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Why did this happen?. LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter.

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Presentation on theme: "Why did this happen?. LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why did this happen?

2 LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick The Evolution of Populations Chapter 23

3 Did this bird evolve in its lifetime?

4 Evidence of selection by food source. Microevolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population over generations 1976 (similar to the prior 3 years) 1978 (after drought) Average beak depth (mm)

5 –Three mechanisms cause allele frequency change: Natural selection Genetic drift Gene flow –Only natural selection causes adaptive evolution © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Concept 23.1: BIG PICTURE: Genetic variation makes evolution possible © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 Nonheritable variation of Nemoria moths: different phenotypes due to dietary chemicals Natural selection can only act on variation with a genetic component (a)(b)

8 Variation Within a Population Both discrete and quantitative characters contribute to variation within a population –Discrete characters can be classified on an either-or basis –Quantitative characters vary along a continuum within a population © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Variation Between Populations Most species exhibit geographic variation, differences between gene pools of separate populations For example, Madeira is home to several isolated populations of mice –Chromosomal variation among populations is due to drift, not natural selection © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 Figure XX XX 6.7

11 mummichog fish vary in a cold-adaptive allele along a temperature gradient Maine Cold (6°C) Latitude (ºN) Georgia Warm (21ºC) Ldh-B b allele frequency 30 HOW DID THIS COME TO BE?

12 Sources of Genetic Variation New genes and alleles can arise by mutation or gene duplication –The average is about one mutation in every 100,000 genes per generation –An ancestral odor-detecting gene has been duplicated many times: humans have 1,000 copies of the gene, mice have 1,300 –What is the consequence? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 Three major factors alter allele frequencies and bring about most evolutionary change: 1.Natural selection 2.Genetic drift 3.Gene flow Concept 23.3: Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Genetic Drift Genetic drift describes how allele frequencies fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next due to chance events –The smaller a sample, the greater the chance of deviation from a predicted result –genetic drift tends to reduce genetic variation through losses of alleles © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 Causes of Evolutionary Change Animation: Causes of Evolutionary Change Right-click slide / select “Play”

16 Figure Generation 1 p (frequency of C R ) = 0.7 q (frequency of C W ) = 0.3 CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CWCWCWCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW Example of Genetic drift

17 Figure plants leave off- spring Generation 1 p (frequency of C R ) = 0.7 q (frequency of C W ) = 0.3 CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CWCWCWCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CWCWCWCW CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CWCWCWCW CRCWCRCW CWCWCWCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCWCRCW Generation 2 p = 0.5 q = 0.5 Example of Genetic drift

18 5 plants leave off- spring Generation 1 p (frequency of C R ) = 0.7 q (frequency of C W ) = 0.3 CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CWCWCWCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CWCWCWCW CRCWCRCW CRCRCRCR CWCWCWCW CRCWCRCW CWCWCWCW CRCRCRCR CRCWCRCW CRCWCRCW Generation 2 p = 0.5 q = plants leave off- spring CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR CRCRCRCR Generation 3 p = 1.0 q = 0.0

19 The Founder Effect The founder effect occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population  Allele frequencies in the small founder population can be different from those in the larger parent population © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 Bottleneck effect Original population

21 Figure Original population Bottlenecking event

22 The bottleneck effect is a sudden reduction in population size due to a change in the environment If the population remains small, it may be further affected by genetic drift Original population Bottlenecking event Surviving population

23 How is the bottleneck effect seen in humans affecting wild organism populations? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 Effects of Genetic Drift: A Summary 1.Genetic drift is significant in small populations 2.Genetic drift causes allele frequencies to change at random 3.Genetic drift can lead to a loss of genetic variation within populations 4.Genetic drift can cause harmful alleles to become fixed © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Gene Flow Gene flow consists of the movement of alleles amongst populations –Alleles can be transferred through the movement of fertile individuals or gametes (for example, pollen) –Gene flow tends to reduce variation among populations over time © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 Gene flow can decrease the fitness of a population Consider, for example, the great tit (Parus major) on the Dutch island of Vlieland –Mating causes gene flow between the central and eastern populations –Immigration from the mainland introduces alleles that decrease fitness –Natural selection selects for alleles that increase fitness –Birds in the central region with high immigration have a lower fitness; birds in the east with low immigration have a higher fitness © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 Gene flow and local adaptation Population in which the surviving females eventually bred Central Eastern Survival rate (%) Females born in central population Females born in eastern population Parus major Central population NORTH SEA Eastern population Vlieland, the Netherlands 2 km

