizon B horizon C horizon

7 Soil solution consists of water and dissolved minerals in the pores between soil particles After a heavy rainfall, water drains from the larger spaces in the soil, but smaller spaces retain water because of its attraction to clay and other particles Loams are the most fertile topsoils and contain equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Topsoil Composition A soil’s composition refers to its inorganic (mineral) and organic chemical components © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Inorganic Components Cations (for example K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ ) adhere to negatively charged soil particles; this prevents them from leaching out of the soil through percolating groundwater © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 During cation exchange, cations are displaced from soil particles by other cations Displaced cations enter the soil solution and can be taken up by plant roots Negatively charged ions do not bind with soil particles and can be lost from the soil by leaching © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: How Plants Obtain Minerals from Soil

11 Figure 37.3 Soil particle Root hair Cell wall H 2 O  CO 2 HH HH KK KK KK Ca 2  Mg 2           HCO 3   H 2 CO 3

12 Organic Components Humus builds a crumbly soil that retains water but is still porous Topsoil contains bacteria, fungi, algae, other protists, insects, earthworms, nematodes, and plant roots These organisms help to decompose organic material and mix the soil © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture Soil management, by fertilization and other practices, allowed for agriculture and cities In contrast with natural ecosystems, agriculture depletes the mineral content of soil, taxes water reserves, and encourages erosion The American Dust Bowl of the 1930s resulted from soil mismanagement © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Figure 37.4

15 At present, 30% of the world’s farmland has reduced productivity because of soil mismanagement The goal of sustainable agriculture is to use farming methods that are conservation-minded, environmentally safe, and profitable © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 Irrigation Irrigation is a huge drain on water resources when used for farming in arid regions  For example, 75% of global freshwater use is devoted to agriculture The primary source of irrigation water is underground water reserves called aquifers The depleting of aquifers can result in land subsidence, the settling or sinking of land © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 Figure 37.5

18 Irrigation can lead to salinization, the concentration of salts in soil as water evaporates Drip irrigation requires less water and reduces salinization © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 Fertilization Soils can become depleted of nutrients as plants and the nutrients they contain are harvested Fertilization replaces mineral nutrients that have been lost from the soil Commercial fertilizers are enriched in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) Excess minerals are often leached from the soil and can cause algal blooms in lakes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 Organic fertilizers are composed of manure, fishmeal, or compost They release N, P, and K as they decompose © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Adjusting Soil pH Soil pH affects cation exchange and the chemical form of minerals Cations are more available in slightly acidic soil, as H + ions displace mineral cations from clay particles The availability of different minerals varies with pH  For example, at pH 8 plants can absorb calcium but not iron © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 Controlling Erosion Topsoil from thousands of acres of farmland is lost to water and wind erosion each year in the United States Erosion of soil causes loss of nutrients © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Erosion can be reduced by –Planting trees as windbreaks –Terracing hillside crops –Cultivating in a contour pattern –Practicing no-till agriculture © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 Figure 37.6

25 Phytoremediation Some areas are unfit for agriculture because of contamination of soil or groundwater with toxic pollutants Phytoremediation is a biological, nondestructive technology that reclaims contaminated areas Plants capable of extracting soil pollutants are grown and are then disposed of safely © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 Concept 37.2: Plants require essential elements to complete their life cycle Soil, water, and air all contribute to plant growth –80–90% of a plant’s fresh mass is water –4% of a plant’s dry mass is inorganic substances from soil –96% of plant’s dry mass is from CO 2 assimilated during photosynthesis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 Macronutrients and Micronutrients More than 50 chemical elements have been identified among the inorganic substances in plants, but not all of these are essential to plants There are 17 essential elements, chemical elements required for a plant to complete its life cycle Researchers use hydroponic culture to determine which chemical elements are essential © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Figure 37.7 Control: Solution containing all minerals Experimental: Solution without potassium TECHNIQUE

