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LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert.

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Presentation on theme: "LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert."— Presentation transcript:

1 LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life Chapter 22

2 Assignments: - Study Chapter 22 - Do the MasteringBiology exercises for Chapt 22

3 Overview: Endless Forms Most Beautiful A new era of biology began in 1859 when Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species Darwin noted that current species are descendants of ancestral species Evolution can be defined by Darwin’s phrase descent with modification Evolution can be viewed as both a pattern and a process © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

4  Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution. Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.” Hutton proposes his principle of gradualism. Charles Darwin is born. Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle. The Galápagos Islands Darwin writes his essay on descent with modification. On the Origin of Species is published. While studying species in the Malay Archipelago, Wallace (shown in 1848) sends Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection Cuvier publishes his extensive studies of vertebrate fossils and Proposed catastrophism. Lyell publishes Principles of Geology Linnaeus developed binomial naming for species.

5 Sedimentary rock layers (strata) Younger stratum with more recent fossils Older stratum with older fossils Paleontology

6  Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution. Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.” Hutton proposes his principle of gradualism. Charles Darwin is born. Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle. The Galápagos Islands Darwin writes his essay on descent with modification. On the Origin of Species is published. While studying species in the Malay Archipelago, Wallace (shown in 1848) sends Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection Cuvier publishes his extensive studies of vertebrate fossils and Proposed catastrophism. Lyell publishes Principles of Geology Linnaeus developed binomial naming for species.

7 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

8  Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution. Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.” Hutton proposes his principle of gradualism. Charles Darwin is born. Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle. The Galápagos Islands Darwin writes his essay on descent with modification. On the Origin of Species is published. While studying species in the Malay Archipelago, Wallace (shown in 1848) sends Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection Cuvier publishes his extensive studies of vertebrate fossils and Proposed catastrophism. Lyell publishes Principles of Geology Linnaeus developed binomial naming for species.

9 Figure 22.5 Darwin in 1840, after his return from the voyage The Galápagos Islands NORTH AMERICA ATLANTIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN Pinta Marchena Genovesa Equator Chile Santiago Daphne Islands Fernandina Isabela Santa Cruz Santa Fe San Cristobal Española Kilometers Florenza Pinzón SOUTH AMERICA AFRICA EUROPE Great Britain HMS Beagle in port Equator PACIFIC OCEAN Malay Archipelago AUSTRALIA Tasmania New Zealand Brazil Argentina Cape Horn Andes Mtns. Cape of Good Hope

10 Figure 22.6 (a) Cactus-eater (b) Insect-eater (c) Seed-eater

11 The Origin of Species Darwin explained three broad observations: –The unity of life –The diversity of life –The match between organisms and their environment © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 Figure 22.8 Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) Sirenia (Manatees and relatives) † Deinotherium † Mammut † Platybelodon † Stegodon † Mammuthus Elephas maximus (Asia) Loxodonta africana (Africa) Loxodonta cyclotis (Africa) † Moeritherium † Barytherium 60 Millions of years ago Years ago

13 Brussels sprouts Kale Selection for leaves Selection for axillary (side) buds Selection for apical (tip) bud Cabbage Broccoli Kohlrabi Wild mustard Selection for stems Selection for flowers and stems Artificial Selection

14 Observation #1: Members of a population often vary in their inherited traits © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 Observation #2: All species can produce more offspring than the environment can support, and many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduce © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 Figure 22.UN02 Observations Individuals in a population vary in their heritable characteristics. Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support. Individuals that are well suited to their environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals. Inferences and Over time, favorable traits accumulate in the population.

17 Natural Selection: A Summary Individuals with certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals Natural selection increases the adaptation of organisms to their environment over time If an environment changes over time, natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions and may give rise to new species

18 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. -Direct Observations of Evolutionary Change -Homology -Fossil records -biogeography

19 Soapberry bug with beak inserted in balloon vine fruit FIELD STUDY Direct Observations of Evolutionary Change

20 Figure 22.13b On native species, southern Florida Museum-specimen average On introduced species, central Florida Number of individuals Beak Beak length (mm) RESULTS 9 Ballon vine fruit Goldenrain tree fruit

21 1 2,750,000 2,500,000 2,250,000 2,000,000 1,750,000 1,500,000 1,250,000 1,000, , , ,000 base pairs Chromosome map of S. aureus clone USA300 Key to adaptations Methicillin resistance Ability to colonize hosts Increased disease severity Increased gene exchange (within species) and toxin production Figure 22.14

22 CONCLUSION: Natural selection does not create new traits, but edits or selects for traits already present in the population The local environment determines which traits will be selected for or selected against in any specific population © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Homology Homology is similarity resulting from common ancestry © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Homologous structures are anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme present in a common ancestor Examples of homologies at the molecular level are genes shared among organisms inherited from a common ancestor

24 Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Human Cat Whale Bat Mammalian forelimbs: homologous structures

25 Pharyngeal pouches Post-anal tail Chick embryo (LM) Human embryo Comparative embryology reveals anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms

26 Vestigial structures are remnants of features that served important functions in the organism’s ancestors

27 Homologies and “Tree Thinking” Evolutionary trees are hypotheses about the relationships among different groups Homologies form nested patterns in evolutionary trees Evolutionary trees can be made using different types of data, for example, anatomical and DNA sequence data © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Figure Branch point Lungfishes Amphibians Mammals Lizards and snakes Crocodiles Ostriches Hawks and other birds Feathers Amnion Digit- bearing limbs Homologous characteristic Tetrapods Amniotes Birds

29 A Different Cause of Resemblance: Convergent Evolution Convergent evolution is the evolution of similar, or analogous, features in distantly related groups Analogous traits arise when groups independently adapt to similar environments in similar ways Convergent evolution does not provide information about ancestry

30 The Fossil Record The fossil record provides evidence of the extinction of species, the origin of new groups, and changes within groups over time Fossils can document important transitions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 Other even-toed ungulates Hippopotamuses † Pakicetus † Rodhocetus † Dorudon Living cetaceans Common ancestor of cetaceans Millions of years ago 70 Key PelvisTibia FemurFoot Transition from land to sea in the ancestors of cetaceans

32 Present Cenozoic North America Eurasia Africa South America India Antarctica Madagascar Australia Mesozoic Paleozoic Millions of years ago Laurasia Gondwana Pangaea Biogeography Biogeography, the geographic distribution of species, provides evidence of evolution Earth’s continents were formerly united in a single large continent called Pangaea, but have since separated by continental drift

33 What Is Theoretical About Darwin’s View of Life? In science, a theory accounts for many observations and data and attempts to explain and integrate a great variety of phenomena Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection integrates diverse areas of biological study and stimulates many new research questions Ongoing research adds to our understanding of evolution © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


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