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CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole.

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Presentation on theme: "CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole."— Presentation transcript:

1 CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece Lecture Presentations by Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Nicole Tunbridge 23 Broad Patterns of Evolution

2 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview: Lost Worlds  Past organisms were very different from those now alive  The fossil record shows evidence of macroevolution, broad changes above the species level; for example  The emergence of terrestrial vertebrates  The impact of mass extinctions  The origin of flight in birds

3 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.1

4 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.UN01 Cryolophosaurus skull

5 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 23.1: The fossil record documents life’s history  The fossil record reveals changes in the history of life on Earth Video: Grand Canyon

6 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2 Dimetrodon Coccosteus cuspidatus Stromatolites Tappania Tiktaalik Hallucigenia Dickinsonia costata 3,500 1,500 600 560 510 500 400 375 300 270 200 175 100 mya 0.5 m 4.5 cm 1 cm 1 m 2.5 cm Rhomaleosaurus victor

7 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2a Stromatolite cross section

8 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2b Stromatolites

9 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2c Tappania

10 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2d Dickinsonia costata 2.5 cm

11 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2e Hallucigenia 1 cm

12 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2f Coccosteus cuspidatus 4.5 cm

13 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2g Tiktaalik

14 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2h Dimetrodon 0.5 m

15 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.2i Rhomaleosaurus victor 1 m

16 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Fossil Record  Sedimentary rocks are deposited into layers called strata and are the richest source of fossils  The fossil record indicates that there have been great changes in the kinds of organisms on Earth at different points in time

17 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Few individuals have fossilized, and even fewer have been discovered  The fossil record is biased in favor of species that  Existed for a long time  Were abundant and widespread  Had hard parts

18 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated  Sedimentary strata reveal the relative ages of fossils  The absolute ages of fossils can be determined by radiometric dating  A “parent” isotope decays to a “daughter” isotope at a constant rate  Each isotope has a known half-life, the time required for half the parent isotope to decay

19 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.3 ½ ¼ ⅛ Time (half-lives) Fraction of parent isotope remaining Remaining “parent” isotope Accumulating “daughter” isotope 124 1 16 3

20 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Radiocarbon dating can be used to date fossils up to 75,000 years old  For older fossils, some isotopes can be used to date volcanic rock layers above and below the fossil

21 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  The geologic record is a standard time scale dividing Earth’s history into the Hadean, Archaean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic eons  The Phanerozoic encompasses most of the time that animals have existed on Earth  The Phanerozoic is divided into three eras: the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic  Major boundaries between geological divisions correspond to extinction events in the fossil record The Geologic Record Animation: The Geologic Record

22 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 23.1

23 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 23.1a

24 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 23.1b

25 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  The oldest known fossils are stromatolites, rocks formed by the accumulation of sedimentary layers on bacterial mats  Stromatolites date back 3.5 billion years ago  Prokaryotes were Earth’s sole inhabitants for more than 1.5 billion years

26 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Early prokaryotes released oxygen into the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis  The increase in atmospheric oxygen that began 2.4 billion years ago led to the extinction of many organisms  The eukaryotes flourished in the oxygen-rich atmosphere and gave rise to multicellular organisms

27 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Origin of New Groups of Organisms  Mammals belong to the group of animals called tetrapods  The evolution of unique mammalian features can be traced through gradual changes over time

28 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.4 OTHER TETRA- PODS Synapsid (300 mya) Reptiles (including dinosaurs and birds) † Very late (non- mammalian) cynodonts † Dimetrodon Mammals Synapsids Therapsids Cynodonts Key to skull bones ArticularDentary QuadrateSquamosal Early cynodont (260 mya) Temporal fenestra (partial view) Hinge Temporal fenestra Hinge Temporal fenestra Hinge Therapsid (280 mya) New hinge Very late cynodont (195 mya) Original hinge Later cynodont (220 mya)

29 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.4a OTHER TETRAPODS Reptiles (including dinosaurs and birds) Mammals † Very late (non- mammalian) cynodonts † Dimetrodon Cynodonts Therapsids Synapsids

30 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Synapsids (300 mya) had single-pointed teeth, large temporal fenestra, and a jaw hinge between the articular and quadrate bones

31 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Therapsids (280 mya) had large dentary bones, long faces, and specialized teeth, including large canines

32 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.4b Synapsid (300 mya) Therapsid (280 mya) Key to skull bones Articular Quadrate Dentary Squamosal Temporal fenestra Temporal fenestra Hinge

33 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Early cynodonts (260 mya) had large dentary bones in the lower jaw, large temporal fenestra in front of the jaw hinge, and teeth with several cusps