29 Nine of the essential elements are called macronutrients because plants require them in relatively large amounts The macronutrients are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, and magnesium © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 The remaining eight are called micronutrients because plants need them in very small amounts The micronutrients are chlorine, iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, nickel, and molybdenum Plants with C 4 and CAM photosynthetic pathways also need sodium Micronutrients function as cofactors, nonprotein helpers in enzymatic reactions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency Symptoms of mineral deficiency depend on the nutrient’s function and mobility within the plant Deficiency of a mobile nutrient usually affects older organs more than young ones Deficiency of a less mobile nutrient usually affects younger organs more than older ones The most common deficiencies are those of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Figure 37.8 Healthy Phosphate-deficient Potassium-deficient Nitrogen-deficient

33 Improving Plant Nutrition by Genetic Modification: Some Examples Plants can be genetically engineered to better fit the soil © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 Smart Plants “Smart” plants inform the grower of a nutrient deficiency before damage has occurred A blue tinge indicates when these plants need phosphate-containing fertilizer © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 Figure 37.9 No phosphorus deficiency Beginning phosphorus deficiency Well-developed phosphorus deficiency

36 Concept 37.3: Plant nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms Plants and soil microbes have a mutualistic relationship – Dead plants provide energy needed by soil- dwelling microorganisms – Secretions from living roots support a wide variety of microbes in the near-root environment © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 Soil Bacteria and Plant Nutrition The layer of soil bound to the plant’s roots is the rhizosphere The rhizosphere contains bacteria that act as decomposers and nitrogen-fixers © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 Rhizobacteria Free-living rhizobacteria thrive in the rhizosphere, and some can enter roots The rhizosphere has high microbial activity because of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids secreted by roots © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

39 Rhizobacteria can play several roles – Produce hormones that stimulate plant growth – Produce antibiotics that protect roots from disease – Absorb toxic metals or make nutrients more available to roots © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 Bacteria in the Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen can be an important limiting nutrient for plant growth The nitrogen cycle transforms nitrogen and nitrogen-containing compounds Plants can absorb nitrogen as either NO 3 – or NH 4  Most soil nitrogen comes from actions of soil bacteria © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 Figure 37.10 ATMOSPHERE SOIL N2N2 N2N2 N2N2 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria Denitrifying bacteria H  (from soil) Ammonifying bacteria Organic material (humus) Nitrate and nitrogenous organic compounds exported in xylem to shoot system Root NH 3 (ammonia) NH 4  (ammonium) Nitrifying bacteria NO 3  (nitrate) NH 4 

42 Figure 37.10a-1 N2N2 Nitrogen-fixing bacteria Ammonifying bacteria Organic material (humus) NH 3 (ammonia)

43 Figure 37.10a-2 ATMOSPHERE N2N2 N2N2 SOIL Nitrogen-fixing bacteria Denitrifying bacteria H  (from soil) Ammonifying bacteria Organic material (humus) Nitrate and nitrogenous organic compounds exported in xylem to shoot system Root NH 3 (ammonia) NH 4  (ammonium) Nitrifying bacteria NO 3  (nitrate) NH 4 

44 Conversion to NH 4   Ammonifying bacteria break down organic compounds and release ammonia (NH 3 )  Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert N 2 into NH 3  NH 3 is converted to NH 4  Conversion to NO 3 –  Nitrifying bacteria oxidize NH 3 to nitrite (NO 2 – ) then nitrite to nitrate (NO 3 – ) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 Nitrogen is lost to the atmosphere when denitrifying bacteria convert NO 3 – to N 2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

46 Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria: A Closer Look Nitrogen is abundant in the atmosphere, but unavailable to plants because of the triple bond between atoms in N 2 Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen from N 2 to NH 3 N 2  8e   8 H   16 ATP  2 NH 3  H 2  16 ADP  16 P i Symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria provide some plant species (e.g., legumes) with a source of fixed nitrogen © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Along a legume’s roots are swellings called nodules, composed of plant cells “infected” by nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 Figure 37.11 (a) Soybean root (b) Bacteroids in a soybean root nodule Nodules Roots 5  m Bacteroids within vesicle

49 Inside the root nodule, Rhizobium bacteria assume a form called bacteroids, which are contained within vesicles formed by the root cell © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 The plant obtains fixed nitrogen from Rhizobium, and Rhizobium obtains sugar and an anaerobic environment Each legume species is associated with a particular strain of Rhizobium The development of a nitrogen-fixing root nodule depends on chemical dialogue between Rhizobium bacteria and root cells of their specific plant hosts © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