28 Gene flow can also increase the fitness of a population Consider, for example, the spread of alleles for resistance to insecticides –Insecticides have been used to target mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus and malaria –Alleles have evolved in some populations that confer insecticide resistance to these mosquitoes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 Bioflix: Selection within hypothetical beetle population

30 Evolution by natural selection involves both chance and “sorting” –New genetic variations (mutations) arise by chance –Beneficial alleles are “sorted” and favored by natural selection Concept 23.4: Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 Relative fitness is the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals –Typically individuals are NOT in direct competition Selection favors certain genotypes by acting on the phenotypes of certain organisms © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Directional, Disruptive, and Stabilizing Selection Three modes of selection: –Directional selection favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range –Disruptive selection favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range –Stabilizing selection favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

33 Figure Original population Phenotypes (fur color) Frequency of individuals Original population Evolved population (a) Directional selection (b) Disruptive selection(c) Stabilizing selection

34 Striking adaptations have arisen by natural selection Bones shown in green are movable. Ligament

35 Natural selection increases the frequencies of alleles that enhance survival and reproduction Adaptive evolution occurs as the match between an organism and its environment increases Because the environment can change, adaptive evolution is a continuous process © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Evolution over time, process and outcomes

36 Genetic drift and gene flow do not consistently lead to adaptive evolution as they can increase or decrease the match between an organism and its environment © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 Why are males prettier than females?

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42 Why are males prettier than females?  outcome is sexual dimorphism

43 Intrasexual selection is competition among individuals of one sex (often males) for mates of the opposite sex Intersexual selection, often called mate choice, occurs when individuals of one sex (usually females) are choosy in selecting their mates –Male showiness due to mate choice can increase a male’s chances of attracting a female, while decreasing his chances of survival © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

44 Why do females like him the best? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 Do all animal species care about looks?

46 Figure EXPERIMENT Recording of SC male’s call Recording of LC male’s call LC male gray tree frog SC male gray tree frog Female gray tree frog SC sperm  Eggs  LC sperm Offspring of SC father LC father Survival and growth of these half-sibling offspring compared RESULTS Time to metamorphosis Larval survival Larval growth NSD = no significant difference; LC better = offspring of LC males superior to offspring of SC males. Offspring Performance LC better NSD LC better (shorter) LC better (shorter) LC better

47 Diploidy What’s the benefit? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 Diploidy Diploidy maintains genetic variation in the form of hidden recessive alleles –by carrying recessive alleles that are hidden from the effects of selection © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

49 Balancing Selection Balancing selection occurs when natural selection maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in a population Balancing selection includes –Heterozygote advantage –Frequency-dependent selection © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 Heterozygote advantage occurs when heterozygotes have a higher fitness than do both homozygotes Natural selection will tend to maintain two or more alleles at that locus The sickle-cell allele causes mutations in hemoglobin but also confers malaria resistance Heterozygote Advantage © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

51 Figure Distribution of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (a parasitic unicellular eukaryote) Key Frequencies of the sickle-cell allele 0–2.5% 2.5–5.0% 5.0–7.5% 7.5–10.0% 10.0–12.5% >12.5%

52 In frequency-dependent selection, the fitness of a phenotype declines if it becomes too common in the population Selection can favor whichever phenotype is less common in a population For example, frequency-dependent selection selects for approximately equal numbers of “right-mouthed” and “left-mouthed” scale-eating fish Frequency-Dependent Selection © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 “Left-mouthed” P. microlepis “Right-mouthed” P. microlepis Sample year ’82 ’83 ’84 ’85 ’86’87 ’88 ’89 ’90 Frequency of “left-mouthed” individuals Figure 23.18

54 Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Perfect Organisms © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

55 Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Perfect Organisms 1.Selection can act only on existing variations 2.Evolution is limited by historical constraints 3.Adaptations are often compromises 4.Chance, natural selection, and the environment interact © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 Evolutionary compromise…for the frog