34 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Later cynodonts (220 mya) had teeth with complex cusp patterns and an additional jaw hinge between the dentary and squamosal bones

35 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Very late cynodonts (195 mya) lost the original articular-quadrate jaw hinge  The articular and quadrate bones formed inner ear bones that functioned in transmitting sound  In mammals, these bones became the hammer (malleus) and anvil (incus) bones of the ear

36 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.4c Key to skull bones Articular Quadrate Dentary Squamosal Hinge New hinge Original hinge Hinge Temporal fenestra (partial view) Early cynodont (260 mya) Later cynodont (220 mya) Very late cynodont (195 mya)

37 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  The history of life on Earth has seen the rise and fall of many groups of organisms  The rise and fall of groups depend on speciation and extinction rates within the group Concept 23.2: The rise and fall of groups of organisms reflect differences in speciation and extinction rates

38 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.5 Common ancestor of lineages A and B Millions of years ago Lineage B Lineage A † † † † † † 4321 0

39 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Plate Tectonics  At three points in time, the landmasses of Earth have formed a supercontinent: 1.1 billion, 600 million, and 250 million years ago  According to the theory of plate tectonics, Earth’s crust is composed of plates floating on Earth’s mantle

40 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.6 Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core

41 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Tectonic plates move slowly through the process of continental drift  Oceanic and continental plates can separate, slide past each other, or collide  Interactions between plates cause the formation of mountains and islands and earthquakes Video: Lava Flow Video: Volcanic Eruption

42 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.7 Eurasian Plate Philippine Plate Australian Plate Indian Plate Arabian Plate African Plate Antarctic Plate Scotia Plate Nazca Plate South American Plate Pacific Plate Caribbean Plate North American Plate Juan de Fuca Plate Cocos Plate

43 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Consequences of Continental Drift  Formation of the supercontinent Pangaea about 250 million years ago had many effects  A deepening of ocean basins  A reduction in shallow water habitat  A colder and drier climate inland

44 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.8 Collision of India with Eurasia Present-day continents Laurasia and Gondwana landmasses The supercontinent Pangaea Gondwana Laurasia Antarctica Eurasia Africa India Australia North America South America Madagascar Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic 251 mya 135 mya 65.5 mya 45 mya Present

45 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.8a Laurasia and Gondwana landmasses The supercontinent Pangaea Gondwana Laurasia Mesozoic Paleozoic 251 mya 135 mya

46 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.8b Collision of India with Eurasia Present-day continents Antarctica Eurasia Africa India Australia North America South America Madagascar Cenozoic 65.5 mya 45 mya Present

47 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Continental drift can cause a continent’s climate to change as it moves north or south  Separation of landmasses can lead to allopatric speciation  For example, frog species in the subfamilies Mantellinae and Rhacophorinae began to diverge when Madagascar separated from India

48 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.9 Millions of years ago (mya) Mantellinae (Madagascar only): 100 species Rhacophorinae (India/southeast Asia): 310 species India Madagascar 56 mya88 mya 11 2 2 80 60 40 20 0

49 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  The distribution of fossils and living groups reflects the historic movement of continents  For example, the similarity of fossils in parts of South America and Africa is consistent with the idea that these continents were formerly attached

50 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mass Extinctions  The fossil record shows that most species that have ever lived are now extinct  Extinction can be caused by changes to a species’ environment  At times, the rate of extinction has increased dramatically and caused a mass extinction  Mass extinction is the result of disruptive global environmental changes

51 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The “Big Five” Mass Extinction Events  In each of the five mass extinction events, more than 50% of Earth’s species became extinct

52 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.10 Time (mya) Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic 54248844441635929925120014565.5 0 EOSDCPTrJPCN Q 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1,100 Era Period Total extinction rate (families per million years): Number of families: 0 5 10 15 20 25

53 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  The Permian extinction defines the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras 251 million years ago  This mass extinction occurred in less than 500,000 years and caused the extinction of about 96% of marine animal species

54 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  A number of factors might have contributed to these extinctions  Intense volcanism in what is now Siberia  Global warming resulting from the emission of large amounts of CO 2 from the volcanoes  Reduced temperature gradient from equator to poles  Oceanic anoxia from reduced mixing of ocean waters

55 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  The Cretaceous mass extinction 65.5 million years ago separates the Mesozoic from the Cenozoic  Organisms that went extinct include about half of all marine species and many terrestrial plants and animals, including most dinosaurs