51 Figure 37.12 Infection thread Rhizobium bacteria Dividing cells in root cortex Chemical signals attract bacteria and an infection thread forms. Infected root hair Nodule vascular tissue Bacteroids Sclerenchyma cells Bacteroid The mature nodule grows to be many times the diameter of the root. Nodule vascular tissue Bacteroids form. Bacteroid Dividing cells in pericycle Bacteroid Root hair sloughed off Developing root nodule Growth continues and a root nodule forms. The nodule develops vascular tissue. 23451

52 Nitrogen Fixation and Agriculture Crop rotation takes advantage of the agricultural benefits of symbiotic nitrogen fixation A nonlegume such as maize is planted one year, and the next year a legume is planted to restore the concentration of fixed nitrogen in the soil © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 Instead of being harvested, the legume crop is often plowed under to decompose as “green manure” Nonlegumes such as alder trees and certain tropical grasses benefit from nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rice paddies often contain an aquatic fern that has mutualistic cyanobacteria that fix nitrogen © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

54 Fungi and Plant Nutrition Mycorrhizae are mutualistic associations of fungi and roots The fungus benefits from a steady supply of sugar from the host plant The host plant benefits because the fungus increases the surface area for water uptake and mineral absorption Mycorrhizal fungi also secrete growth factors that stimulate root growth and branching © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

55 Mycorrhizae and Plant Evolution Mycorrhizal fungi date to 460 million years ago and might have helped plants colonize land © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 The Two Main Types of Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizal associations consist of two major types –Ectomycorrhizae –Arbuscular mycorrhizae © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 In ectomycorrhizae, the mycelium of the fungus forms a dense sheath over the surface of the root These hyphae form a network in the apoplast, but do not penetrate the root cells Ectomycorrhizae occur in about 10% of plant families including pine, spruce, oak, walnut, birch, willow, and eucalyptus © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 Figure 37.13aa Epidermis Cortex Mantle (fungal sheath) Epidermal cell Endodermis Fungal hyphae between cortical cells (Colorized SEM) 1.5 mm (LM) 50  m Mantle (fungal sheath) (a) Ectomycorrhizae

59 In arbuscular mycorrhizae, microscopic fungal hyphae extend into the root These mycorrhizae penetrate the cell wall but not the plasma membrane to form branched arbuscules within root cells Hyphae can form arbuscules within cells; these are important sites of nutrient transfer Arbuscular mycorrhizae occur in about 85% of plant species, including grains and legumes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

60 Figure 37.13ba 10  m Epidermis Cortex Endodermis Cortical cell Fungal vesicle Casparian strip Arbuscules Plasma membrane (LM) Fungal hyphae Root hair (b) Arbuscular mycorrhizae (endomycorrhizae)

61 Agricultural and Ecological Importance of Mycorrhizae Farmers and foresters often inoculate seeds with fungal spores to promote formation of mycorrhizae Some invasive exotic plants disrupt interactions between native plants and their mycorrhizal fungi –For example, garlic mustard slows growth of other plants by preventing the growth of mycorrhizal fungi © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

62 Epiphytes, Parasitic Plants, and Carnivorous Plants Some plants have nutritional adaptations that use other organisms in nonmutualistic ways Three unusual adaptations are –Epiphytes –Parasitic plants –Carnivorous plants An epiphyte grows on another plant and obtains water and minerals from rain © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

63 Figure 37.15a Staghorn fern, an epiphyte

64 Parasitic plants absorb sugars and minerals from their living host plant © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

65 Figure 37.15b Mistletoe, a photo- synthetic parasite Dodder, a nonphotosynthetic parasite (orange) Indian pipe, a nonphoto- synthetic parasite of mycorrhizae

66 Pitcher plants Sundews Venus flytrap Figure 37.15c

67 Carnivorous plants are photosynthetic but obtain nitrogen by killing and digesting mostly insects © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Video: Sun Dew Trapping Prey

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