57 Concept 23.2: The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to test whether a population is evolving The first step in testing whether evolution is occurring in a population is to clarify what we mean by a population © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies A population is a localized group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring A gene pool consists of all the alleles for all loci in a population © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

59 The Hardy-Weinberg Principle The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population remain constant from generation to generation, ∴ not evolving –If a population does not meet the criteria of the Hardy-Weinberg principle, it can be concluded that the population is evolving © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

60 The five conditions for nonevolving populations are rarely met in nature, and include: © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1. No mutations 2. Random mating 3. No natural selection 4. Extremely large population size 5. No gene flow

61 Figure 23.6 Porcupine herd Beaufort Sea Porcupine herd range Fortymile herd range Fortymile herd NORTHWEST TERRITORIES ALASKA CANADA MAP AREA ALASKA YUKON

62 By convention, if there are 2 alleles at a locus, p and q are used to represent their frequencies The frequency of all alleles in a population will add up to 1 –For example, p + q = 1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

63 For example, consider a population of wildflowers that is incompletely dominant for color: –320 red flowers (C R C R ) –160 pink flowers (C R C W ) –20 white flowers (C W C W ) Calculate the number of copies of each allele: –C R  (320  2)  160  800 –C W  (20  2)  160  200 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

64 To calculate the frequency of each allele: –p  freq C R  800 / (800  200)  0.8 –q  freq C W  200 / (800  200)  0.2 The sum of alleles is always 1 –0.8  0.2  1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

65 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium describes the constant frequency of alleles in such a gene pool Consider, for example, the same population of 500 wildflowers and 1,000 alleles where –p  freq C R  0.8 –q  freq C W  0.2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

66 If p and q represent the relative frequencies of the only two possible alleles in a population at a particular locus, then –p 2  2pq  q 2  1 –where p 2 and q 2 represent the frequencies of the homozygous genotypes and 2pq represents the frequency of the heterozygous genotype © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

67 The frequency of genotypes can be calculated –C R C R  p 2  (0.8) 2  0.64 –C R C W  2pq  2(0.8)(0.2)  0.32 –C W C W  q 2  (0.2) 2  0.04 The frequency of genotypes can be confirmed using a Punnett square © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

68 Figure % C R (p = 0.8) (80%) (20%) Sperm 20% C W (q = 0.2) CRCR CWCW (80%) (20%) CRCR CWCW Eggs 64% (p 2 ) C R 16% (pq) C R C W 16% (qp) C R C W 4% (q 2 ) C W 64% C R C R, 32% C R C W, and 4% C W C W Gametes of this generation: 64% C R (from C R C R plants) 4% C W (from C W C W plants) 16% C R (from C R C W plants) + + Genotypes in the next generation: 16% C W (from C R C W plants) = = 80% C R = 0.8 = p 20% C W = 0.2 = q 64% C R C R, 32% C R C W, and 4% C W C W plants

69 Applying the Hardy-Weinberg Principle We can assume the locus that causes phenylketonuria (PKU) is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium given that: © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.The PKU gene mutation rate is low 2.Mate selection is random with respect to whether or not an individual is a carrier for the PKU allele 3.Natural selection can only act on rare homozygous individuals who do not follow dietary restrictions 4.The population is large 5.Migration has no effect as many other populations have similar allele frequencies

70 The occurrence of PKU is 1 per 10,000 births  q 2   q  0.01 The frequency of normal alleles is  p  1 – q  1 – 0.01  0.99 The frequency of carriers is  2pq  2  0.99  0.01   or approximately 2% of the U.S. population © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

71 Try this: A population of mice displays the recessive trait for loving the banjo. A survey says it is about 20% of them. What % dislike the banjo? What is the frequency of the dominant and recessive allele? What % is heterozygous for this trait?

72 What is the problem with dog breeding?

73 Limit genetic variability Preserve harmful mutations  Fitness decreased

74 Review quiz 1.What are the three mechanisms for altering allele frequency? 2.What is the type of selection reflecting the fact that really small wolves and really big wolves don’t survive as well as mediums? 3.Draw the curve. 4.In population of fruit flies, 70% of the gametes contain A1 alleles. If the pop in in H-W equilibrium, what proportion carry both A1 and A2? 0.09


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