56 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  The presence of iridium in sedimentary rocks suggests a meteorite impact about 65 million years ago  Dust clouds caused by the impact would have blocked sunlight and disturbed global climate  The Chicxulub crater off the coast of Mexico is evidence of a meteorite collision that dates to the same time

57 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.11 NORTH AMERICA Yucatán Peninsula Chicxulub crater

58 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Is a Sixth Mass Extinction Under Way?  Scientists estimate that the current rate of extinction is 100 to 1,000 times the typical background rate  Extinction rates tend to increase when global temperatures increase  Data suggest that a sixth, human-caused mass extinction is likely to occur unless dramatic action is taken

59 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.12 Mass extinctions CoolerWarmer Relative temperature 012−2−2−1−1−3−3 −2−2 −1−1 0 1 2 3 Relative extinction rate of marine animal genera 34

60 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Consequences of Mass Extinctions  Mass extinction can alter ecological communities and the niches available to organisms  It can take 5–100 million years for diversity to recover following a mass extinction  The type of organisms residing in a community can change with mass extinction  For example, the percentage of marine predators increased after the Permian and Cretaceous mass extinctions  Mass extinction can pave the way for adaptive radiations

61 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.13 Time (mya) Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic 54248844441635929925120014565.50 EOSDCPTrJPCN Q Era Period 0 10 20 30 40 50 Predator genera (%) Permian mass extinction Cretaceous mass extinction

62 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptive Radiations  Adaptive radiation is the evolution of many diversely adapted species from a common ancestor  Adaptive radiations may follow  Mass extinctions  The evolution of novel characteristics  The colonization of new regions

63 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Worldwide Adaptive Radiations  Mammals underwent an adaptive radiation after the extinction of terrestrial dinosaurs  The disappearance of dinosaurs (except birds) allowed for the expansion of mammals in diversity and size  Other notable radiations include photosynthetic prokaryotes, large predators in the Cambrian, land plants, insects, and tetrapods

64 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.14 Ancestral mammal ANCESTRAL CYNODONT Time (millions of years ago) 250200150100500 Eutherians (5,010 species) Marsupials (324 species) Monotremes (5 species)

65 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Regional Adaptive Radiations  Adaptive radiations can occur when organisms colonize new environments with little competition  The Hawaiian Islands are one of the world’s great showcases of adaptive radiation Animation: Allometric Growth

66 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.15 Close North American relative, the tarweed Carlquistia muirii Argyroxiphium sandwicense Dubautia linearis Dubautia scabra Dubautia waialealae Dubautia laxa KAUAI 5.1 million years OAHU 3.7 million years HAWAII 0.4 million years 1.3 million years MAUI MOLOKAI LANAI N

67 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.15a KAUAI 5.1 million years OAHU 3.7 million years HAWAII 0.4 million years 1.3 million years MAUI MOLOKAI LANAI N

68 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.15b Close North American relative, the tarweed Carlquistia muirii

69 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.15c Dubautia waialealae

70 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.15d Dubautia laxa

71 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.15e Dubautia scabra

72 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.15f Argyroxiphium sandwicense

73 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.15g Dubautia linearis

74 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Studying genetic mechanisms of change can provide insight into large-scale evolutionary change Concept 23.3: Major changes in body form can result from changes in the sequences and regulation of developmental genes

75 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Effects of Development Genes  Genes that program development influence the rate, timing, and spatial pattern of changes in an organism’s form as it develops into an adult

76 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Changes in Rate and Timing  Heterochrony is an evolutionary change in the rate or timing of developmental events  It can have a significant impact on body shape  The contrasting shapes of human and chimpanzee skulls are the result of small changes in relative growth rates

77 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.16 Chimpanzee infantChimpanzee adult Chimpanzee fetus Human adultHuman fetus

78 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.16a Chimpanzee infantChimpanzee adult

79 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Another example of heterochrony can be seen in the skeletal structure of bat wings, which resulted from increased growth rates of the finger bones

80 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.17 Hand and finger bones

81 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Heterochrony can alter the timing of reproductive development relative to the development of nonreproductive organs  In paedomorphosis, the rate of reproductive development accelerates compared with somatic development  The sexually mature species may retain body features that were juvenile structures in an ancestral species

82 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.18 Gills

83 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Changes in Spatial Pattern  Substantial evolutionary change can also result from alterations in genes that control the placement and organization of body parts  Homeotic genes determine such basic features as where wings and legs will develop on a bird or how a flower’s parts are arranged

84 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Hox genes are a class of homeotic genes that provide positional information during animal development  If Hox genes are expressed in the wrong location, body parts can be produced in the wrong location  For example, in crustaceans, a swimming appendage can be produced instead of a feeding appendage

85 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Evolution of Development  Adaptive evolution of both new and existing genes may have played a key role in shaping the diversity of life  Developmental genes may have been particularly important in this process

86 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Changes in Gene Sequence  New morphological forms likely come from gene duplication events that produce new developmental genes  A possible mechanism for the evolution of six-legged insects from a many-legged crustacean ancestor has been demonstrated in lab experiments  Specific changes in the Ubx gene have been identified that can “turn off” leg development

87 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.19 Hox gene 6Hox gene 7Hox gene 8 About 400 mya DrosophilaArtemia Ubx

88 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Changes in Gene Regulation  Changes in morphology likely result from changes in the regulation of developmental genes rather than changes in the sequence of developmental genes  For example, threespine sticklebacks in lakes have fewer spines than their marine relatives  The gene sequence remains the same, but the regulation of gene expression is different in the two groups of fish

89 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.UN03 Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) Ventral spines

90 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.20 Hypothesis A: Differences in sequence Hypothesis B: Differences in expression Results Marine stickleback embryo: expression in ventral spine and mouth regions Lake stickleback embryo: expression only in mouth regions Result: No The 283 amino acids of the Pitx1 protein are identical. Result: Yes Red arrows indicate regions of Pitx1 expression.

91 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.20a Marine stickleback embryo: expression in ventral spine and mouth regions Red arrows indicate regions of Pitx1 expression.

92 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.20b Lake stickleback embryo: expression only in mouth regions Red arrows indicate regions of Pitx1 expression.

93 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 23.4: Evolution is not goal oriented  Evolution is like tinkering—it is a process in which new forms arise by the slight modification of existing forms

94 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Evolutionary Novelties  Most novel biological structures evolve in many stages from previously existing structures  Complex eyes have evolved from simple photosensitive cells independently many times  Exaptations are structures that evolve in one context but become co-opted for a different function  Natural selection can only improve a structure in the context of its current utility

95 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.21 (a) Patch of pigmented cells Pigmented cells (photoreceptors) Nerve fibers Epithelium Example: Patella, a limpet (b) Eyecup Nerve fibers Pigmented cells Example: Pleurotomaria, a slit shell mollusc (c) Pinhole camera-type eye Epithelium Fluid-filled cavity Optic nerve Pigmented layer (retina) Example: Nautilus (d) Eye with primitive lens Cellular mass (lens) Cornea Optic nerve Example: Murex, a marine snail Cornea Lens Retina Optic nerve (e) Complex camera lens- type eye Example: Loligo, a squid

96 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.21a (a) Patch of pigmented cells Pigmented cells (photoreceptors) Nerve fibers Epithelium Example: Patella, a limpet

97 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.21b (b) Eyecup Nerve fibers Pigmented cells Example: Pleurotomaria, a slit shell mollusc

98 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.21c (c) Pinhole camera-type eye Epithelium Fluid-filled cavity Optic nerve Pigmented layer (retina) Example: Nautilus

99 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.21d (d) Eye with primitive lens Cellular mass (lens) Cornea Optic nerve Example: Murex, a marine snail

100 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.21e Cornea Lens Retina Optic nerve (e) Complex camera lens- type eye Example: Loligo, a squid

101 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Evolutionary Trends  Extracting a single evolutionary progression from the fossil record can be misleading  Apparent trends should be examined in a broader context  The species selection model suggests that differential speciation success may determine evolutionary trends  Evolutionary trends do not imply an intrinsic drive toward a particular phenotype

102 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.22 Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Equus Sinohippus Megahippus Hypohippus Archaeohippus Anchitherium 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Oligocene Eocene Parahippus Pliohippus Merychippus Mesohippus Miohippus Haplohippus Palaeotherium Pachynolophus Propalaeotherium Epihippus Orohippus Hyracotherium relatives Key Grazers Browsers Hipparion Neohipparion Nannippus Callippus Hippidion and close relatives Millions of years ago

103 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.22a 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Oligocene Eocene Mesohippus Miohippus Haplohippus Palaeotherium Pachynolophus Propalaeotherium Epihippus Orohippus Hyracotherium relatives Grazers Browsers Millions of years ago

104 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.22b Grazers Browsers Millions of years ago Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Equus Sinohippus Megahippus Hypohippus Archaeohippus Anchitherium 0 5 10 15 20 Parahippus Pliohippus Merychippus Hipparion Neohipparion Mio- hippus

105 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.UN02 PaleoceneEocene Millions of years ago (mya) Species with planktonic larvae Species with nonplanktonic larvae 65605550454035

106 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.UN04 Flies and fleas Caddisflies Moths and butterflies Herbivory


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